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Prefatory. My Birth. Elden Hall. Early Recollections. The " Junius" 
Duke of Grafton. His friendship for Lord Keppel. His Opinion on 
Naval First Lords. Account of a Cabinet Council. The Right Hon. 
Sir Robert Adair. His First Interview with Charles Fox. Visits St. 
Petersburg. Ambassador to Vienna. Adair and the Anti-Jacobin. 
His Mission to Constantinople. His last act of Diplomacy. Sir 
William Keppel. Sir David Dundas . . . Pages 116 


The threatened Invasion. The Dowager Lady de Clifford. Mrs. Fitz- 
herbert. "Minnie" Seymour. I am presented to George, Prince of 
"Wales. My first School. "ALL THE TALENTS" Administration. 
My father appointed Master of the King's Buckhounds. Visit to 
Charles Fox. My Game of Trap-ball with him. Anecdotes of Fox. 
The Prince of Wales at "Red Barns." The old "Pavilion." 
Chairing of Sir Francis Burdett .... Pages 17 25 


My Entrance into Westminster School. A Westminster Legend. Sub- 
stance and Shadow. Charles Atticus Monk. Masters and Ushers. 
Fagging. My two Grandmothers. Dowager Lady Albemarle. A 
Game at Pope Joan. Dowager Lady de Clifford appointed Governess 
to Princess Charlotte. Mrs. Campbell. George the Third to Lady 
de Clifford. Prince of Wales to Lady de Clifford. Prince of Wales's 


Memorandum. Princess Charlotte's Letters to Lady Albemarle. The 
Princess's Dressers. Rev. George Nott. Letters from Princess 
Charlotte. The Princess's Will and its Consequences . Pages 26 54 


The Duchess Dowager of Brunswick. Charles, Duke of Brunswick. 
Lord Malmesbury's description of the Duchess. The Princess of 
Wales to Princess Charlotte. The Duchess of Gloucester. Her Sister 
Mrs. Frederick Keppel. Prince of Wales to Lady de Clifford. 
Warwick House. Prince of Wales to Lady de Clifford Pages 55 61 


My first acquaintance with Princess Charlotte. Her appearance and 
character. Her letter to me. Her letters to my mother. The 
Princess's alias. Her visit to Westminster. Dr. William Short. 
"Longs and Shorts." Lady de Clifford's stipulation with George the 
Third. Dr. Fisher, Bishop of Exeter. His encroachments upon Lady 
de Clifford's authority. The Duke of Kent to Colonel Macmahon. 
The Princess witnesses a battle at Westminster. Her performances as 
a Cook. Dr. Gamier, Dean of Winchester. "The Rape of the Lock." 
Garnier's interview with Buonaparte as First Consul. The Princess's 
letter to Dr. Page and its result. The Princess's visit to my father. 
I am presented to the Duke of Brunswick. A skip out of bounds. 
Mr. Robert Tyrwhitt Pages 6285 


The Four-in-Hand Club. Mr. Granville Vernon. Betty Radcliffe of the 
" Bell." Charles Longley, the late Archbishop of Canterbury. The 
Jubilee. The Burdett Riots. Princess Charlotte to Lady Albemarle. 
The Fighting Mania. Crib and Molyneux. Training for a Prize Fight. 
Tothill Fields. George the Fourth's appearance there. "Slender 
Billy." Princess Charlotte to Lady Albemarle. Children's Balls. 
The Prince Regent's Change of Politics. The Princess Charlotte's 
Political Manifesto. Lady de Clifford's Retirement. The Princess's 
Letters to her and to Lady Albemarle. The Princess Charlotte at 
Windsor. Prince of Orange. Sir Thomas Picton. Visit of the 
Allied Sovereigns. Blucher. Platoff. Grand Duchess of Oldenburgh. 
The Oldenburgh Bonnet. "All the World's at Paris." My Last 
Exploit at School. I leave Westminster . . Pages 86 126 



Am destined for the Army. A Brother Truant. Lansdowne House. 
Proceed to join the Army in Flanders. Three Campbells. Ostend. 
My first day's March. Join my Regiment. My Commanding Officer. 
The Fourteenth to the FRONT. Our Brigade. Sir Henry Ellis. 
Our Cantonment. Grammont Races. "We receive the "Route." 
Nivelles. Hougoumont. The Belgic Lion. A pun upon "Waterloo." 
Colonel Sir John Colborne. My Sensations on going into Action. 
Napoleon's Illness on the Morning of the 18th. A Narrow Escape. 
My Captain's account of the Battle. Bivouac at Hougoumont. 

Pages 127155 


Ca ira. Our Entry into Nivelles. A False Alarm. Le Cateau. Our 
General's Congratulations. My "Westminster Fag Master. Com- 
mandant of Head-quarters. Attack on Cambray. Louis XVIII. 's 
Proclamation. Open Right and Left. Hare-hunting extraordinary. 
First Sight of Paris. A "Ghost." A Catastrophe. Mr. Alexander 
Adair. Lady Castlereagh and her Dogs. " Buonapartists. " Bum- 
melo. General La Bedoyere. A Dinner at the Louvre 

Pages 156 177 


Our March through Paris. Ordered Home. Our Cold Reception in 
England. The<Sea Horse its fate. Property-tax Repealed. Princess 
Charlotte at the Chapel Royal. Our Waterloo Medals. Embark 
for the Mediterranean. Zante. Santa Maura. Corfu. Frederick 
Chamier. A Military Execution. Return to England. Embark for 
the Mauritius. Crossing the Line. Peter Booth. Mauritius during 
the " Reign of Terror." Slave Trade and Slavery. A Hurricane. 
Cape of Good Hope. Lord Charles Somerset. Dr. James Barry. St. 
Helena. Napoleon's last moments. Land in England 

Pages 178208 


Appointed Equerry to the Duke of Sussex. The Duke's Political debut. 
A Regal Canvasser. Accompany the Duke of Sussex to Holkham. 


" Coke of Norfolk." A Norwich Corn Law Riot. The Norwich Fox 
Dinner. " The Trumpet of Liberty." The " Taylors " of Norwich. 
Death of the Duke of Kent. George the Fourth to General Keppel. 
The Holkham Sheep-shearing. Lord Erskine. Queen Caroline. A 
Ball at the Argyll Rooms. Attend the Queen's Trial. Her Personal 
Appearance and Demeanour. Witnesses for the Prosecution. The 
Queen and Teodoro Majocchi. Lord Albemarle to Lady Anne Keppel. 
Brougham and Lord Exmouth. A Letter from Lord Albemarle. 
House of Lords adjourns to the 3rd of October. Letters from Lord 
Albemarle. Second Reading of the Bill. Brougham, Denman, 
Gifford, and Copley. Lord Holland on the "Call of the House." 
George the Fourth and the Irish Primacy. Vice-Chan cellor Leech. 
" Othello " and the Queen's Trial. Beefsteak Club Pages 209245 


Ordered out to India. Appointed Aide-de-camp to Lord Hastings. My 
tetes-a-tete with the Governor-General. Calcutta Theatricals. Jackal 
Hunting. An Indian Fever. A Cobra di Capello. General Hard- 
wick's Suakery. A Suttee. Lord Hastings embarks for Europe. I 
am appointed Aide-de-camp to the Governor-General ad interim. Set 
out on my Overland Journey. Arrival at Bombay. Captain Marryat. 
His Caricatures. My brother Tom in a gale of wind. My brother 
Harry in another. Marryat's prose improvisations. 

Pages 246260 


Preparations for my Overland Journey. My Fellow-Travellers. Embark 
on board H.M.S. Alligator. Yard-arm Smith. Land at Bussorah. 
Horse-racing in the Desert. Prepare for our Trip up the Tigris. Our 
Arab Guard. Take leave of our shipmates. Arab Black Mail. Our 
Voyage up the River. Koorna. Our first Interview with the Desert 
Arabs. Partridge Shooting in the Desert. A Lion and Lioness. 
Arrive at Bagdad. -Visit to the ruins of Babylon. The Pasha of 
Bagdad. A residence of Caliph Harouu al Raschid. Reflections 
thereupon. "We leave Bagdad. Are Waylaid. Arrive at Kerman- 
shah. A curious order of Knighthood. An Arab Outlaw. A 
Moolah. A Royal Funeral. We prevent & Duel. The Moolah's 
opinion of Duelling. An audience with the Prince Governor. 

Pages 261279 



Arrive at Teheran. Are presented to Futteh All Shah. Interview with 
another Shah. Tabreez. My Valet ad interim Becomes a Khan. 
Resume my Journey. " The Proud Araxes." Enter the Russian 
Territory. Sheesha. Baku. Steppe Travelling. Smatreetels. 
Astrakhan. A Sturgeon Fishery. Fair of Nishney Novogorod. 
Horsemanship. A Russian Dance. Moscow. Dine with the Governor- 
General. A Russian State Prisoner. First sight of a Macadamized 
Road. St. Petersburg. An Imperial Aide-de-camp. We are under 
secret Surveillance. Departure from St. Petersburg. GeneralJomini. 
General and Madame de ZabloukofF. Emperor Alexander. His 
Death foretold. Military Colonies. Russian Corvee. Sir Robert Ker 
Porter. We are overtaken by a Storm. Run into a small Harbour in 
Finland. Arrive at England .... Pages 280 298 


Duke of Sussex to Lord Albemarle. Roger Wilbraham. I am promoted 
to a Company. Wells Theatricals. Join my Regiment. Torrens's 
"Field Exercises." Colonel Gauntlett Appointed Aide-de-camp to 
the Lord- Lieutenant of Ireland. Crampton, the Surgeon-General. 
The two Wellesleys. Richard Colley, Earl of Mornington. His 
early Promise. Arthur Wellesley His slow Development His 
Demeanour as Aide-de-camp of the Viceroy. The Wellesleys in 
India. Lord Wellesley's Contingent to the Army in Egypt A 
question to Wellington His answer. Wellington's first Visit to 
his last Battle-field. Death of the Emperor Alexander. A tour 
of waiting on the Duke of Sussex. An Illustrious Young Lady. A 
Brother Equerry. Deville the Phrenologist. A Visit to Holkham. 
Joe Hibbert. Polly Fishbourne. I appear in Print. Miss Lydia 
White. My admission into Literary Circles. A Dinner at General 
Phipps's. Colman and Lady Cork. Three Agreeable Acquaintances. 
Interview with the Duke of Wellington. Its Result. Pages 299319 


The Hoo. Lady Dacre. Hoo Theatricals. Cosy. Charles Young the 
Tragedian. Join the Hatfield House Company. Our Corps Dramatique, 
The Marchioness of Clanricarde. Theodore Hook. Our Audience. 
The Ghost of Queen Elizabeth. A distinguished Brother Actor. 
Harrington House Theatre. Travellers' and Raleigh Clubs. James 


Holraan, the Blind Traveller. Return to Ireland. Lord Plunkett's 
definition of the Word "Personal." A Vice-Regal Dinner. Lady 
Morgan and Lady Clark. A Masquerade Group. A poetical Sketch 
of Dublin Society. Lady Morgan and her Sister "Livy." Pass 
Christmas holidays at Bowood. Make a new acquaintance. Moore 
and his Melodies. Sloperton Cottage. Extracts from Moore's 
"Journal." The Bowood Servants' Ball. A Day with Poet Moore. 
My Lodgings in Bury Street. Enter the Military College. Bagshot 
Park. Death of Lady de Clifford. Meet the Duke of Orleans at 
Cobham. Lady Elizabeth Brownlow's Account of the Visit. A Soiree 
at Mrs. Norton's. Theodore Hook. Lord Castlereagh and Mrs. 
Norton. The two Chinmen .... Pages 320337 


Aspect of the " Eastern Question " in 1829. Public Opinion on the 
Turkish Military Organization. On the Campaign of 1828. Dr. 
Walsh's Account of the Balcan. "History repeats itself." Set out 
for Turkey. Zante. "Campbell's direction post." Egina. Visit to 
Athens. Boatswain of H.M.S. Wasp. Join the British Squadron. 
Land at the entrance of Dardanelles. Constantinople. Visit to the 
Ambassador. My fellow-guests. Captain Lyons and his Two Sons. 
Execution of Three Greeks. En route to Adrianople. Field-Marshal 
Diebitsch. A Question of Identity. Departure from Adrianople. The 
Selimno pass of the Balcan. Shumla. Our Wretched Quarters. An 
Execution. Visit to the Grand Vizier. Our Dialogue. Departure 
from Shumla. The Pravodi Pass. Our First Night's Quarters. 
Carnabat. Our Adventures by Flood and Field. Louleh Bourgaz. 
Chorli. Return to Constantinople. Ball at the French Embassy. 
The French Ambassador and Ambassadress. Journey into Asia 
Minor. Return to England Pages 338357 


Visit to Paris. Dine with the King of the French. Aumale and 
Albemarle. My Father Master of the Horse. My Journey across the 
Balcan. King William's Visit to my Father. The Court at Brighton. 
The King and the Paddocks' Keeper. Twelfth Night at the 
Pavilion. Toast-drinking extraordinary. Sykes and Punch. The 
State-Coachman and the Guard of Honour. Lord Dudley and Ward. 
His opinion of Pavilion Cookery. His Dinner to the Duke and 
Duchess of Clarence. I am elected Member for East Norfolk. The 
Chairing. Anecdote of William Windham the Statesman. Take my 


seat in the first Reformed Parliament. Princess Victoria's Visit to 
Holkham Pages 358372 


Death of Mrs. Fitzherbert. The Duke of Wellington and my father. 
History of Two Miniatures. George the Fourth's Dying Request. 
Horace Smith. Am appointed Groom-in-Waiting to the Queen. 
In attendance at the Coronation. Visit to Charles Fox's Widow. 
In attendance upon her Majesty on the Day of her Wedding. 
Presented to the Princess Royal. Woburn Abbey Theatricals in the 
18th and 19th Centuries. The Russells. Walking-Sticks of the 
"Martyr to Prerogative" and the "Martyr to Liberty." Reynolds's 
Portrait of Lady Elizabeth Keppel. A Family episode. Succeed to 
the Family Title. Accompany the Lord Mayor and Corporation to 
Paris. Banquet at the Hotel de Ville. James Stuart Wortley. 
The Lord Mayor's "Chasseur." Am presented to the Prince Presi- 
dent of the French Republic. Les Cameleons. My Memoirs of Lord 
Rockingham. Move the Address. Bearer of the Cap of Maintenance. 
The Duke of Wellington. His last appearance in a Public Pageant. 
His last appearance at a Wedding. His last Speech in Parliament. 
His last Waterloo Banquet. Scene in the House of Lords. Mrs. 
Beecher Stowe. The Busby Trust. A dinner at the Poet Rogers's. 
The End Pagres 373 412 



Prefatory. My Birth. Elden Hall. Early Recollections. The 
" Junius " Duke of Grafton His friendship for Lord Keppel 
His Opinion on Naval First Lords. Account of a Cabinet 
Council. The Eight Hon. Sir Eobert Adair His First Inter- 
view with Charles Fox Visits St. Petersburg Ambassador to 
Vienna. Adair and the Anti- Jacobin His Mission to Con- 
stantinople His last act of Diplomacy. Sir William Keppel. 
Sir David Dundas. 

FOR some years past my wife and children have been 
asking me to give some account of my life. To do their 
bidding has not proved a very easy matter ; for although I 
have " seen much of the world," literally and figuratively, it 
has not been my wont, as my family well know, to commit 
to writing my thoughts on things seen, heard, or done. On 
two occasions, it is true, I kept regular diaries, but these 
had reference to journeys which lay out of the ordinary 
track of travellers, and have already been laid before the 
public. 1 I was set, as it were, to furnish the "tale of 
bricks " without any allowance of straw. Shrinking from 
the task, I used to put off my importuners with, " Wait till 
I am seventy, and then perhaps," a phrase intending a 

1 Keppel's "Overland Journey from India, 1827." Keppel's 
" Journey across the Balcan, 1831." 



postponement of the undertaking to the Greek Kalends ; 
but when, contrary to expectation, I reached the Psalmist's 
standard of longevity, I was left without an excuse for 
at least not attempting to fulfil the implied promise. 
From that time forth, therefore, I have been in the habit 
of making notes of occurrences as they suggested them- 
selves to a tolerably retentive memory, and of throwing 
my jottings into a box. The contents of that box will 
be found embodied in the following pages. 

On the fly-leaf of a family Bible is the following record, 
in my father's handwriting, of the first important event 
of my life : 

" George Thomas Keppel, born y e 13 June 1799, chris- 
tened by the Eev. Croft, July y e 7, 1799, in the Parish 
of Marylebone." 

My earliest childhood was passed principally at Elden 
Hall, Suffolk : an estate bequeathed to my father by 
Admiral Viscount Keppel. Charles Fox, the statesman, 
who was in the habit of shooting there both in my uncle's 
and father's time, used to speak of Elden as the best 
sporting manor for its size in the kingdom. The property 
has passed out of the family ; it is now the residence of 
the Maharajah Dhuleep Singh, and its fame as a preserve 
has suffered no diminution in the hands of its present 
princely owner. 

My memory carries me back to a very early period. 
I have a distinct recollection of the dress and personal 
appearance of my eldest brother, William, who died in 
the year 1804 in consequence, as was believed in the 
family, of ill-treatment at Harrow School. 

Equally present to my mind's eye with my brother's 
form is that of the starch little governess who taught me 
my letters. How well I remember when one day she 
was directing my attention, pin in hand, to some such 
letters as c, a, t, cat, that my forefinger came in contact 


with the point, how the smart, the sight of the blood and 
the sense of injury, called forth a flood of tears ; how the 
little lady raised her hands and eyes in affected astonish- 
ment that a nephew of THE Admiral should cry at the 
prick of a pin. Her voice and manner led me to resolve 
for the future better to sustain the credit of the family ; 
but my powers of endurance were put to a sore proof 
by a pretty nursery-maid, Sally Martindale by name. 
Cruelty is proverbially the attendant of beauty, but Sally's 
attribute was not of that nature of which lovers complain ; 
it was not so much the hardness of her heart, as of her 
hand, that has left its mark on my memory. 

Although my father was one of the most good-natured 
of men, it never entered his head to check the severe 
discipline carried on in the nursery. He was born in an 
age when the paterfamilias was not wont to spoil the child 
by a too sparing use of the rod. The coercive system had 
the sanction and the example of the first man in the realm. 
In the matter of chastisement George the Third gave a 
carte Uanche to the persons charged with the education 
of the young princes. The Duke of Sussex, in whose 
household I was some years an equerry, used frequently 
to speak of the barbarous treatment which the Duke of 
Kent and he experienced from their pedagogue ; and it 
is on record that the sub-governor of the Prince of Wales 
and Prince Frederick (Duke of York), a clergyman of the 
name of Arnald (a very different man from the Arnold 
of Rugby celebrity) exercised his discretionary power so 
indiscreetly, that his pupils one day rose against their 
tormentor, and he, in turn, became the floggee. 1 

Four miles distant from Elden is Euston Park, the 
residence in my young days of Augustus Henry, the third, 
or, as he was popularly called, the "Junius" Duke of 
Grafton. As I was twelve years old before he died I had 

Georgian JEvst, of Eminent Persons,'' vol. i. p. 105, 106. 

B 2 


frequent opportunities of seeing so near a neighbour. 
Once seen he was not easily forgotten. Not that I would 
pretend to any personal acquaintance with this formidable 
individual, for he had no liking for children, and when 
my mother took me to lunch with the ladies at Euston, 
if the Duke happened to enter at one door, I was always 
smuggled out at the other. It was while fishing some- 
times for roach and dace in the stream that runs through 
the Park that I used to see an elderly gentleman pass by 
mounted on a thorough-bred horse, which he bestrode 
with much grace and dignity. He was of low stature 
and spare figure, had lank silver hair, a long nose, high 
cheek-bones and a stern expression of countenance, which 
a picture of him at Euston forcibly recalls to me. He was 
usually habited in a peach-coloured, single-breasted coat 
extending below the knee, leather breeches, and long top- 
less boots, then only worn by bishops and butchers. On 
his head was a small gold-laced three-cornered hat this 
whole style of dress he might almost have worn when he 
was Lord of the Bedchamber to George the Third's father, 
Frederick Prince of Wales. 

The Duke was a keen sportsman, and in his autobio- 
graphy takes himself to task for liking hunting better than 
politics. His principal kennel was in Northamptonshire, 
but he used to bring his hounds to Euston for a part 
of every season. He had a great aversion to our broad 
ditches with their honeycombed banks, and used to call 
them " Suffolk graves." Indeed the whole country is a 
mere rabbit-warren, and still goes by the name of the 
holey (holy) land. 

In the field the Junius Duke was a strict disciplinarian. 
"Woe betide the wight who uttered a sound when the pack 
was making a cast. His nephew, General William Fitzroy, 
told me that on one of these occasions an old gentleman 
happened to cough ; the Duke rode up to him, and taking 


off his gold-laced hat, said to him, in a voice in which 
politeness and passion strove for the mastery, " Sir, I wish 
to heaven your cold was better." 

But although of an irascible temper and a somewhat 
cold and repulsive exterior, the Duke was capable of warm 
and lasting friendships. With the Keppel family (my 
generation excepted) he lived on terms of great cordiality. 
It will be seen by the memoir of his life, to which I have 
already alluded, that some hundred and thirty years ago 
he was a guest of William Anne, Lord Albemarle, then 
Ambassador at Paris. 

But it was with this Lord Albemarle's second son, and 
his own near neighbour, Admiral Keppel, that the Duke was 
best acquainted. Although both professed the common 
name of Whig, they were, as not unfrequently happened 
in those days, diametrically opposed to each other in 
politics, yet this difference of opinion never for one 
moment marred their private friendship. Evidence of 
this feeling pervades the autobiography, in which the 
name of the Admiral is always mentioned with honour 
and regard. 

A few extracts from the MS., while affording evidence 
of the estimation in which the writer held his neighbour, 
will show also the opinion of a distinguished statesman 
upon a subject that crops up from time to time the 
description of person to whom the direction of naval 
affairs in this country ought to be consigned. 

Speaking of 1770, soon after he had resigned the post 
of First Lord of the Treasury, the Duke writes : 

"There was a strong belief about this time that I 
was invited to become First Lord of the Admiralty, and. 
in the opinion of many it was thought that I was par- 
ticularly desirous of holding that office. Having gone 
so far, I will not close the subject (very uninteresting 
to any but my own friends) without mentioning my 


real sentiments. I was always strongly of opinion that 
a naval officer should preside at the head of the 
Admiralty. Any other could never know enough to 
answer satisfactorily to the incessant questions which 
must necessarily be put to him by a Cabinet composed 
of landsmen. In such cases, what can the First Lord 
do but run out to get the information from others, who, 
in consequence, must be let into the secret of what is 
passing, the knowledge of which ought to be confined as 
much as possible to the Cabinet alone ? Admiral Keppel 
and Lord Howe were as men and officers well qualified 
for the station, though probably Mr. Keppel would have 
declined it, as he was much connected with Lord Rocking- 
ham and his friends who were hostile to the Ministry." 

The Duke reverts to the subject in 1782 when he and 
his friend had become members of the same Cabinet, the 
one as Lord Privy Seal and the other, who had just been 
created Viscount Keppel, as First Lord of the Admiralty. 

England was then at war with France and Spain. 

" Great was the anxiety of the public on the perilous 
state of Gibraltar, against which a force so very formidable 
had been collected both by sea and land. The enemy 
thought they were marching down to certain conquest, 
and the French Princes of the Blood came in order to be 

eyewitnesses of the downfall of this mighty fortress 

At Paris nothing could be admitted as fashionable which 
was not ' a la Gilbraltar.' The ladies' dresses were entirely 
so, and their very fans represented on one side ' Gibraltar 
comme il e*tait,' on the other they were so constructed as 
to fall to pieces in order to exhibit 'Gibraltar comme il 
est.' .... 

" Before the arrival of General Elliot's account of the 
glorious defence of Gibraltar, a Cabinet was summoned to 
take into consideration the most effectual means for the 
relief of that important fortress. I was alone with Lord 


6 ___, .. __ > 

Keppel some time, and he opened to me the plan, of 
operations he had prepared, and which appeared to me to 
be entitled to great applause, for none could be more 
rational or simple, or better calculated to answer the 
different services ; and I may say that whenever I have 
related the detail of this business, it always conveyed to 
those present a high idea of Lord Keppel's naval character, 
with a strong conviction of the great utility of placing 
a seaman at the head of the Admiralty. 

"On Lord Thurlow's coming into the room where we 
were all assembled, he asked, in his blunt manner, where 
was the man who could point out the means to save 
Gibraltar ? Lord Keppel answered to the Chancellor and 
to us that he certainly had a plan prepared for our con- 
sideration and approval, which he would proceed to open 
to the Cabinet. But he expressed his concern that he was 
obliged to state to them another service as pressing and 
equally necessary as the relief of Gibraltar, namely, to 
get the Baltic Fleet safe into our ports." 

After giving in detail the deliberations of the Cabinet, 
the Duke continues : 

"We were all so well pleased with the relief which 
Lord Keppel had given to our minds that, after a few 
questions to indulge the curiosity of us landsmen, we 
assured him we concurred most cordially with every part 
of his scheme. He then acquainted us that Mr. Stephens 
with two Lords of the Admiralty were waiting to sign the 
instructions, which should go into no other hands in order 
to greater secrecy. We undertook to assure His Majesty 
of the absolute necessity for the service that the whole 
plan should be put into motion instantly. 

"The wisest of human schemes are under superior 
control, and the present well-digested plan must have 
been deferred at least, had the wind come about too soon ; 
but all was propitious, and gave just time to the officer 


commanding at Bergen to receive his orders and execute 
them instantly with success." 

One of my first friendships, begun in the Elden nursery, 
continued till after I had passed my climacteric, and 
then only ended by death, was the late Sir Eobert Adair, 
the diplomatist. He was born in 1764, and lived to 
be upwards of ninety. His father was Staff-Surgeon to 
George III., his mother my father's aunt, Lady Caroline 

His name calls up the image of a tall, thin man, with a 
sallow complexion and a melancholy cast of features, who 
was known in the family as " the knight of the woeful 
countenance." like his cousins, the Duke of Bedford and 
Lord Albemarle, 1 he wore his hair d la guillotine, that is 
to say, he kept it cut short, and had neither powder nor 
pigtail. This coiffure derived its name from a practice of 
the French Eoyalists who, during the Eeign of Terror, 
being liable to be summoned suddenly from their cells to 
the scaffold, cut off their queues in prison to prevent the 
executioner from performing that office for them. As the 
fashion in England was mainly adopted by members of the 
Whig party, their political opponents affected to believe it 
was a symbol of their sympathy with sans culotterie. It is 
in this sense that Adair figures in the "Anti- Jacobin." In 
"A Bit of an Ode to Fox," he is described as undergoing 
the metamorphosis of a goose, and is thus made to address 
his political chief : 

" I feel the growing down descends 
Like goose-skin to my fingers' ends ; 

Each nail becomes a feather. 
My cropped head waves with sudden plumes, 
Which erst (like Bedford's and his grooms') 

Unpowdered braves the weather." 

1 Elizabeth, Marchioness of Tavistock, mother of the Duke of 
Bedford, and Lady Caroline Adair were sisters of George, Lord 


Adair took early to politics. At six years old, in the 
Wilkes and Liberty riots, he broke his father's windows, 
because he was a placeman. 

Like most of his mother's male relations, he was sent 
to Westminster School ; and with a view to his future 
profession of diplomatist, finished his education at the 
University of Gottingen. On his return to England he 
became a constant guest of his uncle, Lord Keppel, and 
was staying at Elden when the Whigs came in for their 
short tenure of office in 1782. In the autumn of that 
same year he went over to Euston to shoot pheasants in 
Fakenham wood. He there first became acquainted with 
his celebrated cousin, Charles James Fox. That most 
good-natured of men, seeing a shy youth, whom nobody 
knew or noticed, did all in his power to set him at his 
ease. " Well, young 'un," said Fox, " where do you spring 
from ? " " From Gottingen," was the reply. " Not much 
shooting there, I suppose ? " " Oh yes, we used to shoot 
foxes." " Hush ! " said Fox ; " never pronounce that word 
again, at least in this house, for if the Duke were to hear 
that you had ever killed one of my namesakes, he would 
swear it belonged to Fakenham wood." 

In order to acquire a knowledge of continental politics, 
Adair, after making the tour of Europe, took up his residence 
for a time at St. Petersburg. Bishop Tomline, in his " Life 
of Pitt," asserts that he went to the Eussian capital on a 
political mission from Fox, then a member of the Opposi- 
tion. The statement was untrue, and although it met with a 
strenuous denial, it furnished another stanza to the "Bit of 
an Ode," at Adair's expense, still in his character of goose. 
" I mount, I mount into the sky 

Sweet bird, to Petersburg I fly, 
Or if you bid to Paris. 

Fresh missions for the Fox and Goose 

Successful treaties may produce, 
Though Pitt in all miscarries." 


While in the Russian capital Adair was presented to the 
Empress Catherine. He does not seem to have been 
favourably impressed with the personal appearance of 
that famous princess, whom he used to describe to me as 
vulgar-looking and shabbily dressed. 

Adair once accompanied Lord Whitworth, the British 
Ambassador, to a dinner which her Imperial Majesty gave 
at Tzarskarselo. The hour of the meal was at three in the 
afternoon. After dinner the guests lounged about the 
gardens till sunset. One of the ladies of the company 
wishing to show her friends an ornamental box which lay 
on her toilet-table, a general officer sent his aide-de-camp 
to bring it down. Unfortunately for the young man he 
fetched the wrong one. Whereupon his chief began 
boxing his ears and pulling his hair. The aide-de-camp 
fell upon his knees and implored pardon for his blunder ; 
but the general was implacable, and kicked him while in 
the posture of supplication. "This is not a scene for 
Englishmen to witness," said Lord Whitworth significantly, 
and he and Adair each turned upon his heel. 

The acquaintance between Fox and Adair begun at the 
Euston battue soon ripened into friendship. In 1788 there 
was the prospect of a change of Ministry in consequence of 
the King's illness. It had been Fox's intention to make 
Adair his Under Secretary in the Foreign Office, and when 
the great Whig leader came into power in 1806 he sent 
him Ambassador to Vienna. Such confidence did Fox 
place in Adair, that upon his going to him for instructions, 
he received for answer, " I have none to give you. Go to 
Vienna and send me yours." 

The Austrian aristocrats, aware of the profession of 
Adair's father, complained that he was not of sufficient 
rank to be accredited to their court, " Que voulez-vous ? " 
said the pretended apologist ; " c'est le fils du plus grand 
Saigneur (Seigneur) d'Angleterre." 


An early effusion of his pen was a defence of his cousin, 
the Duke of Bedford, against Burke's attack upon him in 
his celebrated " Letter to a Noble Lord." He was also a 
contributor to the Rolliad, and other satirical Whig publi- 
cations. Sir Gilbert Elliot speaks of him as "a young 
man who wrote in the probationary odes, and is a great 
buff and blue squib-maker." 

It was this literary partisanship which brought down 
upon him the hostility of the " Anti-Jacobin." Canning, 
the principal contributor, made Adair the chief butt against 
which he directed his shafts. 

Throughout life my kinsman was an enthusiastic 
admirer of the fair sex, which he generally "loved not 
wisely but too well." Canning seized upon this foible 
in his character, and in the " Eovers," Adair figures as the 
captive in the dungeon in which he has been immured 
eleven years and fifteen days, and sings to the guitar his 
reminiscences of his college life and his college love : 

" This faded form, this pallid hue, 

This blood my veins is clotting in ; 
My years are many They were few 
When first I entered at the U- 
-NIVERSITY of Gottingen. 

" There, first for thee, my passion grew, 

Sweet Matilda Pottingen ; 
Thou wast the daughter of my TU- 
TOR, Law Professor of the U- 

NIVERSITT of Gottingen." 

Besides the squib of the " Fox and Goose," we have the 
" Translation of a letter in oriental characters from Bawba- 
Dara-Adul-phoolah, Dragoman to the Expedition to Neek- 
Awl-Aretched-kooez" (Bob Adair a dull fool to Nicholl l a 
wretched quiz). 

1 Mr. John Nicholl was member for Tregony. A hostile writer 
describes him as blind of one eye, altogether ugly, his delivery 
ungraceful, and his action much too vehement. 


In 1808, Canning became .Foreign Secretary. England 
was at war with Europe. It was expedient to make peace 
with Turkey. The unwise passage of a British fleet up 
the Dardanelles and its disastrous return through the same 
straits had thrown obstacles in the way of pacific proposals. 
The services of a skilful diplomatist were wanting; no 
person of sufficient ability for such a post was to be found 
among the Tory supporters of the Government. Secretary 
Canning was obliged to seek for such a man in the Whig 
camp, and whom should he pitch upon but " Bob Adair 
the dull fool." 

Before Adair accepted the appointment he consulted his 
political friends. He was then member for Camelford, a 
nomination Borough of the Duke of Bedford's, to whom he 

thus wrote : 

"June 2, 1808. 


" As it appears to be your opinion that I ought to accept 
the proposal made to me by Mr. Canning on my return, 
and which, as I explained it to you at the time, arose out 
of my letter to him at Malta ; I think it right, in con- 
formity with those principles of publick conduct which 
have invariably guided me, to request that you would 
dispose of my seat in Parliament. Of my steady and 
inviolable fidelity to those principles it will be needless to 
assure you. It is equally true (and on this point I am 
anxious to do the fullest justice to Mr. Canning's liberality) 
that there is nothing in the sort of duty I am about to 
execute which can alter my political connections ; but it 
is no less clear that I ought not to retain a situation which 
my absence will, for a time, necessarily render inefficient. 
It would greatly grieve me were any act of mine to have 
the effect of weakening, even by the suspension of a single 
vote, the efforts of a party in the consolidation of whose 
strength, and in the prevalence of whose principles this 


country, in my opinion, can alone hope for salvation. I 
say this without any exception or reserve ; but I am 
perhaps more particularly induced to say it from the 
circumstances of my not having been able to take my seat 
on the 25th, in time enough to support the Catholick 
Petition. I should be sorry, very sorry indeed, that my 
vote were neutralized in any future discussion of the 
Catholick claims. 

" I am, my dear Duke, 

" &c., &c., 

" R. ADAIR." 
The Duke writes in answer : 

"STANHOPE STREET, June 5, 1808. 

" I called upon you yesterday to answer verbally your 
letter, and to explain to you the reasons which must 
induce me to decline the request you make me, to dispose 
of your seat in Parliament. I perfectly understand the 
feelings which have urged you to make this offer, and I 
never could for a single moment allow myself to doubt 
your steady and unvarying attachment to those principles 
upon which we have uniformly acted together through life, 
and which ought now to be more than ever dear to us, 
from the irreparable loss we have sustained by the death 
of him, who was the invigorating soul of those principles ; 
but under all the circumstances attending your acceptance 
of the offer made you by Mr. Canning, arising out of your 
communication to him from Malta, I must entreat of you 
to retain your seat in Parliament. The length of your stay 
abroad is of course very uncertain, from the nature of the 
mission ; and as I should at all events restore you on your 
return to that seat which you have temporarily vacated, it 
would subject' me to frequent elections at Camelford, an 
inconvenience which I must at all times wish to avoid ; 


moreover, the electors of the Borough have retained an 
attachment to you, from the circumstances of your having 
been the means of bringing about that spirit of harmony and 
confidence subsisting between them and me, which would 
make them very reluctant to see the seat filled by any one 
but yourself. These are the motives which urge me to reject 
your proposal. I repeat that I have the fullest confidence 
in the zeal and steadiness of your publick principles, and> 
as I have before told you, your acceptance of the mission 
now entrusted to you, has, under all its accompanying 
circumstances, my entire and unqualified approbation. 
" Ever yours truly and affectionately, 


" I accepted the mission," says Adair in his narrative of 
this embassy, " under an express agreement, that after 
having made the peace, I should be at liberty to return 
home, and resume my seat on the Opposition benches of 
the House of Commons." l 

Among the principal events of 1831 were the proceed- 
ings consequent upon the separation of Belgium from 
Holland and the election of Prince Leopold of Saxe- 
Coburg to the throne of the newly-established kingdom. 
On the 3rd of August (it was my wedding-day) intelli- 
gence reached England that the Prince of Orange was 
about to enter Flanders at the head of a Dutch army 
to resist the dismemberment of his father's dominions? 
while France was supporting the pretensions of Belgium 
with an army of 50,000 men. Sir Eobert was sent out as 
Ambassador Extraordinary to prevent a collision between 
the parties. He was present at the wedding breakfast 
given by my father-in-law, Sir Coutts Trotter, at his villa 
at Brandsbury and immediately after set out for Belgium. 
He arrived not a moment too soon. The Prince of Orange 

1 Sir Robert Adair's " Mission to Constantinople," preface, p. xxi. 


was besieging King Leopold at Liege. His first visit was 
to Leopold, whom he had frequently met at Holkham. 
His Majesty was paring his nails when he entered. Adair 
tried hard to extort from him some concession. " My good 
friend," said Leopold, with one of those calm, good-natured 
smiles which all who knew him must so well remember, 
I have just been elected a King. You can hardly expect 
that I should make my abdication the first act of my 
reign." Thus rebuffed, the Ambassador proceeded to the 
hostile camp. Seizing a soldier's ramrod, he tied his 
handkerchief to it, and flourished it over his head. His 
improvised flag of truce was not respected : probably it 
was not understood, for, as he said in a letter to Mr. Coke, 
" I was shot at like a Holkham rabbit." He at length 
obtained access to the Prince of Orange, whom for a long 
time he found equally obdurate at length he obtained 
from him a cessation of hostilities for forty-eight hours. 
An armistice ensued. Adair's last stroke of diplomacy 
was to save Europe from the calamity of a general war. 

Another annual guest at Elden was my father's first 
cousin William Keppel, who afterwards became a full 
General, Colonel of the 67th Eegiment, a Privy Councillor, 
a Knight Grand Cross of the Bath, and Equerry to George 
the Fourth, in whose good graces he held a high place. Sir 
William is associated in my mind as the bestower upon 
me of my first school-boy " tip" to wit, a bright half- 
guinea; and as the last wearer of a pigtail that I ever 
remember to have seen. " Keppel," once said the Duke 
of York to him, pointing to the hirsute ornament, " why 
don't you get rid of that old-fashioned tail of yours ? " 
" From the feeling," was the reply, " that actuates your 
Eoyal Highness in weightier matters the dislike to part 
with an old friend." 

The name of Sir William recalls to remembrance a 
brother Knight and one of his oldest friends, the late Sir 


David Dundas. This officer had served under my grand- 
father at the reduction of the Havannah, and succeeded 
to the chief command of the army during the temporary 
retirement of the Duke of York. Sir William told me 
that being one day at the Horse Guards, the Duke ex- 
pressed a wish to know whether he or Sir David were 
the tallest. The ex-Commander-in-Chief and the Com- 
mander-in- Chief elect stood back to back. Sir William 
who measured them declared they were exactly of a height. 
When the Duke retired, Keppel asked Dundas why he 
did not keep his head still while under the process of 
measuring. "Well, man," was the reply of the wily 
Scotchman, " how should I just know whether His Eoyal 
Highness would like to be a little shorter or a little 


The threatened Invasion. The Dowager Lady de Clifford. Mrs. 
Fitzherbert. "Minnie" Seymour. lam presented to George, 
Prince of Wales. My first school. "ALL THE TALENTS" 
Administration. My father appointed Master of the King's 
Buckhounds. Visit to Charles Fox. My Game of Trap-ball 
with him. Anecdotes of Fox. The Prince of Wales at " Eed 
Barns." The old " Pavilion." Chairing of Sir Francis Burdett. 

[1805.] I HAVE some vague recollection of the alarm 
produced by the avowed intention of Napoleon to invade 
England, and it was of a nature to find its way even 
into an English nursery. A flotilla capable of conveying 
150,000 men and the materiel for such a force were 
visible to the naked eye of anyone standing on the 
Kentish coast. 

Like other children of my day, I was often frightened 
into submission by the cry of " Boney's coming" a threat 
which in any dark or foggy night might have become a 
reality. Snatches of song relating to the invasion still 
float unbidden on my memory. How they came there 
except by hearing them in the nursery I cannot divine. 
One of them began somewhat thus : 

" Folks tell us that the French are coming to invade us, 
I think they'll repent of the visit they'll have paid us ; 
For their broad- bottomed boats I have a mighty notion. 
We very soon shall sink to the bottom of the ocean." 

Ill the summer of 1805 my mother took me with her 
to London, where she became the guest of her mother, 



the Dowager Lady de Clifford, who had recently been 
appointed governess to the Princess Charlotte of Wales. 

Of that dear old lady I shall have frequently occasion 
to speak. All I will say of her at present is that she 
lived at No. 9, South Audley Street, within a stone's 
throw of Mrs. Fitzherbert, the wife, as far as the laws 
of her Church could make her so, of George, Prince of 

But my visits to No. 6, Tilney Street, were less in- 
tended for the mistress of the mansion than for a little 
lady of my own age, who even then gave promise of those 
personal and mental attractions of which she became so 
distinguished in after life. This was Miss Mary Georgiana, 
or, as she was called by her friends, " Minnie" Seymour, 
afterwards the wife of Colonel the Hon. George Dawson 
Darner. She was daughter of Lord Hugh and Lady 
Horatia Seymour, who, dying nearly at the same time, 
appointed Mrs. Fitzherbert the guardian of their orphan 

By my little hostess, I had the honour of being pre- 
sented to the Prince of Wales, afterwards George the 
Fourth. His appearance and manners were both of a 
nature to produce a lively impression on the mind of a 
child a merry, good-humoured man, tall, though some- 
what portly in stature, in the prime of life, with laughing 
eyes, pouting lips, .and nose which, very slightly turned 
up, gave a peculiar poignancy to the expression of his face. 
He wore a well-powdered wig, adorned with a profusion 
of curls, which in my innocence I believed to be his own 
hair, as I did a very large pigtail appended thereto. His 
clothes fitted him like a glove, his coat was single-breasted, 
and buttoned up to the chin. His nether garments were 
leather pantaloons and Hessian boots. Bound his throat 
was a huge white neckcloth of many folds, out of which 
his chin seemed to be always struggling to emerge. 


No socmer was his Eoyal Highness seated in his arm- 
chair than my young companion would jump up on one 
of his knees, to which she seemed to claim a prescriptive 
right. Straightway would arise an animated talk between 
" Prinny and Minnie" as they respectively called each 
other. As my fatheT was in high favour with the Prince 
at this time, I was occasionally admitted to the spare 
knee and to a share in the conversation, if conversation 
it could be called, in which all were talkers and none 

Small boys are often, of course undesignedly, their own 
liberators from female government. A slap on the face 
is repaid with interest by a kick on the shin. Young 
master makes the nursery too hot to hold him, and off 
he is packed to school. 

It is possibly by some such process that before I reached 
the age of seven I escaped out of the clutches of Sally 
Martindale to pass into those of the Eev. William Farley, 
Effingham, Surrey. 

My entrance into the second of Shakespeare's ages bears 
the same date as a great public event, in which I had 
indirectly a personal interest. William Pitt dying in 
January, 1806, " All the Talents " came in for a short 
tenure of power. The post held by Charles James Fox 
was that of Foreign Secretary and leader of the House of 

The office he held gave him no power over the House- 
hold appointments, but he succeeded in obtaining that of 
Master of the King's Buckhounds for my father, who, 
shortly after his appointment, took some of his children, 
of whom I was one, to* Swinley Lodge, his official resi- 
dence, I being thus far on my way to school. 

Soon after my father's arrival at Swinley, the King's 
hounds met in Windsor Park ; my mother took me with 
her to the meet. The buck was uncarted at a short 

c 2 


distance from the spot where we were posted. The yellow 
barouche, the four grey horses, the postilions in their 
yellow jackets, the hounds in full cry and hot pursuit, 
the goodly assemblage of scarlet-coated horsemen all 
appear as vividly to the " mind's eye " of the man of 
seventy-seven, as did the actual scene to the boy of seven. 

From Swinley Lodge the family proceeded to St. Anne's 
Hill, Chertsey, there to pass the Easter holidays with 
Charles Fox. 

It was just at this time that the statesman's health 
underwent a very perceptible change. His nephew, Lord 
Holland, who accompanied him to Nelson's funeral, ob- 
served that the length of the ceremony and the coldness 
of the cathedral overpowered him in a way that no 
fatigue which he had known him undergo had done before. 
Fox himself appears to have had a consciousness of his 
approaching end. " Pitt," he said, " has died in January, 
perhaps I may go off before June." But, when at the 
Easter recess he reached St. Anne's Hill, that home he 
loved so well, all gloomy forebodings vanished, and at 
the time of our arrival, the spirits of the dying patriot 
were at their highest pitch. 

I cannot call to mind which of my brothers or sisters 
besides myself it was that went with our parents to St. 
Anne's Hill, but as Mr. Fox's private secretary, who has 
recorded our visit, speaks of more than one child as 
accompanying my mother, 1 I should suppose that my 
brother Edward 2 must have shared with me the honour 
of being a guest of Fox. 

1 " Lady Albemarle, whose sincerity and naivete were very pleasing, 
and who was the lovely mother of some fine children who were there 
with her, also contributed, to make St. Anne's Hill still more agree- 
able." Trotter's Life of Fox, p. 391. 

a Rector of Quidenham, late deputy clerk of the closet to the 


It was at the time of our visit that the symptoms of 
dropsy, the disease of which Fox died a few months later, 
began to show themselves, His legs were so swollen that 
he could not walk ; he used to wheel himself about in what 
was called a " Merlin chair ; " indeed out of this chair I 
never remember to have seen him. 

In many respects his personal appearance at this time 
differed but little from that assigned to him in the many 
prints and pictures still extant of him. There were still 
the well-formed nose and mouth, the same manly, open, 
benevolent countenance. But his face had lost that 
swarthy appearance, which in the caricatures of an earlier 
day had obtained for him the name of " Niger : " it was 
very pale. His eyes, though watery, twinkled with fun 
and good humour. " The thick black beard of true British 
stuff," recorded by Peter Pindar, had become like that of 
Hamlet's father, " a sable- silvered." He wore a single- 
breasted coat of a light grey colour, with plated buttons 
as large as half-crowns ; a thick linsey-woolsey waistcoat, 
sage-coloured breeches, dark worsted stockings, and gouty 
shoes coming over the ankles. 

Fox was not visible of a morning. He either transacted 
the business of his office, or was occupied in reading 
Greek plays, or French fairy tales, of which last species of 
literature I have heard my father say lie was particularly 

At one o'clock was the children's dinner. We used to 
assemble in the dining-room ; Fox was wheeled in at the 
same moment for his daily basin of soup. That meal 
despatched, he was for the rest of the day the exclusive 
property of us children, and we all adjourned to the 
garden for our game at trap-ball. All was now noise and 
merriment. Our host, the youngest amongst us, laughed, 
chaffed, and chatted the whole time. As he could not 
walk, he of course had the innings, we the bowling and 


fagging out ; with what glee would he send the ball into 
the bushes in order to add to his score, and how shame- 
lessly would he wrangle with us whenever we fairly bowled 
him out ! 

Fox had been a very keen sportsman too keen to be a 
successful one. In his eagerness he would not unfrequently 
put the shot into the gun before the powder. Bob Jeffs, 
the Elden gamekeeper (an heirloom of the Admiral's), was 
fond of telling me how he once marked down a woodcock, 
and went to the Hall with the intelligence. It was break- 
fast time. Up started Fox from the untasted meal, and 
gun in hand followed the keeper. A hat thrown into 
the bush flushed the game, the bird escaped scot-free, but 
Jeff's hat was blown to pieces. 

One hot September morning Fox set out from Holkham, 
fully anticipating a good day's sport at Egmere, Mr. Coke's 
best partridge beat. As was usual with sportsmen in those 
days, he started at daylight. Just as the family were 
sitting down to breakfast, Fox was seen staggering home 
" Not ill, I hope, Charles ? " inquired his host. " No," was 
the reply, "only a little tipsy." Being thirsty, he had 
asked the tenant of Egmere for a bowl of milk, and was 
too easily persuaded to add thereto a certain, or rather an 
uncertain, quantity of rum. As a consequence he passed 
the rest of the day in bed instead of in the turnip-field. 

A party of Holkham shooters were one day driven 
home by a very heavy rain. Fox did not arrive till some 
time after the rest ; he had fallen in with one of Mr. 
Coke's labouring men, who had come for shelter under the 
same tree. The statesman became so interested in the 
society of the ploughman, who gave him an account of the 
system of " turnip husbandry " just come into vogue, that 
he had great difficulty in tearing himself away. 

At my father's table one evening the conversation turned 
upon the relative merits of different kinds of wine. Port, 


Claret, Burgundy, were criticized in turn ; but Fox, who 
considered alcohol the test of excellence, said, " Which is 
the best sort of wine I leave you to judge ; all I know is 
that no sort of wine is bad." 

Earl Eussell is the only person of my acquaintance now 
living who, besides myself, 'had personal access to this 
great statesman. Lord Eversley, as a small boy, was once 
admitted to hear the debates of that Assembly over which 
he afterwards so gracefully and efficiently presided, but he 
does not appear to have highly appreciated that eloquence 
which so electrified the rest . of mankind, for when Fox 
rose to address the House, he cried out, " What is that fat 
gentleman in such a passion about ? " 

To the rear of the Eutland Arms, Newmarket, is a house 
called "the Palace." It was the residence of Charles the 
Second during the races, and was used for the same 
purpose by George, Prince of Wales, when he was on 
the turf. 

Mr. Tattersall, the .founder of the celebrated establish- 
ment that goes by his name, had a breeding farm at Ely 
called " Eed Barns." Here stood his famous horse " High- 
flyer." The Prince, who was very intimate with Mr, 
Tattersall, and joint proprietor with him in the Morning 
Post, was a frequent, though an uninvited guest at Eed 
Barns. His Eoyal Highness used to take his own party 
with him, and the consumption of port-wine on such 
occasions was something awful. 

Mr. Edmund Tattersall tells me that his uncle Eichard, 
the grandson and successor of the founder of the firm, 
when he was a boy of about nine years old, one day 
saw a post-chaise and four drive furiously up to the 
" Palace " door, William Windham riding leader, and 
Charles Fox wheel, while the Prince of Wales, too full 
of Eed Barn port to be in riding or even sitting trim, lay 
utterly helpless at the bottom of the chaise. 


After the Easter holidays, I went in Mr. Fox's carriage 
to my first school, kept, as I have already mentioned, 
by the Rev. William Farley. Here I remained two 

Like all boys in a like situation, I had to submit to the 
catechism which is inflicted on the new coiner of a school, 
be it public or private, " What's your name ? Who's your 
father ? " &c. I thought to impress my querists with a 
due sense of my family dignity by informing them that 
my father was Master of the King's Buckhounds, but was 
somewhat mortified by being pointed at as the son of a 
blackguard old huntsman. 

I passed a portion of Christmas this year with my 
family at Brighton, the Prince of Wales having lent my 
father the Pavilion ; my recollection of the building is a 
small, low-roomed, mean-looking house, constructed of 
Bath bricks, only two stories high. It stood, as I have 
since learned, upon the sixth part of the ground occupied 
by the edifice which now goes by its name. 

[1807.] During my summer holidays in 1807 I was 
taken to see the chairing of Sir Francis Burdett, the 
successful, candidate for Westminster in the general 
election of that year. 

The occasion was one of intense public excitement. A 
month before the ceremonial, Sir Francis had a quarrel 
with Mr. James Paull, the member for that city in the 
preceding Parliament, who was then seeking re-election. 
The result was a duel on Wimbledon Common. Burdett 
and Paull each hit the other in the leg. Both combatants 
were conveyed to town in the same carriage. While they 
lay ill in bed of their wounds their respective partisans 
placed them in nomination for Westminster. Burdett was 
returned by an enormous majority. 

All that I can recollect of this ovation is the appearance 
and demeanour of the hero of the hour. He was drawn in 


an enormous triumphal car and seated on a chair of state, 
raised so high as to be on a level with the balcony from 
which I saw the procession. Sir Francis's dress indicated 
the Whig colours of the period a blue coat, buff waistcoat 
and breeches the wounded limb reposed artistically on a 
large purple cushion, and was covered by a bandana 

Except for this outward evidence, Burdett seemed to 
have entirely recovered from the effects of his late en- 
counter. His antagonist was not so fortunate ; his wound 
never healed, and a few months later he died by his 
own hand. 


My entrance into Westminster School. A Westminster legend. 
Substance a shadow. Charles Atticus Monk. Masters and 
Ushers. Fagging. My two Grandmothers. Dowager Lady 
Albemarle. A game at Pope Joan. Dowager Lady de Clifford 
appointed Governess to Princess Charlotte. Mrs. Campbell. 
- George the Third to Lady de Clifford. Prince of Wales to 
Lady de Clifford. Prince of Wales's Memorandum. Princess 
Charlotte's letters to Lady Albemarle. - The Princess's Dressers. 
Red George Nott. Letters from Princess Charlotte. The 
Princess's Will and its consequences. 

[1808.] AFTER two years unprofitably spent at Farley's, 
I was sent to Westminster. My entrance into that famed 
seminary is one of the events of my life of which I have a 
most lively recollection. It was at three in the afternoon 
of Wednesday, the 14th of March, 1808, that, almost a 
man in my own estimation, I took my seat at the exa- 
mination-table. Across the building, which looks like the 
nave of a church, and immediately above my head, was 
an iron bar, on which formerly hung a curtain, and on 
which there still hangs a tale. 

The intention of this curtain was to separate the upper 
from the under school. In the reign of Charles the First, 
when Dr. Busby reigned paramount in the school, a boy, 
one John Glyn, tore the curtain. The name of the culprit 
is suggestive to me of Legion, for there was a whole tribe 


of Glyns in my day, one of them being my old friend, 
the late Lord Wolverton. In school phrase, Glyn funked 
his " six-cutter," and prevailed upon a form-fellow, William 
Wade, to take the blame and bear the punishment. 

Some years after the execution of Charles the First, 
John Glyn, now a serjeant-at-law, sat upon a Commission 
which sentenced a batch of prisoners to death for con- 
spiring against the Commonwealth. Among the con- 
demned Glyn recognised the vicarious sufferer for the 
rent curtain. He said nothing, but rode post-haste to 
the Lord Protector, and succeeded in procuring his 
friend's pardon. John Glyn lived to become Lord Chief 
Justice. There is a picture of him in his judicial robes 
and gold chain in Lord Wolverton's house in Carlton 
Gardens, and another, I believe, in the possession of 
Mr. Gladstone. 

I was ruminating on the novelty of my situation when 
there came towards me two burly-looking clergymen in 
full canonicals, master of arts' gowns, with pudding sleeves, 
wearing huge three-cornered cocked hats on their heads, 
powder in their hair, and large silver buckles in their shoes. 
They took their seats side-saddle fashion on the table, 
one on each side of me. The examination was a very 
short one ^sop's little fable of " Mater ad Cancrem " 
was given me to construe a few questions were put to 
me respecting the parts of speech, and I was placed in 
the under first, the lowest remove in the lowest form save 
one (the petty). 

When a boy enters Westminster his existence is almost 
ignored. If admitted to be a sentient being at all, it is not 
one responsible for its actions. He is called " a shadow," 
and to him is attached a form-fellow, his " substance," 
who initiates him into the ways of the school, and becomes 
in a certain degree liable to punishment for his misdeeds. 
My substance, with whom I lived for many years on terms 


of great intimacy, was the late Major- General Sir Henry 
Barnard, K.C.B., and Chief of the Staff at the siege and 
fall of Sebastopol. 

I found my new schoolfellows to the full as inquisitive 
about my private affairs as those whom I left at Farley's ; 
my first week was passed in answering questions respect- 
ing myself and my belongings. 

This habit of prying into the birth and parentage of 
the new comer recalls to mind the stereotyped answer 
which, some years later, I used to hear given by a little 
fellow who boarded in the same house with me. It ran 
thus : " I am Charles Atticus Monk, born at Athens in 
Greece, son of Sir Charles Monk, of Belsey Castle, New- 
castle-upon-Tyne." This formula the poor child was 
teased into repeating a hundred times in a day. One 
afternoon Charles Atticus was missing : a hue and cry 
was raised. Advertisements appeared in the newspapers 
respecting him, and after a fruitless search for his son, 
his father threw himself despairingly, in the night mail. 
He was within a couple of stages of Newcastle, when he 
heard a little boy ask the coachman to take him on the 
box. Sir Charles thought he recognised the voice, but 
doubt became certainty when he heard the words, " I am 
Charles Atticus Monk, born at Athens, in Greece," &c. 
The fugitive was returning to Belsey Castle, Newcastle- 

Sir Charles brought back the truant to Westminster, 
and implored Dr. Page to remit the penalty usually at- 
tached to such a delinquency. He might as well have 
talked to the winds. The young Athenian got his " six- 
cutter" and, me teste, well laid on too. 

At the time of his escapade, Charles Atticus had half-a- 
crown in his pocket. He owed the pastry-cook eighteen- 
pence, which debt he loyally discharged, and with a 
shilling in his pocket, and his biographical shibboleth 


on his tongue, he accomplished the long and then ex- 
pensive journey into the North of England. 


These doggrel verses (they are not mine) comprise the 
names of the masters and ushers of my day. Dr. William 
Carey, whose name stands first on the list, was head- 
master. Before I left Westminster he became Bishop of 
St. Asaph, and was afterwards translated to the see of 
Exeter. The doctor was a thickset, bandy-legged man, 
with punch -like nose and chin, but with a good-humoured 
expression of face, pleasant, affable manners, and was alike 
a favourite with parents and boys. 

The last name in the pentameter designates Dr. William 
Page, for twelve years under-master, and in 1814 the 
successor of Carey in the chief command. He was a 
wittier man and a riper scholar than his principal, but 
in no other respect equal to him in the requisite qualities 
for the conduct of a public school. The epithet " furore 
gravis" was not ill applied. With a more savage, ill- 
tempered man I have seldom come in contact. 

The great Dr. Busby used to assert that the rod was 
the proper instrument for sifting the wheat of learning 
from the chaff. Dr. Page was so far of the Busby school, 
and unfortunately for me I was that description of grain 
that frequently underwent this species of winnowing. 

Eor the Seven years that I spent at Westminster I 
boarded at " Mother Grant's," as had done generations of 
Keppels before me. The fagging system was then in full 
vogue. My first fag-master I have reasons for sup- 
pressing his name, for though a kinsman of my own, he 
was "less than kind" was a good-looking fellow, who 
left Westminster for the Peninsula, and served afterwards 
at Waterloo. 


For the edification of a more luxurious and less oppressed 
generation of fags, let me give a sample of a day's work 
during my period of servitude. 

I rose as the day broke, hurried on my clothes, brushed 
those of my master, cleaned several pairs of his shoes, went 
to the pump in Great Dean's Yard for hard water for his 
teeth, and to the cistern at Mother Grant's for soft water 
for his hands and face, passed the rest of the time till eight 
in my own hasty ablutions, or in conning over my morning 
school lesson. 

Eight to nine. In school. 

Nine to ten. Out for my breakfast, or rather for my 
master's breakfast. I had to bring up his tea-things, to 
make his toast, &c. my own meal was a very hasty 
and a very nasty affair. 

Ten to twelve. In school. 

Twelve to one. In the Usher's correcting room pre- 
paring for afternoon lessons. 

One to two. Dinner in the Hall a sort of roll-call 
absence a punishable offence, the food of "Do the Boys 
Hall " quality. 

Two to five. Evening school. 

Five to six. Buying bread, butter, milk, and eggs for 
the great man's tea, and preparing that meal. 

Six to the following morning. Locked up at Mother 
Grant's ; till bed-time, fagging of a miscellaneous character. 

I had borne this description of drudgery for about a 
fortnight, when, without weighing the consequences 
remember, reader, I was not nine years old I determined 
to strike work. Instead, therefore, of preparing tea as 
usual, I slipped behind one of the maids into the coal 
cellar, and there lay perdu for a couple 'of hours. I was at 
length dragged out of my hiding-place and delivered over 
to the fury of my tea-less master. He made me stand 
at attention, with my little fingers on the seam of my 


trousers, like a soldier at drill. He then felled me to the 
ground by a swinging buckhorse l on my right cheek. I 
rose up stupefied, and was made to resume my former 
position, and received a second floorer. I know not how 
often I underwent this ordeal, but I remember going to 
bed with a racking headache, and being unable to put in 
an appearance next morning at school. 

" Oh ! the merry days when we were young ! " Such is 
the burden of one of Moore's charming melodies, which I 
have frequently heard its gifted author sing. Yet the 
sentiment appears to me more poetical than true at least 
it could hardly apply to a Westminster fag when this 
century had not yet reached its teens. For my own part, 
I can truly say that the least "merry days" of my long 
life, were those in which I had Dr. Page for my master in 
school, and his promising pupil for my master in what were 
facetiously called my "hours of recreation." 

Boys having relations in London were permitted to go 
home to them from the afternoon of a Saturday till eight 
in the morning of the following Monday. Now I had the 
good fortune to have two grandmothers permanent resi- 
dents in the metropolis, and my weekly visits to one or 
the other of them were the " silver linings to the clouds " 
which lowered upon this period of my school life. 

My father's mother, the Dowager Lady Albemarle, lived 
at No. 10, Berkeley Square. She was the daughter of Sir 
John Miller, a Hampshire Baronet ; a kind-hearted woman, 
but not attractive to her grandchildren. Her manners 
were formal, and she had but little indulgence for their 
youthful follies. Moreover, her temper was not of the 
sweetest. I remember her boxing my ears after I had 
served the Waterloo campaign. She had been a great 
beauty in her day, and she took care to let us know it, 

1 "Buckhorse," in Westminster language, a blow on the cheek 
with the open hand. 


but as time had obliterated the traces of these good looks, 
we were somewhat sceptical of the assurance. Yet when 
I gaze upon a picture I have of her by Eomney, I am 
inclined to believe that the good old lady did herself no 
more than justice. 

One anecdote she used to tell of herself, and if she 
repeated it somewhat too often it was her wicked grand- 
children who were to blame, for they took a pleasure in 
inducing her to bear record of the homage that had once 
been paid to her loveliness. 

"When I was a girl," she would say to us, "young 
ladies used to wear aprons of valuable lace. A clever 
young gentleman in our neighbourhood happened to tear 

this ornamental part of my dress. ' Eeally, Mr. / 

said a witness of the accident, 'you ought to make an 
ample apology to Miss Miller for your awkwardness,' 
upon which he immediately produced the following ele- 
gant impromptu: 

" ' I tore your apron, lovely maid ! 
But you the injury doubly repaid, 
For, from your eyes, you sent a dart 
Which tore as much my "bleeding heart.' " 

After her husband's death in 1773, Lady Albemarle 
lived much in retirement, her principal associates being a 
set of elderly females, whom we grandchildren irreverently 
called her " toadies." One of them a certain Mrs. B. I 
have good cause to remember. I met her one evening in 
Berkeley Square in company with the rest of the anti- 
quated coterie. I was to return to school the next day 
after the Christmas holidays. It was Twelfth Night. We 
drew King and Queen. My character was a sailor " Jack 
Generous ; " my motto : 

" A friend ever willing 
To share his last shilling." 


After we had eaten our cake we played at Pope Joan. 
At that game I acted up to my character, " not wisely, but 
too we'll," for all the " tips " of Jack Generous, which were 
to have served him for "next half," found their way from 

his pocket into that of Mrs. B . The next morning. 

one of the dullest and bitterest of January, with a heavy 
heart and a light purse I " trudged like snail unwillingly 
to school." 

My other grandmother, the Dowager Lady de Clifford, 
was the very opposite of her in Berkeley Square. If the 
one was too hard upon my faults, the other erred in the 
opposite extreme. She was ever ready to help me out of 
my scrapes, and up to the time of her death would fight 
my battles against all comers. She had passed much of 
her time abroad, and been acquainted with many of the 
notabilities of the Court of Louis the Sixteenth. Until age 
had impaired her faculties she was full of anecdote, and 
a very agreeable companion. Moore, the poet, whom I 
introduced to her, has made honourable mention of her in 
his journal. She used to tell me that as a young woman 
she was quite plain ; but I had difficulty in believing her, 
for she had a lively, intelligent expression of countenance, 
bright hazel eyes, and when, according to the fashion of 
those days, she was turbaned, powdered, and rouged for an 
evening party, I was quite proud of her. She was a woman 
of great personal courage. When she was travelling with 
her dying husband through France by easy stages on her 
way to England, she stopped at a small road-side inn. 
Hearing a noise at midnight, she opened her door and saw 
a man stealing into her husband's bedroom. She seized 
him by the collar, threw him down stairs, ordered horses 
immediately, and proceeded on her journey. 

Not long before her death she was then eighty-four 
some robbers climbed over the garden wall which lines the 
north side of Hill Street where it abuts on South Audley 



Street. They had nearly succeeded in gaining an entrance 
into the house, when the old lady threw open her window, 
discharged one of the pistols which she always kept 
loaded, and lustily cried " Thieves ! " The rogues made off 
no doubt resolving that when next they attacked a lone 
elderly woman, it should be one less ready to show fight. 

It was in the month of January 1805, when the Princess 
Charlotte of Wales had completed her ninth year, that an 
establishment was formed for her education, and placed 
under the control of my grandmother. 

Subordinate to Lady de Clifford were two sub-govern- 
esses, Mrs. Campbell and Mrs. Udney, one of whom was 
required to be in constant residence with her royal pupil. 

Mrs. Campbell, the first-named of these ladies, was the 
daughter of a landed proprietor in the North of Ireland of 
the name of Kelly. At the age of nineteen she married 
William Campbell, a grandson of a Duke of Argyll. This 
gentleman, a colonel in the army, was appointed, in 1796, 
Governor of Bermuda, in which island he soon after died 
of the yellow fever. From the time of his death to that of 
her own, a period of twenty-six years, the widow became 
an inmate of the family of Lord Ilchester, and it was 
probably through the influence of Lady Ilchester, a Lady 
of the Bedchamber to Queen Charlotte, that she obtained 
the situation of sub-governess. 

When Mrs. Campbell was first presented to George the 
Third, she expressed her fears that she would be found 
hardly suitable to the post, on account of her want of ac- 
complishments. " Madam," was the reply, " I hope we can 
afford to purchase accomplishments, but we cannot buy 
principles." Now I am inclined to think, that, whatever 
meaning his Majesty intended to convey to Mrs. Campbell's 
mind by the word " principles," it had in his own mind a 
political rather than a moral signification, and that knowing 


his protfyge to be a Tory like himself, he hoped she would 
be able to counteract the opinions on public affairs which 
the Princess was likely to imbibe from Mrs. Udney, the 
other sub-governess, who had received her appointment 
from the Prince of Wales, and was a zealous disciple of 
his Majesty's great political adversary Charles Fox. 

I shall presently explain my reasons for putting this 
construction on the King's words. 

Notwithstanding a somewhat unfavourable sketch of 
Mrs. Campbell by the late Baron Stockmar, I have reason 
to believe that she was a very amiable and attractive 
person. She appears, indeed, to have possessed the happy 
faculty of drawing towards herself the affections of young 
and old. Of this, the universal regard entertained for her 
by all the branches of the Strangways family is a proof. 
My old friend and schoolfellow, William, the fourth Earl 
of Ilchester, and his brother John Strangways, father of 
the present peer, who had both known her from their 
childhood, retained in after life their regard for " Tarn " 
their infantine mode of pronouncing her name. 



"February 22, 1805. 

" The King thinks it right to acquaint Lady de Clifford 
that he received an intimation this morning from the 
Countess of Ilchester, of Mrs. Campbell's being far from 
well, and requiring indulgence from her nerves being much 
agitated from the looking most anxiously to the employ- 
ment on which she is now entering. The King trusts 
Lady de Clifford will see the propriety of therefore not 
requiring her attendance at Windsor on the present occa- 
sion, as his Majesty trusts a little rest and quiet will 
enable her to be in future of greater utility. 


D 2 


The dislike with which, at this time, the Sovereign and 
the Heir Apparent to the throne regarded each other was 
so intense, that any circumstance affecting their mutual 
interest would suffice to fan their animosities into a flame. 
Thus the question of the future care of the young Princess 
led to an open quarrel between father and son. 

A few months prior to my grandmother's appointment 
to her charge, the Prince of Wales offered, through Lord 
Moira, to consign the Princess entirely to the care of her 
grandfather. The King eagerly accepted the proposal, and 
gave orders for the Lower Lodge, Windsor, to be prepared 
for her reception. As the time for the fulfilment of the 
engagement drew nigh, the Prince changed his mind, 
alleging, as a reason for withdrawing from his proposal, 
that it was made "before he had seen the King at 
Windsor," a brutal insinuation that his royal father had 
in the interval been afflicted with insanity, and was there- 
fore unfit for so important a charge. On the other hand, 
George the Third was determined to keep his son to his 
engagement, and communicated this intention to him 
through the medium of Lord Chancellor Eldon. 

On the 1st of March, 1805, the King writes to Lord 
Eldon : " The preparations for establishing the Princess 
Charlotte at Windsor are in such forwardness that the King 
can authorize the Lord Chancellor to acquaint the Prince 
of Wales that the apartments will be completely ready 
for her reception in two weeks, and that he shall then give 
notice to Lady de Clifford for her removal to that place." 

The same evening that the Prince received this intima- 
tion from the Chancellor he wrote to my grandmother as 
follows : 


'' I am only this instant returned home, and I have 
so many letters to write, and so much to do this evening that 


will not admit of delay, in order to summon an early meet- 
ing to-morrow morning, that it will be too late before I 
.have finished all my business to attempt to come and 
see your little charge and you. However, at one 
to-morrow, you may be certain of seeing me and, I hope, 
Mrs. Udney. 1 

" Pray, if possible, let me have the little watch, that I 
may give it to Charlotte in your presence. I shall be most 
happy to do so for every reason, but I shall consider myself: 
most fortunate the having it in my power thus early in 
life after your very short acquaintance with her, not only 
to prove to her my readiness to acquiesce in, and to 
forward every reasonable wish she may entertain, but also 
the implicit confidence I place in you, as well as that you 
are. the medium, and ever must be the properest medium 
through which her wishes and inclinations must be con- 
veyed to me. Excuse my saying anything more at present, 
for I am, as you may believe after so long and so very 
irritating a day, quite worried to death. If you wish for 
me later this evening, I mean by that between eleven and 
twelve o'clock, you will know where to find me. 2 
" Ever most affectionately yours, 

" CARLTON HOUSE, Friday, 8 o'clock, March 1, 1805. 

" P.S. Say everything that is most kind to the child and 
to Mrs. Udney, whose goodness in temporising with her 
present situation I can never forget." 

The attention of the reader is called to the paragraph in 
the preceding letter, in which the Eoyal writer declares 
Lady de Clifford to be " the properest medium " through 
which the wishes and inclinations of his daughter should 
be conveyed to him. 

1 See ante, p. 34. 2 At Mrs. Fitzlierberf s in. Tilney Street. 


It will be seen that in the following " memorandum," 
in the Prince's handwriting, he again deprecates " the in- 
terference of any other person whatever, except his Majesty," 
in matters relating to himself and his daughter. 

Both passages have evidently reference to Lord Chan- 
cellor Eldon, whom the King would insist upon making 
the medium of communication between himself and his 

The employment of any third party in such a matter 
would have been naturally a source of annoyance to His 
Royal Highness, but this great legal functionary was the 
more especially obnoxious to him, as his lordship was at 
this time the confidential and professional adviser of the 
Princess of Wales. 



" March 4th, 1805. 

" Lady de Clifford and the Bishop of Exeter 1 having 
now entered upon the important functions committed to 
them, the Prince is desirous that they should from time 
to time lay before his Majesty such ideas as occur to him 
as to the details necessary for carrying into execution the 
general opinion adopted respecting the education of 
Princess Charlotte. This memorandum is intended to 
apprize them of the present state of the business, and to 
serve as a guide for them in such conversations as his 
Majesty may honour them with on this subject. 

" In consequence of some previous intimation which the 
Prince had received of his Majesty's wishes, the Prince 
has expressed that without meaning to discharge himself 
in any degree of that duty of superintendence and control 
which nature imposes upon a father in all that relates to 
1 Dr. Fisher, Preceptor to the Princess Charlotte. 


the education of his child, he was at the same time desirous 
of receiving the benefit of his Majesty's gracious assistance 
and advice in a matter so interesting to his feelings, and 
of giving the Princess Charlotte the full advantage ot 
that affectionate interest which his Majesty is graciously 
pleased to take in her welfare. But a reason which it is 
not here necessary to particularize compelled the Prince 
to require that the person through whom this communica- 
tion was made should respectfully "but distinctly explain 
to his Majesty that the Prince could on no account agree 
to the interference of any other person whatever except his 
Majesty in the dispositions to be made on this subject, 
and that this point must at all times be considered as the 
indispensable condition of the Prince's consent to any 
arrangement, present or future. 1 

" What has hitherto been done on the subject has, as 
the Prince conceives, been intended to be regulated by 
this principle. The next point to be adjusted for giving 
effect to it is that which relates to the residence of the 
Princess Charlotte, on which subject the Prince desires 
that Lady de Clifford and the Bishop will submit to his 
Majesty for his gracious consideration the following ideas,. 

" The Prince thinks that during the period of the yean 
in which he is usually resident in London his daughter 
can nowhere so properly be placed as under her father's 
roof, where her education may be carried on without in- 
terruption, and where he himself will have the constant 
opportunity of observing its course and progress. His 
Majesty's habit of doing business in London several days 
in each week during most part of the year will afford to 
the Princess Charlotte ample opportunities of. paying her 
duty there to the King and Queen as often as they may 
be pleased to require it, and it is by no means the Prince's 
idea that this arrangement should exclude such short 

1 See ante, p. 38. 


visits to Windsor during the season of holidays or on other 
temporary occasions as may be found not to break in too 
much on the course of her education. 

" During those months when the Prince is usually not 
resident in London, he would have great satisfaction in 
his daughter's being allowed to reside with his Majesty, at 
Windsor, Weymouth, or elsewhere, reserving to himself in 
the same manner as above stated the pleasure of seeing 
her sometimes, if he should wish i',on short and occasional 

" The communications already made to Lady de Clifford 
seem to give every reason to hope that these ideas are very 
little, if at all, different from those entertained by his 
Majesty on the subject. And at all events, the Prince is 
confident that they cannot fail to be considered as fresh 
proofs of his respectful desire to meet his Majesty's 
wishes in every way consistent with his honour and with 
the feelings of paternal affection and duty towards his 

This memorandum, though professedly for the guid- 
ance of Lady de Clifford was of course intended for the 
King, who, upon its receipt, wrote to Lord Eldon : 
" His Majesty must either have the whole care and superin- 
tendence of the person and education of the Princess, 
or entirely decline any interference or expense." 

In reference to the " memorandum " just quoted, his 
Majesty in the same letter says, " The Lord Chancellor is 
desired to take a copy for the King of this returned paper 
of instructions, and prepare the paper to be transmitted 
to the Prince of Wales, who certainly means further 

While the young Princess's father and grandfather 
were thus engaged in inflicting pain upon each other, 
her mother appeared on the scene, and infused a fresh 
element of discord into the family feud. 


When the Princess of Wales was driven from under 
her husband's roof, she returned to the neighbourhood of 
Blackheath. The Princess Charlotte was at the same time 
consigned to the care of the Countess of Elgin, who 
established her in a villa on Shooter's Hill. Here, for 
nearly nine years, the mother had almost as free access to 
her child as when living at Carlton House. But when the 
new educational engagements were made, the visits of the 
Princess of Wales became more restricted, and it was the 
great object of the Prince that they should cease alto- 
gether. It would doubtless have given the King a great 
advantage over his rebellious son if he had been in a 
position to throw over the Princess the aegis of his pro- 
tection, and to insist that she should be allowed a free 
intercourse with her daughter. This, however, his un- 
happy niece had thwarted by her own conduct, for such 
was her levity of deportment at this period that the King 
was prevented from receiving her as a member of his 
family. All he could do without infringing upon the 
decorum of his court was to assign to her apartments 
in Kensington Palace, to allow her to take place with 
the Princesses at public ceremonials, and surreptitiously to 
encourage her to resist the machinations of her husband 
to separate her from her child. 

I cannot find among my grandmother's papers any refer- 
ence to the communication which the Prince of Wales 
made to her at this time, but the nature of it may be 
inferred from the following passage in a published letter of 
George the Third to the Chancellor, in which he declares 
his belief that " Lord Eldon could not sanction the 
language held by the Prince of Wales to Lady de Clifford." 
One can imagine the pleasure with which his Majesty 
penned the next paragraph, knowing, as he must have 
known, how soon it would meet the eyes of his son. " It 
is quite charming to see the Princess and her child to- 


gether, of which I have been since yesterday a witness, and 
I must add that Lady de Clifford's conduct is most proper." l 

At the time of Lady de Clifford's death in 1828 I had 
just entered my thirtieth year. During the latter period 
of her life I was almost her sole male companion. We 
had few secrets from each other ; there was indeed as free 
an interchange of thought as could well exist between 
persons so different in age. She used often to recount to 
me the events of her court life. The behaviour of the 
Princess of Wales naturally came under review. I fear 
that the judgment she formed of the conduct of this much 
sinned against and sinning lady coincides but too closely 
with the verdict that public opinion has since passed upon 
her. To Lady de Clifford she was a source of constant 
anxiety and annoyance. Often when in obedience to the 
King's commands my grandmother took her young charge 
to Charlton Villa, the Princess of Wales would behave 
with a levity of manner and language that the presence 
of. her child and her child's governess were insufficient to 

On more than one occasion Lady de Clifford was obliged 
to threaten her with making such a representation to the 
King as would tend to deprive her altogether of the 
Princess Charlotte's society. These remonstrances were 
always taken in good part, and produced promises of 

From the day that this poor Princess landed in England 
she became fully aware that she was beset by persons of 
her own sex who looked upon her as a rival, and who 
endeavoured to make her an object of disgust to her 
husband. The odd thing was, that with all her cleverness 
she should have had so little discernment as to become a 
dupe to their devices. One of these ladies told her that 

1 Jesse's George III., iii. p. 424. 


the Prince was a great admirer of a fine head of hair. 
" Now you know," she once said to my grandmother, " we 
Germans are very proud of this ornament, so the moment 
the Prince and I were alone I took out my comb and let 
my hair flow over my shoulders, but my dear," she added, 
with a loud laugh, " I only wish you could have seen the 
poor man's face." 

The Princess landed, as is well known, at the Greenwich 
Hospital stairs. She was conducted to one of the Gover- 
nor's rooms which looked out on the quadrangle, in which 
were assembled groups of maimed Greenwich pensioners. 
They were nearly the first Englishmen she had seen on 
their own soil. " Comment," she exclaimed, to a lady near 
her, " manque-t-il a tous les Anglais un bras ou line 
jambe ? " but, as she said to Lady de Clifford, to whom 
she told her story, " my little pleasantry was crushed in 
the bud by a harsh ' Point de persiflage, Madame, je vous 
en prie.' " 

Here is one of a series of letters written in the same 
spirit : 

" The Princess of Wales being under great anxiety since 
yesterday concerning Princess Charlotte's not coming to 
see her at Kensington, as she has done the last two weeks, 
is under the dreadful apprehension that some unforeseen 
accident or sudden illness deprives the Princess of Wales 
of the happiness of seeing her daughter. The Princess 
begs Lady de Clifford will be obliging enough to acquaint 
her with the real motive which prevented the Princess 
Charlotte from coming as usual to, Kensington to dinner. 
The Princess of Wales would have come to Windsor 
herself to-day to see the Princess Charlotte had not an 
attack of bile prevented her, but the Princess of Wales 
shall certainly, if the Princess Charlotte is not well, be 
with her next Monday. 


" By return of the servant the Princess hopes to receive 
a comfortable account of Princess Charlotte." 

"KENSINGTON PALACE, August 1, 1805." 

The foregoing extracts from my family papers will show 
the sort of " triangular duel " in which the father, mother, 
and grandfather of the Princess were engaged when Lady 
de Clifford entered upon her functions. As may easily be 
imagined, these intestine broils greatly increased the 
difficulties of her situation sufficiently great without any 
such drawbacks for a less manageable young lady than 
the Princess could hardly have been committed to her 
charge. It was the common practice of her Eoyal High- 
ness to rush impetuously into my grandmother's room at 
all hours, and as a rule to leave the door open. " My dear 
Princess," said Lady de Clifford once to her, " that is not 
civil ; you should always shut the door after you when 
you come into a room." " Not I indeed," was the reply in 
the loudest of voices ; " if you want the door shut, ring 
the bell," and so saying, out she bounced again. 

The following four letters to my mother do not appear 
to require any prefatory remarks from me. 


" September 4, 1805. 


"I am so much obliged to you for the partridges 
that I must thank you over and over again. I take it 
very kind of you^ that you have told me my fault in my 
last letter, and hope you will find this to your liking. 
Lady Elgin x is with me and is very affected. She is very 
angry at my paying Lady de Clifford any attention, and 

1 Martha, widow of Charles, fifth Earl of Elgin and ninth of 
Kincardine, Lady de Clifford's predecessor in charge of Princess 


when I spoke of you she seemed in a very great passion. 
Your last letter was charming ; pray write me always such 
long ones. God bless you. 

" And believe me to be 

" Your ever affectionate 


" P.S. My compliments to Lord Albemarle and love to 
the children. Make Sophia write me a line in your next 
letter. My writing is better." 

The last person named in the preceding letter was my 
sister Sophia, the Princess's special favourite of our family. 
In 1817 she became the wife of Mr., afterwards Sir James, 
Macdonald, member for Hampshire, but at one time the 
parliamentary colleague of Macaulay for the borough of 


11 September 10, 1805. 


" I cannot say how much obliged I am to you and 
Lord Albemarle for the very kind and magnificent present 
of partridges which you were so good as to give me. 
They were very acceptable, and the first we had this year. 
When we feasted on them we remembered the kind donor. 
Let me thank you also for offering me some pheasants ; 
don't think me a little gourmand if I say I am veiy fond 
of them. You are very good for saying you were sorry 
for my having been ill. I am now quite well, and have 
learned a little prudence from my late indisposition. 
" Pray give my love to all your little children, 
" And believe me, 

" My dear Lady Albemarle, 

" Ever your affectionate 





" September 15, Sunday, 4 o'clock, 1805. 


" I take the first opportunity to thank you for the 
very magnificent present, but pray do not send me so 
much another time ; but I must insist you will send your 
mother some partridges that I must insist. Mrs. Udney 
begs to be kindly remembered to you, and pray make 
. . [illegible] . . to send me a little dog. Lord Albemarle, 
I hope, is well. I send a little book as a present to 
Sophia, and when Elizabeth x is good may indulge her by 
reading to her. Mrs. Campbell will soon come home ; I 
long to see her. 

" Mrs. Udney sends her compliments to Mrs. Durham. 2 
" I am, 

4 Your ever affectionate 


"Write me a long letter next time of six or seven 
pages, do, pray. I write anyhow je crive tres rnal. 


" I am quite shocked at not having written to you 
before. I now take this opportunity to amend my fault. 
I hope you have not thought that I had forgotten you. 
Accept my best thanks for your kindness in sending me 
the game. 

1 My sister Elizabeth, one year my senior, died the following year. 

2 My father's cook. Frequent mention is made of her in the 
Princess Charlotte's letters. 

in.] MRS. UDNEY. 47 

"I saw Papa the other day, and he said he hoped he 
should be able to come and see you soon. I hope Lord 
Albemarle is well. 

" And believe me to be 

" Your affectionate 


"P.S. We rejoice to think we are to see dear Lady 
de Clifford so soon. I am sure you must have been very 
happy. Since I wrote the above, some game is arrived 
from Scotland, and am happy to give you some. Pray 
accept a part of them ; I hope you will find them good." 

Mrs. Udney, to whom special allusion is made in the 
next letter, was, as I have already mentioned, joint sub- 
governess with Mrs. Campbell, and always in residence 
during my acquaintance with the Princess. Her Eoyal 
Highness used frequently to express to me her dislike of 
this lady, but I could never understand the cause of that 
feeling, for she was a person of a singularly prepossessing- 
exterior, of refined manners, and always appeared to me 
to be of a gentle disposition. 

The Rev. George Nott, of whom the Princess also 
speaks, was her chaplain and one of the sub-preceptors. 
His father, a German, held some post in George the Third's 
household, and was held in great esteem by the King. 


" I am very much obliged to you for sending me 
the game. But I must tell you about the dog. I am 
quite obliged to you for giving me a . . [illegible] . . but 
I (would) rather have a pug. Pray have the goodness to 
tell me how old the pug is. Pray give it a name, and tell 


me if it is a female or not. I must add that you have no 
idea how good and kind dearest [name illegible] is. I 
knew you would like him, he is so very kind to me that 
I cannot do to [too] much for him. I must tell you that 
I beg you will forgive me if I do come back to the subject 
of Mrs. Udney. I assure you I do not like her at all. 
Pray do not tell. Besides, there is not a day but there is 
something that happens. She does not pass over little 
faults. I think that that is not kind, but I leave that to 
you. I do assure you that I like Mrs. Cample [Campbell] 
better. She is a very good woman. 

" Pray how is Mrs. Durham ? l I hope she is well. 
Mrs. Udney b.egs to be remembered to her, and to you, 
and to Lord A., and to all the children. I would add 
that myself, as it makes you laugh. 

" I owe a great deal to Lady de Clifford and Mr. Nott. 2 
Eemember me to all the children and Lord A. 

" Pray right (sic) to me soon, and right a long letter, 
and pray send my dog soon. 

" Excuse this scrawl for I am in a great hurry, and have 
a bad headach. Mr. [name illegible] I hope is [was] well 
when you saw him. I have not told your mother your 
secret. Your writing in the last letter was dreadfull. 

" I am your 

" Ever affectionate 


The dislike of Mrs. Udney which the Princess avows 
in some of her letters to my mother is further implied 
in a curious testamentary document, which I would 
preface by some mention of two of the legatees under 
its provisions, Mrs. Gagarin and Mrs. Lewis. 

We learn from Lady Eosa Weigall's interesting memoir 
of the young Princess that Her Eoyal Highness owed 

1 See note p. 46. 2 See ante, p. 47. 


much of her early instruction to the former-named of 
these persons. 

Mrs. Gagarin had been married in early life to a Eussian 
nobleman, but soon after giving birth to a daughter she 
discovered that his first wife was still living. She left 
him immediately without claiming a maintenance for 
herself. I was for three years a witness of the Princess's 
affection for her. At the time of Lady de Clifford's 
retirement in 1813, her health began to fail. " While," 
says Miss Knight, "she, Mrs. Gagarin, was capable of 
taking airings, Her Eoyal Highness constantly sent her 
out in a carriage, and when she grew so weak as to be 
confined to her room, visited her two or three times 
,a day, carried her in her arms to the window, and exerted 
every faculty to soothe and comfort her. She died on 
the 1st of July, 1813, at Warwick House. Her last 
moments were solaced by the condescending and un- 
remitting attentions of Her Eoyal Highness, reflecting 
a lustre on the native goodness of her heart superior to 
all the appendages of her exalted rank." 

The other dresser, a Mrs. Louis, was a Swiss, between 
whom and the Princess there also existed a warm 

After these few words of explanation, the following 

quaint little document will tell its own story. In it the 

likes and dislikes of the young testatrix are revealed, 
artlessly enough : 


<c I make my will. 

" First, I leave all my best books, and all my books, 
to the Eev. Mr. Nott. 


" Secondly, to Mrs. Campbell my three watches and 
half my jewels. 

"Thirdly, I beg Mr. Nbtt, whatever money he finds, 
me in possession of, to distribute to the poor, and I 
leave with Mr. Nott all my papers, which he knows of. 
I beg the prayer-book which Lady Elgin gave me may 
be given to the Bishop of Exeter, 1 and that the Bible 
Lady Elgin gave me may be given to him also. Also my 
playthings the Miss Fishers 2 are to have, and lastly, 
concerning Mrs. Gagarin and Mrs. Lewis, I beg they 
may be very handsomely paid, and that they may have 
an house. 

" Lady de Clifford the rest of my jewels, except those 
that are most valuable, and these my father and mother,, 
the Prince and Princess of Wales, are to take. 

" Nothing to Mrs. Udney for reasons. 

" I have done my Will, and trust that after I. am dead 
a great deal may be done for Mr. Nott. I hope the King 
will make him a Bishop. 


" March, 1806. 

"My birds to Mrs. Gagarin, and my dog or dogs to 
Mrs. Anne Button, my chambermaid." 

A journal written at this period by Lady Susan O'Brien, 
a daughter of Stephen, first Earl of Ilchester, contains 
the following entry : 

"While I was in town, I was informed of a curious 
transaction going on at Carlton House, on account of a 
childish will the Princess Charlotte had made, in which 

1 Dr. Fisher, Bishop of Exeter, Preceptor to the Princess 

2 Daughters of the Bishop of Exeter. 


she left half her jewels to Lady de Clifford, half to 
Mrs. Campbell, and all her valuable jewels to her papa 
and mamma. They suppose Mrs. Campbell concerned in 
making it, and told the Bishop of it, who smiled. The 
Prince was displeased, and said it was 'high treason,' 
and called Mr. Adam, Chancellor of the Duchy of 
Cornwall, who answered, ' Your Eoyal Highness has 
taken a just view of the matter.' All this nonsense 
has been before the Privy Council, whose time might 
be better employed." 1 

Persons unacquainted with Courts would be surprised 
that such a trifle should have been made an affair of 
State ; but this was just the sort of thing to assume 
an importance in the eyes of the Prince of Wales, and 
His Eoyal Highness's displeasure was so strongly ex- 
pressed that Mrs. Campbell threw up her appointment, 
and once more found a refuge in the Ilchester family. 

From the following letter it would appear that the 
Princess herself was unaware that her childish freak had 
deprived her of the society of her friend. 



"I am much obliged to you for your very kind 
letter. Poor dear Mrs. Campbell is going away, for 
her health is so bad. If you have any regard to me, 
you will write to her and try to console her. Do if you 
love me. I lose a great deal when she leaves me. Indeed 
she is a charming woman, that is far above Mrs. Udney, 
for the more I see of Mrs. Campbell, the more I love 
[her], but Mrs. Udney I still continue to dislike. When 
you come to town I wish to have a conversation with 

1 Gentleman's Magazine for September, 1876. 

E 2 


you about her. Do not be angry with me ; if you knew 
Mrs. C. you would quite adore her. She is so charming 
a woman. She tells me my faults, and, in short, is above 
flattery. Let me hear in your next letter that you love 
her. Do say so, or that you have a regard for her. You 
have no idea how unhappy I am. I can scarcely wright 
to you. I loved her dearly. Pray do not be angry 
with me. 

" I am your, 

" Ever aff e 

" C." 



" If you want to see Mrs. Campbell you have only 
to call at Old Burlington Street, 1 Lady Ilchester's, you 
will find her their (sic). Love to you all. 

" I am, 

" Your affectionate 


"Mrs. Luice (Louis), Mrs. Gager (Gagarin), and myself 
and Mr. Nott are very unhappy about Mrs. C going." 

The sequel to Mrs. Campbell's story remains to be 
told. After the celebrated flight of Princess Charlotte in 
1814 from Warwick House to her mother's residence in 
Connaught Place, the Prince of Wales resolved to make 
a clean sweep of his daughter's household. In forming 
a new establishment for her, his first care was to engage 
the services of Mrs. Campbell, the lady whom a few years 
before he had denounced before the Privy Council as 
guilty of " high treason." How, it might be asked, 

1 Lady Ilchester lived at No. 31, Old Burlington Street. 


came he to think of intrusting a person so accused 
with so important a charge ? The answer is an easy 
one. Mrs. Campbell, as I have said elsewhere, was a 
Tory. When the Princess made her "will," the Prince, 
in fierce opposition to the King, his father, was a leader of 
the Whig faction. But at the time of the Princess's flight 
he had himself become 

" In all but nanie a king," 

The change of circumstances had wrought a corresponding 
change of opinions : his Eoyal Highness had come round 
to Mrs. Campbell's way of thinking. 

Hence it was that in his eyes the traitress of 1806 
was a most loyal subject in 1814, and as such well 
qualified to hold a confidential post about his daughter's 

It was not until after much personal solicitation on 
the part of the Eegent that Mrs. Campbell consented to 
become a second time a member of the Princess's house- 
hold. On the marriage of the Princess with Prince 
Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, Mrs. Campbell became Keeper 
of her Privy Purse, and was one of the mourners who 
followed her royal mistress to the grave. 

The following letter, without date, appears to have been 
written in the summer of 1806 : 



" Having heard that your finger was bad, I could 
not help writing these few lines to inquire after your poor 
finger. If you will take my advice, you will put some 
Frier's Barlsom to it, and that will heal it very soon. You 
must not move your finger for a couple of days. 


" Poor Mrs. Udney is very unwell, and confined to her 
room ; but I hope she will soon be better. She sends her 
love to you. Pray tell me how Lady Sophia goes on with 
her drawing. Give my love to them all, especially to my 
dear little G-daughter, who, I hope, is well. 
" Believe me to be 

"Your ever affectionate 


" I have seen Papa, who has been very ill, .... which 
has pulled him down a good deal, and has made him very 
pail (sic). Charles, I hope, is well." 

The person mentioned in the last line of this letter 
was my brother, Charles James Keppel, godson to Mr. 
Fox, at this time four years old. He died September 
27, 1817. 


The Duchess Dowager of Brunswick. Charles, Duke of Brunswick. 
Lord Malmesbury's description of the Duchess. The Princess 
of Wales to Princess Charlotte. The Duchess of Gloucester. 
Her sister Mrs. Frederick Keppel. Prince of Wales to Lady 
de Clifford. Warwick House. Prince of Wales to Lady de 

ON Tuesday the 7th of July, 1807, landed at Gravesend 
from the Clyde, frigate, under a salute from the batteries 
on both sides of the Thames, Augusta, Dowager Duchess 
of Brunswick, Princess Eoyal of England, sister of George 
the Third, his senior by one year, and mother to the 
Princess of Wales. Her husband, Charles Duke of Bruns- 
wick, had borne a distinguished part in the Seven Years' 
War, and was considered by Frederick the Great to be one 
of his best generals. At the breaking out of the French 
Eevolutionary War, the Duke was appointed Generalissimo 
of the Austrian and Prussian forces ; he is, however, less 
memorable for his military achievements at that period 
than for the violent Eoyalist Manifesto which goes by his 
name. In 1806 Prussia called upon him to lead her 
troops against the Emperor of the French ; but outnum- 
bered and unacquainted with the more modern system of 
warfare, he sustained a total defeat on the bloody field of 
Jena, and was himself mortally wounded. The conqueror 
was requested to allow his fallen enemy to die in his 
own bed in Brunswick. With characteristic brutality, the 
Corsican captain answered, " Qu'il s'en aille en Angleterre, 


y chercher son salut. Je veux 1'ecraser lui et toute sa 

The dying and broken-hearted Duke fled to Ottersen,. 
where he breathed his last. His dominions were im- 
mediately annexed to Westphalia, of which country 
Napoleon's brother Jerome was king. The French 
Emperor, who had not a grain of chivalry in his com- 
position, and would, if they lay in his way, as soon make 
war upon women and children as men, tried to seize- 
the person of the widowed Duchess, but she succeeded in 
making her escape to Sweden, where she found a tem- 
porary asylum. When she fled to this country she was 
not without dread that her persecutor would follow her 
even here. 

From Gravesend the Duchess proceeded to the Princess- 
of Wales's villa at Chaiiton, and the following day made 
the acquaintance of her grand-daughter Princess Char- 
lotte. Walpole, speaking of the marriage of the Princess- 
in 1764, says, " Lady Augusta was not handsome, but tall 
enough and not ill made ; with the German whiteness of 
hair and complexion so remarkable in the Eoyal Family,, 
with their precipitate yet thick Westphalian accent. 
She had little grace or softness in her manner." 

Lord Malmesbury's gossiping diary contains abundant 
details of this Duchess. His lordship seems to have been- 
much struck with the originality of her character ; a like- 
impression was produced on Mirabeau, who met her in 
1780. He describes her as a thorough Englishwoman in, 
tastes, opinion and manners, " au point," says the Count, 
" que son inde*pendance presque cynique fait avec 1'eti- 
quette des cours allemandes le contraste le plus singulier 
que je connaisse." 

The month following the arrival of the Duchess of" 
Brunswick in England, the Princess Charlotte, attended- 
>by Lady de Clifford and Mrs. Udney, went to Worthing. 


The Prince of Wales, who was residing at Brighton, paid 
his daughter a long visit the next day. He invited her to- 
dine with him at the Pavilion, and sent her in his carriage 
to witness a review of the 10th Hussars, of which he 
was Colonel. The following letter, which the Princess 
Charlotte received in answer to one giving an account of 
her reception at Brighton, is to me an enigma, its whole 
tone being so utterly out of keeping with the well known 
character and sentiments of the writer. 



" Mama l and myself join in thanks, and our best 
love for your very entertaining and amusing letter, and we 
have enjoyed the rational amusements you are able to 
receive from the situation which you inhabit, which I have 
no doubt but that they will be conducive as well to your 
health as to your mind. But especially I have been much 
gratified by the account of the papers, with your reception 
at Brighton, which must have been an honour and a plea- 
sure to you that your father wished to see you on his 
birthday, 2 and I trust you will never in any day of your 
life deviate from the respect and attachment which is due 
to the Prince your father. 

" My letter cannot be so pleasant as yours was, as my 
mother and I have received the melancholy account of 
the Duchess of Gloucester's death as we are both very 
much attached to dear Princess Sophia, 3 whose loss is 

1 Dowager Duchess of Brunswick. 

2 On the 12th of August, 1807, the Prince of Wales completed his 
forty-sixth year. 

3 The issue of the marriage of Maria Wai pole with the King's 
brother were William Frederick, the late Duke of Gloucester, and 
his sister Princess Sophia Matilda of Gloucester. 


irreparable, and we feel deeply for her in the new 
calamity in which Providence has placed her, and I trust 
that religion and resignation to the will of the Almighty 
will support her that she may not sink under the loss of 
both her parents. 1 

" My best compliments to Lady de Clifford, and believe 
me for ever, 

" Your unalterably sincere 

" and affectionate Mother, 

" C. P. 

" BLACKHEATH, August 24, 1807." 

The Duchess of Gloucester referred to in the above 
letter died at Blackheath on the 25th August, 1807. She 
was the once beautiful Maria, daughter of the Honourable 
Sir Edward Walpole, and afterwards wife of George III.'s 
brother, William Henry, Duke of Gloucester. I have a 
picture of her at Quidenham. Her sister Laura married 
my great uncle, the Honourable Frederick Keppel, Bishop 
of Exeter, Dean of Windsor, and Eegister of the Order of 
the Garter. 

Horace Walpole, uncle of these two ladies, thus alludes 
to them both in his account of Mrs. Frederick Keppel's 
marriage : " We are very happy with the match. The 
bride is very sensible and agreeable and good: not so 
handsome as her sister, but further from ugliness than 
beauty. It is the second (Maria) who is beauty itself. 
Her face, bloom, eyes, hair, are all perfect. You may 
imagine how charming she is when her only fault, if 
one must find one, is that her face is rather too round. 
She has a great deal of wit and vivacity, with perfect 

I have no recollection of the Duchess. Of her elder 

1 The Duke of Gloucester died the previous year. 


sister, Mrs. Keppel, I stood much in awe, as did her 
two grand- children and my school-fellows, Frederick and 
Edward Keppel. 

The following letter from the Prince of Wales to my 
grandmother was written on hearing of the birth of my 
brother Francis : 


" I have only this moment learnt from Lady Hag- 
gerston that Lady Albemarle is safely delivered of a son. 
Pray accept my sincere congratulations on this event, as I 
do assure you that no one can participate more truly in 
everything that interests you than 

" Your very affectionate friend, 

" CARLTON HOUSE, Saturday Night, Nov. 2lst, 1807. 

" P.S. I hope the little lady and the new-comer are both 
quite well. I have ordered them to be inquired after 
to-morrow morning, for I only heard of the circumstance 
too late this evening to send sooner." 

Eunning out of Cockspur Street is a lane to the west- 
ward of Cawthorne's library. At the end of that lane 
formerly stood Warwick House. Attached to the house 
was a garden which appeared to have formed part of that 
of Carlton House, from which it was separated by a wall. 
There was access between the residences of the father and 
daughter by a gate, of which the Princess Charlotte had 
a key. I mention the locality to render intelligible the 
allusions in the letter which follows. 




" I am much obliged to you for the communication 
you were so good as to make me respecting the notification 
you received from the Princess of Wales. You not only 
have acted up to the sacred trust imposed upon you by 
your office in acquainting me immediately with the cir- 
cumstances, but you have shown your usual excellent judg- 
ment and good taste, as well in your way of meeting the 
message, as in signifying to me the proposed visit, without 
any comment. Indeed, it was impossible for you not to 
know how I must regard it when you notice the date of 
this letter, and the time at which you receive it. You 
will comprehend that I did not wish to explain my senti- 
ments more fully to you till the visit was actually over, 
lest the Princess should put any question to you, and that 
thereby you should be subjected to embarrassment by the 
answer you would have been forced to give. The step 
having been taken by the Princess, it was my wish that 
the visit should not be interrupted, that nothing might 
appear discordant to the polite attention always to be 
observed ; though I might have my suspicion that the 
visit was not really made from a misconstruction of the 
licence I had granted in a special instance, but was an 
attempt to pass beyond the line established by me through 
the King. In the regulation laid down, and transmitted 
by his Majesty to the Princess, it is precisely defined that 
she is not to visit her daughter at "Warwick House, that 
house being considered as part of Carlton House. Char- 
lotte's illness, which prevented her from going to her 
mother at Blackheath, was a case not foreseen, and was 
sufficient reason for relaxation in this particular instance.. 


But as my daughter has been for some time able to go 
about again, that pretext must no longer remain, and I 
cannot assent to the Princess visiting at Warwick House 
on any other grounds. Her apartments not being ready 
.at Kensington can be no excuse whatever. Should you 
have any apprehension of a visit hereafter, I must request 
of you, my dear Lady de Clifford, immediately to ask for 
an audience of the Princess at Blackheath ; when, with 
.all that respectful delicacy which nobody knows so well 
as yourself how to testify, you will explain to the Princess 
the line herein enjoined you, and will entreat her not to 
come to Warwick House, which she cannot do without 
my previous assent, and which can only be given on some 
consideration as strong as what lately induced me to grant 
it. According to the existing regulation, Charlotte may 
always (in moderation) be sent for by her mother to Black- 
heath or Kensington, under the limitation of its not giving 
any peculiar interruption to her studies or the necessary 
.train of her education. 

" I remain, my dear Lady de Clifford, 
" With the greatest truth, 

" Ever your sincere friend, 

'"CARLTON HOUSE, Tuesday Night, April Idth, 1808." 


My first acquaintance with Princess Charlotte. Her appearance and 
character. Her letter to me. Her letters to my mother. The 
Princess's alias. Her visit to Westminster. Dr. William 
Short. " Longs and Shorts." Lady de Clifford's stipulation 
with George the Third. Dr. Fisher, Bishop of Exeter. His 
encroachments upon Lady de Clifford's authority. The Duke of 
Kent to Colonel Macmahon. The Princess witnesses a battle at 
Westminster. Her performances as a Cook. Dr. Gamier, Dean 
of Winchester. " The Rape of the Lock." Garnier's interview 
with Buonaparte as Fiist Consul. The Princess's letter to Dr. 
Page and its result. The Princess's visit to my father. I am 
presented to the Duke of Brunswick. A skip out of bounds. 
Mr. Robert Tyrwhitt. 

AT about the date of the letter just quoted (1808) I first 
made the acquaintance of Princess Charlotte. It was on 
a Saturday, a Westminster half holiday. From this time 
forth for the next three years many of my Saturdays and 
Sundays were passed in her company. She had just 
completed her twelfth year. Her complexion was rather 
pale. She had blue eyes, and that peculiarly blonde hair 
which was characteristic rather of her German than of 
her English descent. Her features were regular, her face, 
which was oval, had not that fulness which a few years 
later took off somewhat from her good looks. Her form 
was slender, but of great symmetry ; her hands and feet 
were beautifully shaped. When excited, she stuttered 
painfully. Her manners were free from the slightest 
affectation; they rather erred in the opposite extreme. 
She was an excellent actress whenever there was anything 


to call forth her imitative power. One of her fancies was. 
to ape the manners of a man. On these occasions she 
would double her fists, and assume an attitude of defence 
that would have done credit to a professed pugilist. What 
I disliked in her, when in this mood, was her fondness for 
exercising her hands upon me in their clenched form. 
She was excessively violent in her disposition, but easily 
appeased, very warm-hearted, and never so happy as when 
doing a kindness. Unlike her grandmothers, the Duchess 
of Brunswick and the Queen of England, she was, as her 
letters abundantly testify, generous to excess. There was 
scarcely a member of my family upon whom she did not 
bestow gifts. From Princess Charlotte I received my 
first watch ; from her, too, my first pony, an ugly but 
thoroughly good little animal, which from its habit of 
"forging" in the trot I named " Humphrey Clinker." 
Poor old Humphrey ! He did good service to the younger 
members of the family after I had reached man's estate. 
In speaking of the openhandedness of the Princess, I 
must not omit to mention sundry " tips," which I hardly 
think I should have accepted had I understood how near 
our relative stations considered her poverty was akin 
to my own. 

The Princess was a great letter-writer. It is curious 
that of so much that she wrote to the Keppel family so 
little has been preserved. Her letters to me alone would 
have thrown much light on her character, as of all her 
correspondents I was probably the one to whom she wrote 
with the least restraint; but with shame I confess it, I 
gave away her letters almost as soon as read, sometimes, I 
fear, even before they were read. One of them, after a 
lapse of sixty-six years, has found its way back to the 
person addressed. It has been forwarded to me by my 
grand-niece, Lady Margaret Majendie. 




" You know me well enough to suppose that I never 
will refuse you a thing when there is no harm in it. But 
tho' I send you the money, still I must give you a little 
reprimand. You will, I hope, dear boy, love me as well 
tho' I do sometimes find fault with you. You will, if you 
go on asking for money and spending it in so quick a 
manner, get such a habit of it that when you grow up 
you will be a very extravagant man, and get into dept 
(sic), &c., &c. 

"Your grandmamma de Clifford allows me 10 a 
month. 1 But though I spend it I take care never to go 
further than my sum will allow. Now, dear George, if 
you do the same you never will want for money ; say you 
have a guinea, well then, never go beyond it, and in time 
you will save up. That is the way everybody does, and 
so never get into dept (sic). 

" If you will call at Warwick House, my porter, 
Mr. Moore will give you half- a-guinea. If you use that 
well and give me an exact account how you spend it, I 
will give you something more. I wish you was here. 
Write to me often, and believe that no one loves you 
better than I do, nor will be more happy to help you in all 
troubles than I. We have very fine weather, and your 

1 " Princess Charlotte Lad been, until just before Lady de Clifford 

left her, allowed ten pounds a month for pocket-money 

Lady de Clifford was obliged to furnish her with money for her little 
charities out of the eight hundred pounds allotted for her wardrobe." 
Autobiography of Miss Cornelia Knight, Lady 'Companion to the 
Princess Charlotte, vol. i. pp. 234-5. 


mamma is here and is pretty well. Gramma de Clifford 
sends her love to you, and I remain, 

" Your very sincere and affectionate 


It was not unfrequently that this youthful Minerva 
would act the part of Mentor, although I fear her 
Telemachus was not so amenable to good counsels as the 
hero of Fe*nelon's tale. 

The Princess rarely dated her letters, so that to myself 
I imagine to have been written in the summer of 1808 
at Bognor, where Her Eoyal Highness and my mother 
used frequently to pass the bathing season together. 

The note which follows, evidently from that watering- 
place, is probably of the same date as the preceding. 


"I write to tell you that as you wish to see 
Goodwood, it will be much better to go to-morrow 
morning at eleven. If we go in the evening, it will take 
us three hours ; and we shall not be back till very late. 
If to-morrow morning we shall be home at two. 
" Pray let me know, 

" Your ever aff* 6 ' 


" P.S. We shall go alone, and have it all to ourselves." 

A gentleman of the name of Gretton was so good as to 
offer me the perusal of a letter in his possession from the 
Princess Charlotte to myself. I declined his obliging offer, 
not anticipating at the time the honour of a third edition 
and I have since been unable to discover his address. 



I passed the Bartlemy-tide holidays of 1809 with my 
family at Lowestoft, Suffolk, then little more than a 
fishing village, now a fashionable watering-place. My 
schoolfellows, Frederic and Edward George Keppel, of 
Lexham, were there at the time. I am reminded by my 
brother Edward of a pony which we four had in common. 
We used to ride it in turn without stirrups. Whenever 
we thought one of the quartet had had a long enough 
ride, we shied our hats at the nag, which as a matter of 
course started, and, equally as a matter of course, spilt its 
rider, whose seat was immediately seized upon by another 

During my mother's stay at Lowestoft she received the 
following letter from the Princess Charlotte. 


"August 9th, 1809. 


" As you was so good as to allow me to write to 
you I hasten to accept your kind permission. I have seen 
Mr. Yertue. I know the secret, which is curious, and 
shows the dog's sagacity more than anything. I am in 
duty bound not to tell the secret because I promised the 
man. You may make your mind quite easy about the 
dog. He cannot have been ill-used, for when the man 
made his appearance, the dog's joy was astonishing. 
When he left me and went to the Servants' Hall, the 
dog found his way down, and would not come to me till 
he was gone. This, I think, clearly shows that poor Jersey 
could not have been ill-used. 

" He is very fond of me, and will by constant practice 
do the trick for me. 

" I could not help wishing you had been here yesterday. 
You would have been delighted with the Duke of 
Norfolk's band, which played all the time we were at 


dinner, until nine at night. We then had fireworks, 
which were very fine, and would have pleased you much ; 
we broke up at half-past ten. This day is dreadful damp, 
dreary, and cold. (Name illegible) has got a dreadful 
toothache which confines her to the house. 

" Mr. Phillips is better, but could not officiate, therefore 
Mr. Eeed, the clergyman of Felpham did his duty, and 
after a dull, heavy, stupid sermon, there was a poor 
woman brought her child to be christened who came from 
Arndwick. As she had not her fee, only Is., he refused 
to christen the child, and sent her away. This we heard 
afterwards. Had we been there we should certainly have 
given the fee. I could not help mentioning this to you 
to show how little they minde what they have been 
preaching about. 

"I beg you a thousand pardons for having detained 
you so long with so long and uninteresting a letter, and 
beg you to believe me 

" Your most aff te- 

" And sincere 


" P.S. Pray give my kind love to all the Brats, parti- 
cularly to Sophia and Augustus. Don't give the watch 
till Ned's birthday." 

" Augustus," one of the " brats " in the foregoing letter, 
was my eldest brother Lord Bury, afterwards fifth Earl of 
Albemarle. He was the Princess's senior by one year, and 
at this time a midshipman on board the Superb, 74, 
carrying the flag of Admiral Sir Kichard Keate, K.B. 

In 1811 Bury obtained a commission in the 1st Foot 
Guards, and saw some service with his regiment in the 
Peninsula. In one action a bullet passed through his 
boot near the ankle. In another the rosette which con- 

F 2 


cealed the socket of his feather was carried away " a 
feather in his cap," as his comrades used to say. 

Perhaps I may be excused for here pointing out a 
family coincidence namely that of us six Keppels who 
have borne the title of Albemarle, we have all, with the 
exception of my father, been what is commonly called 
" under fire." My grandfather, and his father and grand- 
father, each in his turn, commanded an army in the 
field. For a special account of their several achieve- 
ments I must refer to the former editions of these 
memoirs ; my own humble performances as a campaigner 
will appear in due course. 

" Ned," the other " brat," is my brother Edward, now 
Rector of Quidenham and lately Deputy Clerk of the 
Closet to the Queen. Seven days after the date of the 
Princess's letter (August 16) Edward completed his ninth 
year, when he received the Princess's birthday present. 

One of the Princess's great enjoyments was to go out 
shopping with Lady de Clifford. On these occasions she 
assumed the name of my sister, the "Sophia" of the 
preceding letters. But Her Royal Highness was known 
everywhere in spite of her alias. In truth, the borrowed 
character was not at all in her line, for her freedom of 
deportment contrasted oddly with the reserved and timid 
demeanour of the person whose name she assumed. 

One day I had to take a pair of my fagmaster's shoes to 
" Cobbler Foots " to be mended. With the " high-lows " 
slung over my shoulder, I was passing through the arch- 
way which connects Little with Great Dean's Yard when 
I espied the Princess Charlotte's carriage. Although I 
was not on much ceremony with her Royal Highness, I 
did not care to be seen in the ordinary garb and dirt of a 
Westminster fag. So I tried to sneak by, but " George," 
uttered in a loud and well-known voice, proved to me 
that I could not preserve my incognito. Giving the shoes 


to another boy, I approached the carriage. The Princess's 
visit was to her newly- appointed sub-preceptor, the Rev. 
Dr. William Short, who lived next door to our head- 
master. After being made as fit for the royal presence as 
a basin of water and a towel at the Doctor's could make 
me, we sat down to luncheon. The sub-preceptor, who 
after the Princess's marriage with Prince Leopold became 
her domestic chaplain, was a handsome, good-humoured- 
looking man, physically and morally the very opposite to 
his right reverend principal the great U. P. 1 He was 
somewhat portly in person, and looked as if he were not 
indifferent to the good things of this world. The Princess 
insinuated as much, and indulged in some amusing banter 
on the subject, she preaching rigid abstinence, he solemnly 
protesting that he took no more than nature craved. 

Grown-up persons are advised to skip the next 
paragraph as being too juvenile for their perusal, but I 
insert it as, perchance, some of my young readers may 
like to know the sort of nonsense we talked that same 

Our host wrote on a piece of paper " Dr. Will," and 
asked the Princess to read what he had written. "I 
suppose," she answered, " that it means- Dear Will." " No, 
madam," was the rejoinder ; " it designates not only the 
dignity your humble servant holds in his profession, but 
contains his Christian and surname in full ; for what is ' Dr. 
Will ' but D(octo~)i Will(iam Short ?} " The Doctor told us 
that when he was prebendary in residence at Exeter the 
Sunday morning services were alternately conducted by 
himself and a Dr. Long, but that in the evening he always 
read prayers, and a Mr. Suett (pronounced Sweet) preached. 
Thus, whether in the morning the services were long or 

1 The Princess Charlotte's nickname for her preceptor, the Bishop 
of Exeter. 


short, in the afternoon they were always "Short and 

I now, addressing the Doctor, said, " Sir, I once fought 
a boy of the name of Long [it was the present Colonel 
Samuel Long, of Bromley Hill, Kent], and he licked me. 
I afterwards fought a fellow of the name of Short [it 
was the Doctor's nephew] and I licked him, and that's 
the long and short of the matter." 

After some more talk of a like nature we adjourned to 
the College Garden. It was the first and last time in my 
life that I had the honour of admission into the inclosure, 
nay, I question whether, prior to this occasion, 

" That sacred sod 
Had e' er by townboy's foot been trod." 

When the office of governess was first offered to Lady 
de Clifford, she stipulated with George the Third as the 
condition of her acceptance, that inasmuch as she was in 
the light of guardian of a female successor to the throne, 
she should have the same paramount authority in the 
establishment as would have been granted to the governor of 
a prince in a like position as her royal charge. To this the 
King gave his consent, but inasmuch as the instruction of 
the Princess was to include branches of knowledge not 
iisually taught by women, he placed this latter portion 
of her studies under the superintendence of a Bishop. 

The person selected by the King for this post was Dr. 
John Fisher, then Bishop of Exeter, and afterwards 
translated to the see of Salisbury. I used frequently to 
meet him at Warwick House a dull, solemn-looking man, 
with a severe expression of countenance, to which a pro- 
jecting under-lip contributed not a little. He was a good 
classical scholar, but had no more knowledge of mankind 
than was to be acquired in the quadrangle of a college, 
where he had passed the greater part of his life. He was 


precise in dress and formal in manner. In language lie 
was a thorough pedant, seeming to consider the force of 
words to be in proportion to the number of syllables they 
contained. To the Princess he was very distasteful, indeed 
there were few persons whom she regarded with more 
aversion than the great U. P., as she nicknamed him from 
the affected emphasis he used to lay on the last syllable of 
the word Bishop. I have read somewhere that the 
Princess once pulled off the Bishop's wig and threw it into 
the fire. I cannot vouch for the truth of the story ; all I 
remember is that frequently when the Bishop's back was 
turned, she would imitate his voice and gesture, and 
shooting forth her nether lip, would giye a sample of those 
grandiloquent homilies which he was in the habit of 
inflicting upon her in and out of season. 

Like most members of the Bench at that time, the 
Bishop was an ultra-Tory. He would fain have brought 
the Princess to his way of thinking, and tried to insinuate 
into the ear of the inchoate Sovereign the pleasing 
doctrine of 

" The right divine of kings to govern wrong," 

with what success I shall presently have occasion to 
show. It may have been in the spirit of contradiction, 
but certainly during the short life of the Princess she 
lost no opportunity of repudiating her right reverend 
preceptor's political creed. 

The dislike with which the Princess regarded the Bishop 
was fully shared by her governess. From the moment 
that Dr. Fisher was installed in his office, he began 
systematically to encroach upon Lady de Clifford's duties, 
even in matters which came exclusively within a woman's 
department. 1 This interference on his part mv grand- 

1 "His (the Bishop's) disputes with Lady de Clifford had been 
terrible." Miss Knight's Autobiography, vol. i. p. 233. 


mother always believed to have the secret connivance of 
the King, who, in placing him about his granddaughter's 
person, appears to have had the same object in view, as 
when he appointed Mrs. Campbell as a counterpoise to 
Mrs. Udney. The conduct of the Bishop was a source of 
great annoyance to the Prince of "Wales, who employed 
his brother, the Duke of Kent, of whom Dr. Fisher had 
formerly been preceptor, to remonstrate with him on his 
behaviour, and to intreat him to confine himself for the 
future to the duties of his own peculiar province. 



May 6th, 1806. 


" Having just received the inclosed from the Bishop 
of Exeter, I am anxious to lose no time in laying it 
before the Prince, and therefore send it herewith to your 
care for that purpose. As some remark may be necessary 
by way of introducing it, I must just add for the Prince's 
information that on Wednesday evening, at the House of 
Lords, I spoke very pointedly to the Bishop on the limits 
of his duty about the Princess Charlotte, which had, on 
two former occasions, been the subject of conversation 
between him and me, although I was concerned to see it 
lad failed to produce the effect I had expected; but the 
result of what then passed between us appears to have 
placed everything before his eyes in its right point of 
view, as will appear from the annexed letter, in forwarding 
which for the Prince's perusal my only motive is that he 
should be convinced I had followed up his intentions with 
regard to the Bishop, and that there would now be no 
further possibility of anything incorrect from the effect of 


error or misapprehension on his part. I remain, with the 
most friendly regard and esteem, 
" Dear Macmah'on, 
" Ever yours, 

" Most faithfully and sincerely, 

The remonstrance failed to produce the hoped-for 
result. The Bishop waged a "seven years' war" with 
Lady de Clifford, and hostilities only ceased be- 
tween them on her retirement from office. In the 
year 1813 this meddling Prelate was as busy as ever 
in his endeavour to add the functions of governess to 
those of preceptor. 

After the Princess Charlotte's flight from Warwick 
House in 1814, she was placed in a state of durance, 
having for custodian her former preceptor. One of 
the caricatures of the day represents her as sitting at 
the window of her prison and the Bishop of Salisbury 
as sentry over her, making his episcopal crown do duty 
for a grenadier's cap. 

One Saturday the Princess Charlotte and Lady de 
Clifford drove down to Westminster to take me back 
with them to Warwick House. I was not to be found 
at Mother Grant's, for there was a battle on that day, 
and as a matter of course T was in the " fighting-green." 
Lady de Clifford and the Princess now went in search of 
me in the " Great Cloisters," the grass quadrangle of which 
formed the scene of action. While my good grandmamma 
was reading quaint monumental inscriptions, her royal 
charge was grasping the rails of the Cloister and eagerly 
straining her eyes to watch the motions of the combatants. 
Her Eoyal Highness was in high luck, for I appeal to my 
contemporaries whether they ever witnessed a better fought 
battle than that between John Erskine, afterwards Earl of 


Mar," and Paddy Brown, afterwards Sir John Benyon de 

On Saturdays I was generally the guest of the Princess. 
The Sundays she used to spend either at Lady de Clifford's 
villa at Paddington, or at my father's house at Earl's 
Court, Brompton. 

Once outside her own gates, the Princess was like a 
bird escaped from a cage, or rather, like Sir Boyle Eoche's 
bird "in two places at once." Into whatsoever house 
she entered she would fly from top to bottom, one moment 
in the garret, and almost in the same moment in the 

Mrs. Durham,, to whom the Princess Charlotte so fre- 
quently alludes in her letters, was at this time cook to my 
grandmother. She was such an artiste in her business 
that the Prince of Wales, who occasionally honoured Lady 
de Clifford with his company at dinner, used to flatter her 
by asking her how she could afford to keep a man-cook. 
One day, however, at the hour of luncheon, things went 
ill; the Dowager's bell rang violently: the mutton-chop 
was so ill dressed and so well peppered as to be uneatable. 
On inquiry it was discovered that the good old lady's royal 
charge had acted as cook, and her favourite grandson as 

I have a living witness to this mutton-chop scene in 
the person of my kinsman, Dr. Thomas Gamier, Dean of 
Winchester, who was on a visit to Lady de Clifford that 
same morning. He assures me, through my sister, Lady 
Caroline Gamier, that I said, " A pretty Queen you'll 
make ! " I do not remember this flippant speech, but the 
frank, hearty manner of the Princess made it difficult for 
her young associates to preserve that decorum due to her 

Since I wrote the above paragraph, the person I quote 
as an authority has passed away. Dr. Thomas Gamier was 


born February 26, 1776, and died June 29, 1873, so that 
if he had lived but three more years, the time that I am 
making this note, he would have completed his hundredth 
year. His mother was a sister of my grandmother 
Albemarle, his son, the late Dr. Thomas Gamier, Dean 
of Lincoln, married my sister Caroline. 

The Dean's father, George Gamier of Wickham Corner, 
Hampshire, a most agreeable old gentleman, was very 
kind to me in my private school days. In 1766 he filled 
the office of high sheriff for his native county. His 
house was the resort of the literary celebrities of his day : 
they used to assemble in the month of May, and were 
called " May Flies." 

Garrick, Foote, and Churchill were frequent guests. 
The latter wrote some of his poems in Wickham woods. 
Sotheby, who translated Virgil, used often to invite himself 
to Wickham Corner, to have what he called " a battle of 
brains " with its owner. 

The Dean, his second son, was educated at Winchester, 
having first been at a preparatory school in the town 
(Hyde Abbey, the Rev. C. Pdchards). George Canning 
was one of his schoolfellows, and, according to the Dean, 
not considered a boy of any ability. 

Throughout life Dr. Thomas Gamier was a zealous 
Whig, and took an active part in Lord Palmerston's 
elections for Hampshire. From the Queen and the late 
Prince Consort the Dean received many marks of con- 
descension and kindness. 

Lord Albemarle and the Dean were at college at the 
same time, but not at the same university ; the former 
was a Cantab, the latter an Oxonian. 

There was one event in the college life of the Dean 
about which my father was fond of chaffing him. 

At a certain Oxford ball, some ninety years ago, " Cousin 
Tom" wore a very smart coat with filagree steel buttons. 


He was a most vigorous dancer, for dancing was not 
the inanimate affair that it has since become. While 
engaged in one of the most intricate labyrinths of " Sir 
Eoger de Coverley," one of these buttons caught a ringlet 
of the daughter of Dr. Warton, the famous Greek Professor, 
and, the hair not being her own, my kinsman carried away 
with him, through all the mazes of the dance, the whole 
head gear, followed by the damsel in a state of fury at 
this " Rape of the Lock." He, in the meantime, was so 
absorbed in his favourite pastime as to have no conception 
of the mischief which his peccant button had caused. 

Dr. Gamier was probably the last survivor of those 
persons who were admitted to an audience of Napoleon 
Buonaparte as the First Consul at the Peace of Amiens 
in 1802. In the leve*e at which Gamier was present, 
General Buonaparte principally addressed himself to those 
British officers who belonged to the army which drove the 
French out of Egypt. Seeing a gentleman in a superb 
military uniform, the Consul asked him to what regiment 
he belonged. " To none, sir," was the reply. " De la milice 
peut-etre ? " was the next inquiry. No answer. " Je 
comprends bien," said Buonparte, turning contemptuously 
on his heel ; " c'est un habit de fantaisie." 

The further account of the Dean's visit is written by his 
daughter-in-law, Mrs. Henry Gamier, at his dictation. 

" I went abroad with Dr. Halifax (a friend of my 
family) in the long vacation, during the short peace in the 
year 1802. I went to Napoleon's levee in Paris with 
Lord Carhampton and my friend Dr. Halifax. Lord 
Carhampton was dressed in the uniform of a captain of 
light infantry in those days. I burst out a laughing ' 
when I saw him, for he had only a short jacket and 
breeches, and he said he had been obliged to have it made 
by a German tailor, and must go without his skirts. It 
was a magnificent leve'e splendid reception rooms, and 


servants all dressed in green, and gold livery. We saw 
all the Marshals, General Dumouriez (distinguished in 
the time of the war, 1793), Marmont, and others. Soon 
after we got there Napoleon came in with the two vice- 
consuls. The vice-consuls were very smart indeed, but 
Napoleon was distinguished by the plainness of his dress. 
He was in a red coat, white waistcoat, and silk stockings, 
very plain, and with no orders. ' He went round talking 
to the people, and had a few words for each. He told 
Fox that ' he was the greatest man of the greatest country 
in the world.' I heard him say it. He came up to my 
friend Dr. Halifax and asked him ' Quelle profession ? ' 
Halifax answered. ' Docteur de Medecine to the Prince of 
Wales.' Napoleon then asked him what was his system, 
whether he followed the Brownonian. Dr. Halifax said 
he followed his own system. He asked me how long 
I had been in France, and to what country I belonged. 
He smiled and looked very gracious. He then turned to 
Lord Carhampton and said, ' Avez-vous servi ? ' ' Yes, sir/ 
he replied, ' I had the honour of commanding in Ireland 
when General Hoche landed' (in 1797). He asked Sir 
James Macintosh a great many questions on the law of 
the land. Macintosh turned to me and said, ' That man 
has astounded me with his knowledge, but I thought I 
could give him a few hints on the Habeas Corpus.' 
Napoleon went the whole round of the room, and varied 
his questions to each one, and was very gracious. A 
captain of the Surrey militia being asked by Napoleon 
when he was presented to him what regiment he belonged 
to, the captain was at a loss to explain or express 
himself in French ; at last he replied, ' Un regiment de 
Souris ' (Surrey). Napoleon laughed heartily, and ex- 
claimed, ' Ma foi, quel drole de regiment ! ' 

" His (Napoleon's) staff wore a gingerbread uniform. I 
went very frequently to Madame Saladin's, who was a 


great friend of Josephine's. I used to meet there a great 
many of the Court. One of the Generals (a Frenchman 
of note) told me that he had often paid Napoleon's washing 
bill at Corfu. One night Madame Saladin was very late, 
and when she came in she said, 'I am so fatigued, 
Josephine would keep me. She wished me to talk to her. 
She told me the First Consul had been in such a passion, 
and had made poor Josephine walk out at four o'clock in 
the morning in the Jardin des Plantes.' 1 This was at a 
time when Napoleon was in such a great state of irritation, 
and there was a great talk of the passions he went into. 

"At a large party one night at Madame Saladin's, Lally 
Tollendal, at that time a great orator, told us that Napoleon 
was in this state of excitement (this he mentioned as a 
great secret). We English thought it was an imposture, 
but it was quite true. 

" He told us that, that morning, Buonaparte had been 
with some merchants from Antwerp, and that he called 
them insolent scoundrels, and told them to be off. 
Napoleon was so angry too with Lord Whitworth, that 
Lord Whitworth actually put his hand to his sword. Very 
soon after the war broke out. 

" If I had remained in Paris a very little longer to the 
beginning of November I should have been one of the 
prisoners, and kept at Verdun on parole. 

" One day I was walking in Paris about that time with 
Lady Mount Edgcumbe and her two little girls (one of 
whom was afterwards Lady Brownlow), and went into a 
lace shop. Lady Mount Edgcumbe asked for some lace. 
She had a veil on. The shopman looked at her very 
fixedly for some moments without making any answer, 
and then said, ' Madame, what do you want ? There is 
no lace we would not give you in exchange for that veil.' 

1 The Dean probably meant the Jardin des Tuileries. 


The veil was made in Honiton for twenty guineas at the 
time when Honiton lace was first known. 

" I was at Brussels at a very important moment. I saw 
the Cap of Liberty taken off the top of the fine church at 
Brussels amidst uproars of cannon. There were great 
demonstrations, and the bells were all ringing, and the 
people going to church at four o'clock in the morning. 

" The Eoman Catholic religion was the first established 
there, and I never saw churches better filled. I was in 
the same hotel as the Bishop of Mechlin. There was a 
great meeting to receive him, and I saw him give the 
blessing. He was standing out from one window of the 
hotel and I out of the next, so I was close to him and saw 
the whole ceremony a very fine sight. The Bishop was 
dressed in a beautiful lilac (the Dean pronounced it 
laylock] dress trimmed with Mechlin lace, and red 
stockings. I went to see the celebration of the host ; the 
Bishop's chaplain and I used to meet at the hotel, so I 
went with him. We walked between two rows of 4,000 
soldiers, all with bayonets fixed. Then we went up the 
steps of the church, but I did not remain for the 
celebration, so I broke through the ranks and returned to 
the hotel. I was with the prefet. He had never been in 
church before, and was obliged to have a prompter to tell 
him what to do." 

I have spoken of Saturdays and Sundays as West- 
minster holidays, but on the afternoons of Tuesdays and 
Thursdays also boys might go " out " to any relations who 
would receive them. Now my grandmother de Clifford 
was very fond of a play, and our tastes were in this 
respect identical. On some Tuesday or Thursday in the 
winter of 1809 she was to take me to one of the theatres. 
I told the Princess of the pleasure I had in prospect, and 
of my readiness to incur the almost inevitable penalty 
attached to that pleasure a good flogging the following 


morning. From this, as I told H.RH., there was no 
escape, for how was it possible after the play and a good 
supper to be in time for the eight o'clock morning school ? 
"Leave that to me," said the Princess, and forthwith 
penned a letter to Dr. Page, taking upon herself the 
blame for my anticipated non-appearance. The morning 
after the play I came into school half-an-hour late and 
was "shown up" as a matter of course. With a de- 
precatory " Please sir," I presented my royal credentials. 
The doctor glanced at the seal and the hieroglyphic 
" Charlotte " on the envelope, and then dropped the 
letter into the pocket of his gown that his hand might 
be free to grasp the rod. His next proceeding was to 
perform that part of his duty which always seemed to 
him a pleasure. That done, he read the letter to the 
whole form, and added how glad he was that he had not 
opened it sooner, for he would have been under the 
painful necessity of disobeying Her Eoyal Highness's 

This was not the only occasion on which the Princess 
made an ineffectual attempt to screen me from the con- 
sequences of a neglect of school duties. She had some 
project which required my co-operation. I pleaded my 
unfinished exercise for the Monday. It was again, " Leave 
that to me." I did so, but her latinity, in spite of Bishop 
Fisher's preceptorship, was found on examination not even 
to come up to my low standard. This second attempt to 
help me was attended with exactly the same result as 
the former. 

The house at Earl's Court, Brompton, which my father 
occupied, is next door to what was then a villa residence 
of Mr. Gunter, the confectioner, nicknamed by us children 
" Currant- Jelly Hall." Our house, with the grounds 
attached, would comprise, I suppose, about two acres. 
A small gate leads out of the garden into the road ; .next 


come two large entrance gates, which open upon a court 
forming a carriage drive to the house. Further on are 
gates leading to the stables. From the stables is a 
subterraneous passage which communicates with a small 
orchard. Encircling the orchard is a gravel walk and a 
garden. A semicircular plot of ground laid out in flower- 
beds faces the drawing-room windows. 

This description of the locality is prefatory to the 
narrative of an event which occurred there one Sunday 

In her visits to Earl's Court the Princess usually came 
in my grandmother's carriage, but on this occasion in her 
own. The scarlet liveries soon brought opposite to the 
entrance gate a crowd of people anxious to get a glimpse 
of the Heiress Presumptive to the throne. 

Soon after her arrival at Earl's Court I happened to 
pass outside the gates. I was asked by the bystanders, 
'' Where is the Princess ? " I told her how desirous the 
people were to have a sight of her. "They shall soon 
have that pleasure," was the reply. Slipping out of the 
garden gate into the road, she ran in among the crowd 
from the rear, and appeared more anxious than anyone to 
have a peep at the Princess. I would fain have stopped 
her, but she was in boisterous spirits, and would have her 
own way: she proceeded to the stable entrance, saddled 
and bridled my father's hack herself, and armed with the 
groom's heavy riding-whip, led the animal through the 
subterranean passage to the garden gravel walk. She 
now told me to mount. I, nothing loth, obeyed. But 
before I could grasp the reins or get my feet through the 
stirrup leathers, she gave the horse a tremendous cut with 
the whip on the hindquarters. Off set the animal at full 
gallop, I on his back, or rather on his neck, holding on by 
the mane and roaring lustily. The noise only quickened 
his pace. I clung on till I came to the plot in front of 



the drawing-room windows, when the brute threw his heels 
into the air and sent me flying over his head. At the 
same moment the Princess emerged from the rose-bushes, 
panting for breath. She had hoped, by making a short 
cut, to intercept the horse and its r;der before they came 
into view. My cries brought the whole family on to the 
lawn. Of course the Princess got a tremendous scolding 
from Lady de Clifford. That she was used to, and took 
coolly enough. Unluckily for her up came my father, in 
whose good graces she was desirous to stand high. By 
looks rather than words he expressed his disapprobation, 
In a short time quiet was restored, and my people 
returned to the house. But no sooner were the Princess 
and I alone again, than the heavy riding- whip was once 
more put into requisition, and she treated my father's son 
exactly as she had just treated my father's horse. 

My sister, Lady Mary Whitbread, reminds me of a 
certain mound in the orchard of Earl's Court. To the top 
of this mound the Princess would entice her and her 
sisters (who were at that time of the respective ages of 
seven, six, and four) to climb, in order to roll them down 
into a bed of nettles below. If the little girls refrained 
from crying and from complaining to their governess, they 
were sure to be rewarded for their reticence by a doll. 
Indeed the Princess, never so happy as when making 
presents, kept their nursery well supplied with dolls. 
Two of these Lady Mary remembers as going by the 
names of the Princess Charlotte and the Princess of 

In the same year (1809) I had the honour of being 
presented by the Princess Charlotte to a man with whose 
recent wonderful achievement all Europe was ringing. 
This was her uncle, the Princess of Wales's brother, 
afterwards " Brunswick's fated chieftain," the first officer 
of note who fell in the Waterloo campaign. 


Early in the year, the Duke entered into a treaty with 
the Court of Vienna, engaging to bring into the field two 
thousand men to act in concert with the Austrian 
Emperor against Napoleon. He soon succeeded in raising 
a corps of twelve hundred men, principally university 
students, whom hatred of a foreign yoke had rallied round 
his standard. In token of the disasters that had befallen 
him and his house, and of his resolve to avenge them or to 
die in the attempt, he clothed his little army in black, 
and as if these dusky habiliments were not sufficiently 
expressive of his feelings, he gave tbem a death's-head 
and cross-bones as the sole device on their arms and 

Scarcely had he taken the field, when the armistice 
which followed the defeat of the Austrians at Wagram 
left him in the heart of Germany without an ally. It 
remained to him to surrender at discretion to his mortal 
foe, or with his good sword to cut himself a way to 
England. With the pluck of his race, he chose the latter 

On the llth of July, the Duke set out on his hazardous 
expedition, passing through Dresden, Leipzig, and Halle 
without striking a blow. At Halberstadt he found a 
Westphalian force three thousand strong in battle array. 
These he fought and conquered, took their General 
Wellingerode prisoner, together with all his officers and 
sixteen hundred of his men. 

At Oelfern with 150 Bruns wickers he took 600 more 

On his twentieth day's march he arrived at Brunswick, 
and bivouacked under the walls of his native city. 

The following day (August 1) he learned that two corps, 
a Westphalian and a Saxon, threatened his flank and rear. 
The one he drove to their entrenchments, the other fled 
before him, leaving ten waggons of its wounded to his mercy. 

G 2 


On entering Hanover he captured a battalion of West- 
phalians, four pieces of cannon, and a large quantity of 
military stores. 

After running the gauntlet of the Danish batteries, he fell 
in with an English squadron that had been sent in search 
of him, which in a few days landed him and his men 
safely on British ground. 

It was not long after his return that I met the Duke 
at Warwick House a sad and somewhat stern-looking 
man with sunken eyes and bushy eyebrows, and, what 
was then seldom seen in England, a pair of mustaches. 
The demeanour of the uncle and niece were the very 
opposites. His, sedate and silent; hers, impulsive and 
voluble. He seemed well satisfied to be a listener, and to 
be much interested in the Princess's lively and careless 
prattle. On her part she almost worshipped him. Once, 
after a visit from the Duke, she improvised a mustache, 
swaggered up and down the room, then making a sudden 
stop, with arms akimbo, she uttered some German 
expletives which would probably have hardly borne a 
translation, and thus sought to give you her conception of 
a " Black Bruiiswicker!" 

Warwick House was so short a distance from my 
school that in the summer months I frequently made 
it " a skip out of bounds." I fear there was too much of 
" cupboard love " in these visits, for I was blessed with 
an excellent appetite, and Mother Grant's food was exe- 
crable. The Princess, aware of this, used to bring me 
sandwiches of her own making. I once fancied that I 
must needs have a sharer in the good fare. So I took 
with me my chief crony, Robert Tyrwhitt, a gentleman 
whose name, in more recent times, has been frequently 
before the public as Chief Magistrate of Bow Street. 
My quondam sodalis is still living, and well remembers 
the joint adventure T am about to record. As I was a 


privileged person at Warwick House, I passed with my 
companion unquestioned by the porter's lodge, and 
through a small door which opened from the court-yard 
into the garden. The Princess greeted us with a hearty 
welcome. In the garden was a swing, into which Princess 
Charlotte stepped, and I set it in motion. Unfortunately 
it came in contact with Bob Tyrwhitt's mouth and knocked 
him over. He forthwith set up a hideous howl. Out came 
subgoverness, page, dressers, and footmen. Before they 
reached us, the Princess had descended from the swing, 
had assumed an air of offended dignity, and was found 
lecturing me on the extreme impropriety of my conduct 
in bringing a boy into her garden without her privity and 
consent. The marvel is how she or I could either of 
us keep our countenance. 


The Four-in-Hand Club. Mr. Granville Vernon. Betty Radcliffe ot 
the " Bell." Charles Longley, the late Archbishop of Canterbury. 
The Jubilee. The Burdett Riots. Princess Charlotte to Lady 
Albemarle. The Fighting Mania. Crib and Molyneux. 
Training for a Prize Fight. Tothill Fields. George the 
Fourth's appearance there. "Slender Billy." Princess Char- 
lotte to Lady Albemarle. Children's Balls. The Prince Regent's 
Change of Politics. The Princess Charlotte's Political Manifesto. 
Lady de Clifford's Retirement. The Princess's Letters to her 
and to Lady Albemarle. The Princess Charlotte at Windsor. 
Prince of Orange. Sir Thomas Picton. Visit of the Allied 
Sovereigns. Blucher Platoff. Grand Duchess of Oldenburgh. 
The Oldenburgh Bonnet. "All the World's at Paris." My 
Last Exploit at School. I leave Westminster. 

I HAVE been desirous to avoid breaking in upon my nar- 
rative of the illustrious young lady into whose com- 
panionship I had the honour of admittance. I must now 
invite my readers to return with me to Dean's Yard, 

In the first year of my entrance into Westminster (1808) 
was established the famous " Four-in-hand Club." It soon 
became the height of the fashion not only to acquire the 
skill of coachmen, but to ape their manners, dress, and 
slang. In that same year the King's scholars acted 
Terence's comedy of the "Adelphi." The representative 
of ^Eschinus, the fashionable young Athenian in the play, 
was my friend Mr. Granville Vernon, now in his eighty- 
fourth year. He reappeared in the epilogue as a Member of 


the " Four-in-hand," wearing a broad-brimmed hat and a 
great coat of many capes, called a " bang-up ; " and thus 
explained to Demea, his testy rustic father, the principles 
upon which the new club was based : 

" Aurigee, moderari animos et flectere habenis 

Quadrupedum cursus, hoc satis esse putas ? 
Vestituiu, more?, imitabitur atque loquelam." 

The Etonians, who were always lording it over us West- 
minsters with their superior gentility, used to boast that 
they would never condescend to handle the ribbons unless 
with four sprightly nags at their feet ; in other words, they 
drove stage and we hackney coaches. For my part I was 
well content with the humbler vehicle. One Sunday 
evening several of us boys met by agreement at the top 
of St. James's Street. We each engaged a hackney coach 
for himself, and having deposited his " Jarvey " inside, we 
mounted our respective boxes and raced down to West- 
minster, the north archway into Dean's Yard being the 
winning-post. Over such roads, and with such sorry 
cattle, the wonder is that we reached the goal Luckily 
for us our course was all down hill. 

When I became big enough to manage a team, I had 
the honour of driving the London and Norwich Eoyal 
Mail. I generally selected the stage from Bury to Thet- 
ford, the last of my journey homewards. At the " Bell 
Inn " of the latter town I used to sit down to a most 
sumptuous breakfast of eggs, buttered toast, fried ham, 
&c. &c., luxuries to which I was not used, either at school 
or at home, and all for love and not money, for I was a 
prime favourite with the landlady, Betty Radcliffe, who had 
known me from infancy. So great was this partiality that 
whenever I put up at the Bell, a kiss to her was a receipt 
in full for all her good cheer the only coin, indeed, in 
which she would ever consent to be paid. Dear old Betty ! 


Methinks I am now looking on that broad Saxon face, on 
those twinkling little grey eyes, on the high mob cap, like 
that in which Mrs. Gamp figures in Dickens' s novel, and 
on the flaxen wig, which its wearer seemed to nave out- 
grown, for it exposed to view those tresses of silver hair 
which it was its business to conceal. 

Sole proprietor of post-horses into Norfolk, she took 
advantage of her monopoly, by observing a free and easy 
demeanour towards customers of every degree. 

Whenever the Duke of York passed through Thetford, 
on his way to Mr. Tom Thornhills, of Kiddlesworth, he 
used to have a chat with Betty. As he was paying her 
one morning for the post-horses, she jingled the money in 
her hand, and said to his Eoyal Highness, " I think I have 
a right to a little of your money, for I have been paying 
your father's taxes for many a day." 

Prior to one of those ruinous election contests in which 
Messrs. Coke and Wodehouse (afterwards Lords Leicester 
and Wodehouse) engaged, the former said to Betty, " I 
want all your post-horses for the next fortnight." She 
gave Mr. Coke a knowing wink, and said, " I dare saa you 
do, but cub, baw [come, boy] along w' me. What do you 
see painted on that board ? " " The ' Bell ' of course." 
" And what on t'other side ? " " The ' Bell ' too ! " " Just 
so," said Betty. " Don't you see that my sign is painted 
o' both sides ? You shall have half my horses, but 
Wuddus [Wodehouse] the other half." 

My sister Anne, soon after her marriage with Mr. Coke> 
changed horses at Thetford, on her way to Holkham. 
Mrs. Radcliffe thrust her head into the carriage. " Here 
I am, Betty ! " exclaimed my sister. " Oh ! " was the reply, 
" I wasn't thinking of you ; I only wanted to see whether 
George was with you " my Christian name being Betty's 
only designation of me, whether speaking of me or to me. 

I am indebted to Mr. William Gurdon, brother of a 


former member for West Norfolk, for the following account 
of his first acquaintance with this provincial celebrity. 

He was travelling with his family to Letton, their 
country seat. While the horses were getting ready at the 
Bell, the whole party stepped into Mrs. Radcliffe's parlour. 
Here, Mr. William Gurdon's father taking up a book 
which lay on the table, the following dialogue took 
place : 

Mr. Gr. " So, Betty, you have got Keppel's Travels" x 

B. " Yes, and a pretty book it is." 

Mr. G. " Well, books are pretty things for those who 
can afford to buy them." 

B. " Do you suppose I bought the book ? You don't know 
George if you think that. Why, he gave it me." 

Mr. G. " Indeed 1 That was nice of him." 

B. " Nice ! So were the hot sausages that he used to 
tuck in, as many as ever he liked. The dear boy had 
a good twist of his own, after being all night on the top of 
the coach." 

Eeverting to the "Travels," Betty asked Mr. Gurdon 
who he thought had written the godly parts of the work. 2 
"They tell me," she added, "that it was my friend the 
Duke of Sussex." 3 

The next anecdote is from a near neighbour in the 
country, whose father was eye-witness to the scene I 

A chariot drives up to the inn door. " First pair out," 
resounds through the hostelry. The horses are ready 
harnessed, but the driver is not forthcoming. Anon, there 
appears in the saddle of the near wheeler, booted and 
spurred and in the garb of a post-boy, mine hostess of 

1 My Overland Journey from India. 

2 In allusion to my notes on the ruins of Babylon. 

3 At the time Betty made this remark I was Equerry to the Duke 
of Sussex. 


the Bell herself, who, in this strange guise, conveys the 
chariot and its inmate in perfect safety to the next 

A certain number of town-boys are annually elected 
into St. Peter's College, to replace such of the forty King's 
(now Queen's) scholars who obtain studentships at the 
Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. The competitive 
examinations, which are virtually conducted by the King's 
scholars themselves, last several weeks. To get in " head 
to college " is considered a feather in a boy's cap, and the 
winner of such distinction is honoured with a " ehairing," 
and called the " Liberty boy." Placed on a ladder, and 
borne on the shoulders of his schoolfellows, he is preceded 
by a large silk flag bearing the Westminster arms, and in 
this fashion is paraded through the streets " within 

The "Liberty boy" whom I saw chaired in 1808 was 
Charles Longley, the late Archbishop of Canterbury. 

In the winter of the following year I witnessed Long- 
ley's performance of a character in Terence's " Phormio " 
that of Cratinus, one of the three lawyers of the piece. 
Dr. Page wrote the epilogue. The subject was the 0. P. 
riots, arising from the increase of the prices of admission 
to the new Covent Garden Theatre. The dramatis personce 
retained the names they bore in the comedy. The scene 
was changed from a street in Athens to the Police Office in 
Bow Street. Demipho, the " heavy father," was the sitting 
magistrate. Phormio, the mauvais sujet, was brought 
before him for having interrupted the performances by 
imitating the sounds of divers animals. Cratinus a 
radical lawyer held a brief for the defendant. Longley 
did full justice to the character. With true forensic pom- 
posity he laid it down as law that man being an imitative 
animal his client had a perfect right to make a goose or an 
ass of himself if so inclined ; but as my classical readers 


would probably prefer the original pleading to my trans- 
lation, I give it a place here : 

" Homini certe ista licebit 

Quae porcis, asiriis, anseribusque licet 
Est homo natura a>bv /W^TIKW ergo 

Qui boat, aut balat, sibilat, aut ululat, 
Qui rugit, et mugit, gannitque et grunnit et hinnit 

Omnia naturse convenienter agit." 

[1809.] The morning of the 25th October, 1809, was 
ushered in by the firing of guns, the ringing of bells, and 
other signs of public rejoicing. It was the day on which 
George the Third entered upon the 50th year of his reign. 
There stood at that time in the centre of the garden in 
Berkeley Square, an equestrian statue of the King, which 
a few years later got out of repair and was taken down. 
The jubilee day must have been a holiday at Westminster, 
for I was present at the planting of a young oak seventy 
yards to the north of the statue. On the base of the 
statue was an inscription setting forth the occasion on 
which the tree was put into the ground. During the 
winter the sapling withered and died, and the inscription 
was effaced. Before another 25th of October came round, 
the poor King, although he continued to live, had virtually 
ceased to reign. 

[1810.] Things went ill with the King's government in 
1810. First there was the parliamentary inquiry into the 
serious mismanagement of the Spanish war. Then came 
the debate relating to the miserable failure of the Wal- 
cheren expedition. Out of this latter question arose that 
of the privileges of Parliament. 

When the subject of the Walcheren expedition came 
under discussion in the Commons, the order against the 
admission of strangers into the gallery was enforced. A 
man named Jones, in a debating society, condemned the 


exclusion of the public from the debates. The Commons 
were foolish enough to send him to Newgate. Sir Francis 
Burdett denied the right of the Commons to imprison 
Jones, and they committed the still greater folly of sending 
Burdett to the Tower. 

The sergeant-at-arms was to have served the warrant on 
him on Friday, the 5th of April, but ha,ving failed in 
doing so, he purposed to discharge his disagreeable duty 
the following day. 

At eleven in the morning of Saturday the 6th, he called 
upon Sir Francis, who disputed the legality of the warrant, 
and informed the sergeant-at-arms that he would not go 
unless taken by force. This refusal spread like wild-fire 
all over the town. Now Saturday was a Westminster 
half-holiday. So when at about one o'clock I entered 
Piccadilly on my way to my grandmother's in Berkeley 
Square, I found myself in the midst of a numerous and 
infuriated mob. 

The house in which Sir Francis lived, No. 77, Piccadilly, 
is next door to that which his daughter Baroness Burdett- 
Coutts now inhabits. In front of the residence of their 
hero I found the populace assembled. A squadron of the 
Horse Guards, or the " Oxford Blues " as they were then 
called, was drawn up in line across Piccadilly, the right 
flank resting on the wooden palings of the Green Park, 
the left on the iron rails to the north side of the street. 
The men arid horses were of the same colossal form as are 
those of the same corps in our day. Their height was 
considerably increased in appearance by the enormous 
cocked hats which they wore, what sailors would call 
"athwart ships." Their uniform was blue, with buff 
facings, which covered their chests. Over the coat were 
worn broad buff cross-belts. Their hair, greased and pow- 
dered, terminated in a pigtail, which went half-way down 
the back. 


As I was a stout Burdettite, I imitated the actions of 
his other admirers, yelled as lustily as they against the 
military, and cried " Burdett for ever ! " I was too small 
a boy to see what was going on in our front rank, 'and did 
not know till afterwards that the Riot Act was being read, 
preparatory to an active movement of the troops against 
us. Anon I heard the clattering of swords and pattering 
of hoofs. Sauve qui peut seemed to be the order of the 
day with us Burdettites. For my part, I did not stop 
running till I found myself safe and sound at my grand- 
mother's house in Berkeley Square. 

That same evening a large and noisy multitude assem- 
bled in our square, and smashed every pane of glass in 
the windows of No. 12, the house next but one to Lady 
Albemarle's. The object of popular resentment was the 
Earl of Dartmouth, who rented that house of my father. 

I am not aware that harm came to the mob of which I 
formed a part, but several lives were lost in the course of 
the day, and the state of public feeling may be inferred 
from the juries returning a verdict of wilful murder against 
the military. 

The unpleasant duty which this portion of the house- 
hold cavalry was called upon to perform on the occasion 
obtained for it the sobriquet of the " Piccadilly Butchers," 
and it was not till after its splendid achievements at 
Waterloo that it entirely lost the opprobrious name. 

A little before the time I am speaking of, the hair of a 
soldier's head, like that of a lady's in the present day, was 
combed from off his forehead, not however to terminate in 
a chignon, but in a pigtail. A recruit one night was dis- 
turbing his comrades by his lamentations. "You noisy 
fool ! " called out one of them, " why don't you go to 
sleep ? " " Because," was the reply, " the sergeant has tied 
my hair so tight that I can't shut my eyes ! " 




" May 20th, 1811. 

" I write myself, as I have greater pleasure in 
accommodating you myself than through any other per- 
son. Lady de C - has been mentioning to me her fears 
respecting the little black mare she gave you last year. 
I have settled it, if you approve (as it will equally serve 
my purpose), to send you down the little horse I bought 
which I will answer for being perfectly good-tempered and 
safe, by the return of the waggon. 

" Pray tell me if you approve, and how I am to send the 
little animal to you, which I trust you will do me the 
kindness to accept, as I am sure I can never do too much 
to show rtiy regard towards you. I hope you are better 
for change of air, and that Sophia and all the children are 
quite well. Pray give my kind love to Sophia, and my 
very kind regards to Lord Albemarle. 

" Pray answer my letter soon. Assure yourself it will 
not be the least inconvenience to me : on the contrary, 
a great pleasure. 

" Believe me, 

" My dear Lady Albemarle, 

" And very sincere 

The autobiography of a Westminster schoolboy of the 
early part of the century would be incomplete without 
some mention of the rage for fighting with which the 
author of these memoirs, in common with the rest of his 
countrymen, was then afflicted, and which made him a 
performer in " the fighting green " much oftener than he 


now cares to specify. The " noble science of self-defence " 
was inculcated upon us boys as one of the essentials of a 
gentleman's education. It was the point upon which no 
difference of opinion existed either between masters and 
pupils or between fathers and sons. 

Carey, who had been a good fighter in his day, did all 
in his power to foster this pugnacious feeling. When my 
friend and co-Busbeian, Mr. James Mure, was captain of 
the school, the Doctor took him to task for the idleness of 
one Lambert, a junior on the foundation. Mure pleaded 
that he had not " helped " Lambert into College, but that 
he believed him to be a good honest fellow and by no 
means deficient in abilities. " Where did he get that 
black eye ? " asked Carey. 

" In fighting a ' scy.' " l 

" Which licked ? " 

" Lambert." 

" Well ! if he is a good fellow and a good fighter, we 
must not be too hard upon him for his Latin and Greek." 

When I went home for the holidays, my father preached 
from the same text as the Doctor. " If," he would argue, 
" our countrymen be discouraged from the use of their fists, 
they will become more like Italians than Englishmen, and 
be always resorting to the knife as the readiest mode of 
settling their disputes." It was with this conviction that 
Lord Albemarle became a patron of the prize ring. 

Since the above paragraph appeared in print, I read of 
another promoter of pugilism, still more enthusiastic in 
the cause than even Lord Albemarle John Charles, third 
Earl Spencer. This nobleman, besides being a frequent 
attendant at prize fights, had been himself " to school ; " 2 
had become a first-rate sparrer, and tried occasionally to 

1 Westminster language for a blackguard. 

2 Where an amateur had taken lessons in boxing he was said by 
the " Fancy " to have " been to school." 


initiate his colleagues in the Cabinet into the mysteries 
of what he always called " that noble science." 

As if to corroborate the correctness of my account of 
my father's views, Lord Spencer justified his own advocacy 
with the self-same arguments which he, my sire, used 
towards myself. 

The late Lord Ossington, formerly Speaker of the House 
of Commons, mentioning a visit which he paid Lord 
Spencer at his country seat, speaks of something having 
been said of a recent case of stabbing with a knife. 
"Lord Spencer observed that in his opinion cases of 
.stabbing arose from the manly habit of boxing having 
been discouraged. The pros and cons of boxing were 
discussed : Lord Spencer became eloquent. He said his 
conviction of the advantages of boxing was so strong that 
he had been seriously considering whether it was not a 
duty he owed to the public to go and attend every prize 
fight which took place, and so to encourage this noble 
science to the extent of his power. I have said he 
became eloquent. It was the one time in my life, in the 
House of Commons or out of it, that I heard him speak 
with eagerness and almost with passion." 1 

My father's special favourite of the bruising fraternity 
was Henry Pearce, champion of England, better known as 
"the Game Chicken," a man of great strength and singular 
symmetry, with a generosity of disposition which miti- 
gated in some degree the nature of his brutal calling. In 
his famous fight with James Belcher, the one-eyed pugilist, 
Pearce knocked his antagonist on to the ropes, and, accord- 
ing to the pugilistic code, might have gained an easy 
victory, but he forewent his advantage, saying, " I will 
not hit thee, Jem, lest I knock out thy other eye." 

Great was the excitement with us Westminsters in the 
summer of 1811, at the forthcoming fight of Tom Crib, 

1 Le Merchant's Memoir Eatl Spencer, pp. 140-141. 


a coal-heaver, nicknamed from his calling " the Black 
Diamond," and an American negro, of the name of Moly- 
neux, for the championship. Our sympathies were of 
course all in favour of the man of our own country and 

Previous to the fight, Captain Barclay, the famous 
pedestrian, who walked 1,000 miles in 1,000 consecutive 
hours, took Crib into the Highlands to train him. Bar- 
clay's sister, the late Mrs. Hudson Gurney, told me that 
Crib was in bad condition when the Captain took him in 
hand, and that lie had great trouble in making him breast 
the Scotch hills. At last he resorted to an odd expedient; 
he filled his pocket with small pebbles, and whenever Crib 
refused to follow him in the ascent he hit the pugilist with 
one of these missiles on the shins, who would run after 
the Captain to be revenged for the pain he suffered. 1 

The fight came off in September of this year. The 

1 The following poetical account of the manner in which a boxer 
was trained for a fight is to be found in the epilogue to the West- 
minster play of 1813.* It will be observed that the hill-climbing to 
which Crib was subjected, formed a material item in the process. 

" Corporis ut cures ante omnia conditionem, 

Ut vegetus pulmo sit, solidique tori ; 
Primum per vomitoria, per que cathartica, crebrd 

Viscera sunt miseris, evacuanda modis ; 
Deducenda caro, et cultu induranda severe, 

Inque vicem ingestis, est reparanda cibis. 
Scilicet, sestivo surgens cum sole, labores 

Montem currendo scandere prcecipitem, 
Donee anhelando pcene' ilia ruperis ; inde 

Cruda fere pars est magna vorar.da bovis ; 
Mox iterum c^lrres ; in lecto deinde recumbes. 

Atque iterum pars est magna voranda bovis. 
Sic totos consume dies, per tres prope menses, 

Quoque suis vicibus curre ; recumbe, vora. 

* Lusus alteri Weslmonasterienm, p. 229. 



national honour was saved. The Englishman won, 
although, as the newspapers announced, ' his head was 
terribly out of shape." 

A lew weeks after the battle, Grandmamma Albemarle 
sent me to Astley's Amphitheatre with her footman. As 
my companion was in livery, we could not be admitted 
into the boxes. Immediately in the row before us in the 
pit sat Crib and Molyneux, to both of whom I obtained a 
formal introduction, not a little proud of being able to 
boast to my schoolfellows of having made the acquaint- 
ance of two such celebrities. The appearance of the late 
combatants was curious. The black man had beaten the 
white one black and blue : the white man the black one 
green and yellow. 

Plaster of Paris models of the combatants in boxing 
attitude w r ere carried about the streets by the image-sellers 
probably by the same men who a few years later bore 
on their heads the busts of Wellington and Blucher. One 
of these models of the pugilists is at Southill Park, 
Bedfordshire, the seat of Mr. Samuel Whitbread, whose 
father, like mine, was a supporter of the prize ring. 

In the Christmas pantomime of that same year, an 
image-seller carrying one of the well-known models is 
introduced on the stage. The model is stolen by the 
clown (Grimaldi), who places it on a large round table. 
He next robs a man of a large iron hoop. "A ring, a 
ring," calls out Grimaldi, and the cry causes the stage to 
be filled by a correct delineation of the sort of company 
usually seen at a " mill." Harlequin by a wave of his 
hand now sets the figures in motion. Crib deals Moly- 
neux a facer. " Poor fellow," cries the clown, " he has got 
a black eye." After a few rounds Crib knocks Molyneux's 
head off. " Three cheers for the Champion of England," 
are proposed by the mimic mob on the stage, and are 
re-echoed by the real one in the shilling gallery. 


Tothill Fields, now the site of a large and populous 
town, was the Westminster play-ground in my. time. In 
one part of the field was a large pond called the " duck." 
Here we skated in the winter and hunted ducks in the 
summer. Near the " duck " lived Mother Hubbard, who 
used to let out guns to the boys. At Mother Hubbard's 
you might have fowling-pieces of all sorts and sizes, from 
the " golden touch-hole " down to one which, from a deep 
dent in the barrel, was called " the gun which shoots round 
the corner." 

The big fellows used to vapour about having shot 
snipes in Tothill Fields, but such a description of game 
had taken flight when I sported over this manor. 

Leading from Tothill Fields was a road called the 
"Willow Walk," which, terminating at the "Halfpenny 
Hatch," opened on to the Thames near to the spot on 
which Millbank Penitentiary now stands. 

The road on each side of the walk was bordered by 
wretched hovels, to which were attached small plots of 
swampy ground, which served the poor inhabitants for 
gardens, and were separated from each other by wide 
ditches. To " follow the leader " over these ditches was 
one of our summer amusements. 

Between Mother Hubbard's and the Willow Walk was 
a nest of low buildings known by the name of the 
" Seven Chimneys." The inhabitants were of a somewhat 
questionable character, and certainly not of that class 
with whom ladies would wish their darling boys to 
associate. Here lived Caleb Baldwin the bull-baiter; 
a man who enjoyed a widespread fame for one particular 
feat. Whenever his dog was tossed by the bull, Caleb 
would break its fall by rushing in and catching it in his 
arms. I cannot say that I ever witnessed this performance 
in the " Fields," but I did in a Christmas pantomime, in 
which Baldwin and his dog were specially engaged. By 

H 2 


means of a sham bull the dog was thrown high into the 
air, and its owner caught it in the manner I have 

Bull-baiting was an "institution'" in the early part of 
this century. Like prize-fighting, it had its advocates 
among members of both Houses of Parliament. A Norfolk 
friend of mine, still alive, tells me that in Bere Street, 
Norwich, there was bull-baiting, of which Mr. Coke and 
my father were the patrons. Their bull was never known 
to have been " pinned." A farmer who had seen a number 
of dogs tossed in succession called out, " Lawk ! it's like 
batting at cricket." 

Of all the indwellers of the "Seven Chimneys" the 
prime favourite of us Westminsters was one William 
Heberfield, better known by the name of " Slender Billy ; " 
a good-humoured, amusing fellow, but whose moral cha- 
racter, as the sequel will show, would not bear a searching 
investigation. All we knew of him was that whenever 
we wanted a dog to hunt a duck, draw a badger, or 
pin a bull, Billy was sure to provide us with one, no 
matter how minute we might be in the description of 
the animal required. 

In the year 1811 Heberfield was no longer an inmate 
of the "Seven Chimneys." He was undergoing his 
sentence in Newgate for having aided the escape of a 
French general, a prisoner of war on parole. 

It was just at this time that the Bank of England, 
having suffered heavy losses from forgeries, resolved to 
make an example. William Heberfield was fixed upon 
by them for that example. 

The solicitors of the Bank accordingly took into their 
pay a confederate of Heberfield's of the name of Barry, 
who was undergoing two years' imprisonment in Clerken- 
well House of Correction for uttering base coin. Through 
this man's agency Heberfield, who would turn Ms hand to 


anything, was easily inveigled into passing forged notes 
provided by the solicitors of the Bank themselves. On 
the evidence of Barry, Heberfield was found guilty and 
sentenced to death. Great exertions were made in the 
House of Lords to avert the execution of the sentence on 
account of the cruel conspiracy of which the unhappy 
man had been the victim. All was of no avail. Heber- 
field was hanged at Newgate for forgery on the 12th of 
January, 1812. 

Some little time ago, as I was talking over the changes 
of the Tothill Fields of our time with my old school- 
fellow Lord de Eos, 1 he related to me how these same 
back slums of Westminster were once honoured with the 
presence of the most gorgeous of monarchs, and on the 
most gorgeous day of his reign of George the Fourth on 
the day of his coronation. 

I need hardly mention that while the sound of trumpets 
and the firing of cannon announced that the newly- 
crowned King was receiving the homage of the nobles of 
England in Westminster Hall, there were assembled out- 
side its walls large multitudes of his lieges, who were 
expressing by hooting and yells their indignation that the 
Queen Consort had not been admitted to her share in the 

This feeling had so increased towards the evening that 
the King was told that if he attempted to return to his 
palace by the ordinary route, he would run the risk of 
being torn in pieces by the mob. 

To avert this danger it was suggested that Tothill Fields 
would be the safer way home. But who knew anything 
of a region of such ill repute ? Who but my schoolfellow 
De Eos, then a lieutenant of Life Guards, and forming 

1 William, Baron de Eos, a Privy Councillor, Lieutenant-General, 
Colonel of the Fourth Hussars, Lieutenant-Governor of the Tower, 
died in 1874. 


that day one of his Majesty's escort ? 1 To him was 
consigned the pilotage of the Royal cortege; under his 
guidance it proceeded up Abingdon Street, along Millbank, 
through the Halfpenny Hatch and the Willow Walk, 
leaving the " Seven Chimneys " on its right. It next 
arrived at "Five Fields," now Eaton Square, passed 
through Grosvenor Place and by Constitution Hill to the 
back entrance of Carlton Palace, which they did not 
reach till eleven o'clock at night. The King, as might 
well be supposed, was horribly nervous, and kept con- 
stantly calling to the officers of the escort to keep well up 
to the carriage windows. 

In the two letters which follow, the name of the year is 
not mentioned, but the context of both shows that they 
were written on the same day Sunday, January the 10th, 

The Princess Charlotte's birthday fell on the 6th of 
January ; that of my mother five days later. It appears 
to have been the custom of these ladies to mark the 
two anniversaries by an interchange of presents, and by 
reciprocal expressions of regard. 


"SUNDAY, Jan. 10th, 


" I am very much obliged to you for your letter, and 
kind recollection of me and my birthday ; and I hope you 
will accept my thanks, as well as my sincere congratula- 

1 The escort was furnished by the first regiment of Life Guards. 
The officers were : Major Henry Cavendish, Captain Oakes, Lieut. 
Hon. William Fitzgerald de Ros ; Cornet Locke. 


tions on the return of yours. I wish you may see many 
returns, and happy ones. 

" Pray do me the favour to accept the little cadeau which 
I send with this. I natter myself that it will sometimes 
remind you of me, and how sincerely I am interested for 
you and yours. By your letter I fear you have been 
unwell, and Lady de Clifford does give me but an indif- 
ferent account of you, which I am very sorry for. How- 
ever, I hope you will be better soon. Though you do not 
say anything of Sophia, pray remember me kindly with 
my love. I can't say that I enjoy anything while I ani 
here. As to the riding, it is a poor compensation for all 
the continual disagreeables ; and the air is very unwhole- 
some, and disagrees with me much. 

" Adieu, my dear Lady Albemarle, and with every fond 
wish for this as well as every succeeding birthday, 

" Believe me, 

" Yours aff ely > 


I am inclined to believe that this first letter was written 
from Windsor Castle, whither the Princess used occasion- 
ally to repair to pay her respects to Queen Charlotte. 
These duty visits, as I have often heard her say, were 
highly distasteful to her. The air of the place always 
produced in her a depression of spirits, and the feeling 
was further aggravated by the treatment she experienced 
from a not over amiable grandmamma. 

If my surmise be correct, the complaints of the un- 
wholesomeness of the climate and of the "continual 
disagreeables," may both be accounted for. 

I further assume that, on her arrival in town, the 
Princess Charlotte found my mother's little present, and 
wrote the second letter in acknowledgment : 




" I seize this opportunity with pleasure, as I can 
thank you for your kind letter and beautiful Save (Sevres) 
cup, and of wishing you many returns of your birthday, 
and that you may see many, and enjoy them with health 
and happiness. 

" I have sent down a little cabinet, which I hope you 
will like, and accept as an offering from me. I think and 
hope it will look well in your new room. 

" I received a letter from Lady Tavistock, who mentions 
having spent a very pleasant week with you. She is a 
very good-humoured, unaffected person. If ever he (Lord 
Tavistock) should get over his dreadful shyness (which is 
against him in company), he will (would) be agreeable, 
which I have seen him, when not among strangers. 

" Thank you for your kind wish of seeing me at Quid- 
enham. I hope some time or other to have the pleasure 
of being your visitor and seeing the place. It would 
amuse me very much seeing the little ones dance, as 
nothing is so pretty as a children's ball. They appear so . 
happy and so absorbed in that one object. 

" I am afraid that I shall not (have) that (pleasure) for 
some time, and so say that I hope the bust will arrive 
safe, and that he (Lord Albemarle) will do me the favour 
of accepting it. 

" With my kind love to Sophia and to all the others, 

" Believe me, 
" My dear Lady Albemarle, 

" Yours very sincerely, 



In 1811, our family migrated from Elden Hall, Suffolk, 
to Quidenham Hall, Norfolk. This event was celebrated by 
the ball to us children, to which the Princess alludes in 
her letter. I well remember Lord and Lady Tavistock 
coming to Quidenham to pass the Christmas holidays of 
that year. I was in my mother's room when they arrived. 
They brought with them their only son, William, Lord 
Eussell (afterwards eighth Duke of Bedford), then three 
years old, and inheriting a double portion of his father's 
shyness. My brother Francis, about his own age, was sent 
for to keep him company. The two little kinsmen eyed 
each other for a moment with mutual distrust, when Kussell, 
from sheer nervousness, gave Francis a slap on the face. 
The blow was returned with interest, and each child was 
carried away howling to his respective nursery. 

It was the Prince Eegent that at this time set the fashion 
of children's balls from a love of these little people in 
general, and of " Minnie Seymour " in particular. My 
father's politics debarred the entrance of his family into 
the palace of the Prince who had been recently converted 
to Toryism. To make amends for the exclusion some of 
the great Whig ladies opened their houses to us Whigs 
of the rising generation, and my memory dwells especially 
on a ball given by Lady Derby in Grosvenor Square. 

A change had come over the head-dresses of the male 
part of the creation. The Coiffure a la Guillotine had 
given place to the Coiffure a la Brutus. This consisted in 
having the hair curled on one side only. I remember 
observing that Edmund Kean's wig was so dressed when 
he played Junius Brutus, and this peculiarity is pre- 
served in a full-length picture of him in that character at 
Mr. "Whitbread's seat in Bedfordshire. 

My mother's maid insisted upon my conforming to the 
prevailing fashion ; but on looking in the glass I was so 
disgusted with her performance that I ran my fingers 


through the curls. She was a very excitable person, and 
bouncing into the dining-room where there was company, 
with tongs in one hand and comb in the other, burst into 
an hysterical fit of crying. " None of the children ill, I 
hope ? " said my mother. " No, my lady," sobbed her 
maid, " but Mr. Keppel has spoilt his ' Brutus.' " 

I had the honour that evening of a shake of the hand 
from the Lord Derby of that day the most advanced 
Liberal of the whole House of Peers, the great grand- 
father of the present noble Secretary for Foreign Affairs. 
Amidst a knot of brother Etonians stood a boy of my own 
age, the present Earl's father, Edward Geoffrey Stanley, 
afterwards England's Prime Minister. I did not make 
his acquaintance till some years after, for although 
Etonians were ready to dance with Westminster's sisters, 
and vice versd, the brothers stood in relation to each other 
as Jews and Samaritans. 

[1812.] In the year 1812 a new epoch appeared to 
dawn upon the Whigs. For nearly half a century this 
party had, with the exception of three brief intervals, 
been doomed, in consequence of their strenuous advocacy 
of popular rights, to shiver in the cold shade of opposition. 
Now, however, this constancy seemed about to receive its 
reward. Their great patron, George, Prince of Wales, who 
up to this time had declared himself the uncompromising 
champion of their principles, was Regent of these realms, 
free, too, from the limitations to his authority which, two 
years before, his father's ultra-Tory ministers had imposed 
upon him. He was therefore in a position to* give full 
effect to his professions. But^just at the moment when 
his political friends and associates expected to hear from 
him the announcement that his accession to power had 
produced no diminution of attachment to them and their 
cause, there appeared a letter from the Prince to his 


brother, the Duke of York, containing the ominous decla- 
ration that he had no " predilections to indulge," a 
phrase of which the full signification is given in the 
poetical rendering of Thomas Moore : 

" I am proud to declare I have no predilections, 
My heart is a sieve, where some scattered affections 
Do just dance about for a moment or two, 
And the finer they are the sooner run through." 

I do not profess to throw any new light upon the trans- 
actions which led Lords Grey and Grenville to reject the 
insidious overtures that were made to them to form an 
administration, but I may mention as a piece of family 
history that just before the re-establishment in power of 
the old Tory clique, Lord Moira was employed by the 
Eegent to endeavour to seduce some of the Whigs from 
their political allegiance. One of those so tempted was 
my father. The bribe offered was the Mastership of the 
Horse, and a garter in perspective. I never saw the letter 
containing his refusal, but I believe it to have been 
couched somewhat in these terms : " Lord Albemarle 
presents his compliments to the Earl of Moira, and has 
the honour to inform his Lordship that he cannot obey 
his Royal Highness the Prince Regent's commands." 

When Lord Grey and his friends came into power in 
1830, Lord Albemarle was appointed to the post which he 
had declined in 1812. 

No sooner had the prince repudiated the convictions of 
his youth, manhood, and middle age, than he sought to 
mako his daughter unlearn the political creed that he had 
striven to teach her. But this was not so easy a task. 
Not long before his own conversion, he had upon the 
occasion of the health of the Princess Charlotte having 
been drunk at the Pavilion, thus acknowledged the 
toast : 


" I have made it my care to instil into the mind and 
heart of my daughter the knowledge and love of the true 
principles of the British Constitution ; and I have pointed 
out to her young understanding, as a model for study, the 
political conduct of my most revered and lamented friend, 
Mr. Fox, who has asserted and maintained with such trans- 
cendent force the just principles upon which the govern- 
ment under this excellent constitution ought to be adminis- 
tered, for the true and solid dignity of the crown, and the 
real security, freedom, and happiness of the people." His 
Koyal Highness ended his speech by expressing his con- 
fidence that " the Princess would fulfil all the duties which 
she might be called upon to discharge when his bones were 
laid in the grave." 

With a view of bringing the Princess round to his new 
way of thinking, he banished from her house all companions 
of Whiggish proclivities, whom he now designated as 
" associates possessing pernicious sentiments alike hostile to 
herself, her father, and the country." Among the pro- 
scribed was Miss Mercer Elphinstone, a zealous Foxite, 
whose intimacy with the Princess he had himself pro- 
moted. This was a clumsy mode of procedure towards a 
young lady of his daughter's temperament, arid rather 
strengthened her previous convictions by arousing a spirit 
of antagonism. Accordingly she lost no opportunity, as 
far as her state of seclusion would allow, of identifying 
herself with her Eoyal Sire's former private and political 
friends. It was in this spirit that shortly before the 
anniversary of Mr. Fox's birthday she gave my father a 
bust of that patriot. In answer to his acknowledgment 
of the present with which he had been honoured, she wrote 
to him what was evidently intended to be a manifesto of 
her political creed. 




"January 17th, 1812. 


" I have been very much vexed at not being able 
to answer your letter immediataly, which my wishes would 
have led me to do, but I delay no longer taking up my pen 
and expressing the emotions of satisfaction and pleasure I 
received on reading it. I cannot say how happy I feel 
that the bust has given you so much satisfaction. As 
knowing your affection to Mr. Fox (both in public and 
private), it struck me you would like to have it, and I was 
therefore particularly anxious for its success. 

" Nor shall I now stand in need of being reminded of 
his great name or great deeds while there are such able 
men, though few in number (comparatively speaking), who 
make it their study as well as their pride to follow as 
closely as possible the precepts of their late great leader. 
Which to admire most I am at a loss to know ; for, turn 
to either side, one beholds so much that calls forth un- 
qualified praise, that it would be a difficult task imposed. 
He has been one of those few those very few who have 
really had the good of their country at heart and in view, 
not in words only, but who both in thought and deed acted 
for that alone ; who by his uncorrupted integrity proved 
what a patriot and a statesman was, and united these 
two different characters (which ought never to have been 
divided). Of all his numerous deeds none are so to be 
cherished as that most cruel and disgraceful procedure 
(particularly to this country, which is called a free one), 
the slave trade, and his laudable exertions for universal 


toleration and comfort to our unfortunate and grossly- 
abused sister kingdom, which, alas, was not crowned with 
success ; and this is the man who, after devoting his time, 
health, and at length life, is called a revolutionist ; one 
who subverts, at least tries to subvert, the laws and liber- 
ties of this country. Who would, who could, and who 
can believe this ? No one who have their eyes opened 
and an unprejudiced judgment, but the short-sighted and 
jaundiced eye of the people. Many there are who say 
they understand the word toleration. I will grant they do, 
but not in deed. There are dignitaries in the Church 1 
who pique themselves on their learning, but do not seem, 
no more than the temporal peers, to comprehend its mean- 
ing, or else they who are to preach meekness and charity 
would certainly not, I should conceive, seem to rejoice so at 
the sufferings of Ireland, nor utter such virulent protests 
against their just claims. In fine, the word bishopric in- 
cludes everything that is the touchstone of action, the 
spring from whence all that holy fire issues ; that God 
that they teach (or at least feign to do, who enjoins charit- 
ableness and forgiveness) is wholly forgotten in their 
rancorous hatred towards an oppressed and unfortunate 
people, whose crime is following other ceremonies, not 
owning these dignitaries, but above all having the name of 
Irishman. It is with honest pride, the pride of a true-born 

" The Bishop of Salisbury used to come three or four times a 
week ' to do the important.' . . I could not but see how narrow his 
views, how strong his prejudices, and how unequal his talents were 
to the charge with which he had been entrusted by the good old 
King. The Bishop's great points were to arm the Princess Charlotte 
against the encouragement of Popery and Whig principles (two 
evils which he seemed to think equally great)." Miss KNIGHT'S 
Autobiography, vol. i. pp. 232-3. As the Princess's right reverend 
preceptor was nearly the only Church dignitary with whom she was 
acquainted, it was evidently to " the great U.P. that these remarks 
in her letter to Lord Albemarle have reference." 


English person, that I avow these sentiments, principles 
that I am convinced are the only true foundation of this 
country, and the spirit of the constitution, nor shall I be 
ashamed to broach them before the whole world, should 
I ever be called upon. Thank God, there are some young 
of both sexes, some that I have the happiness to know 
personally, as well as from report, that feel firm at this 
state of things, and that are from their hearts and minds 
followers of your late inestimable friend. Happy, thrice 
happy, will the moment be when the plans Mr. Fox 
pursued and planned are put into full force ; then indeed 
England will have cause to rejoice, she may lift up her 
head in conscious superiority and pre-eminence. 

" But I must plead my excuses for having detained you 
so long. 

" Believe me, with the greatest esteem, 

" My dear Lord Albemarle, 

" Your most sincere 

A few weeks after the date of the foregoing letter the 
Prince Eegent gave a dinner to his daughter. It was on 
that occasion that he burst out into such invectives against 
Lords Grey and Grenville that the Princess shed tears; 
a circumstance which gave rise to Byron's famous lines 

" Weep, daughter of a royal line, 

A sire's disgrace, a realm's decay ; 
Ah ! happy if each tear of thine 
Could wash a father's fault away." 

Towards the close of the year Lady de Clifford, having 
first exacted a promise of secrecy from the Eegent, pro- 
ceeded, in the discharge- of her duty, to make a statement 
to him respecting the conduct of a person known to his 
Eoyal Highness. With characteristic levity, he betrayed 


her to the person complained of. She thereupon threw up 
her appointment of governess to the Princess Charlotte. 
Whether by word of mouth or by letter I do not remem- 
ber, but the Prince requested her to state her reasons for 
quitting his service in so abrupt a manner. "Because," 
was the reply, " your Eoyal Highness has taught me the 
distinction between the word of honour of a Prince and 
that of a gentleman." 

"The Princess Charlotte," says Miss Cornelia Knight, 
" was now in her seventeenth year, and was for some time 
a visitor at the Castle. Her governess, Lady de Clifford, 
having gone to town on account of illness, the Queen 
commanded me to be present at her Royal Highness's 
lessons." J 

This " illness " I believe to have been feigned, in order 
to avoid any further meetings with the Prince, and to 
afford facilities for the appointment of a successor. 

The letter which follows, without date, appears to have 
been written during my grandmother's temporary absence. 



"A thousand thousand thanks for your very kind 
letter. I should have answered it directly, but the real 
truth was I miscalculated a day, that means lost a day. 

" We go on pretty well, considering all things, without you. 
Heaven knows how very much I long to see you. Never 
have you been out of my mind since we parted. Our 
dear Duke 2 sat of (sic) his picture yesterday, which was 
Saturday. It is coming on very well indeed. He dined 

1 "Autobiography of Miss Cornelia Knight, Lady Companion to 
the Princess Charlotte of Wales" vol. i. pp. 180-1. 

2 Duke of Brunswick. 


with us and stayed till ten. I should have been quite 
happy if you had been with me. He asked kindly after 
you, and hoped when I heard last you was well. He sends 
his kind remembrances. 

" I have this moment received a line from my dear 
mother, who sends her kind love and quite approves of 
your plan. She begged me to tell you that the Duke l 
means to have the babes with him in town on purpose 
that the Duchess 2 may come up to town. Mamma is 
determined to come up to town, I believe on the 25th. 

" When you saw him (Duke of Brunswick) you took 
leave of his dear beard ; it is all cut off, and he looks like 
us Englishmen. I took leave of it Saturday. I will tell 
you what will make you laugh. We were driving in Hyde 
Park yesterday, Sunday, and a man in a plain black coat, 

1 The Duke of Brunswick married, in 1802, a Princess of Baden. 
This lady died in 1808, leaving two sons, Charles and William, the 
"babes" in Princess Charlotte's letter. After the death of their 
mother they were sent to Baden. Napoleon, enraged at the escape 
of their father in 1809, tried to seize them, but they escaped out of 
his clutches and were brought to England. 

"The Princess of Wales (says Lady Charlotte Bury) sometimes 
goes to see the Duke of Brunswick's two boys. She climbs to the 
very top of a house at Vauxhall, where they are living. She 
complains that they are frightful to look upon." In another place 
Lady Charlotte writes : " Was commanded, at half-past two, to 
accompany the Princess of Wales to see the young princes, her 
nephews. She hates them, I don't know why, unless it is that, as 
she says, they are frightful." 

From the day that the Duke, their father, fell at Quatre Bras, 
until the eldest of them came of age, the Prince Regent administered 
the affairs of Brunswick, as his appointed guardian. By an insur- 
rection in the city of Brunswick in 1830 Duke Charles, having 
misruled his country for five years, was deposed by a resolution of 
the German Diet, and was succeeded in the Duchy by his younger 
brother, William. To judge from Duke Charles's nefarious will in 
1874, he must never at any time of his life have been a very 
lovable person. 

2 Duchess Dowager of Brunswick. 



round hat, &c , &c., on horseback rode up close to the carriage 
and looked into it. I said to Mrs. U., 1 ' What a very 
impertinent fellow this is ; ' when what should I hear but 
' Vous ne me connais (sic) pas ? ' The carriage of couise 
stopped ; and we spoke, the Duke so changed that you 
would not know him again. 

"As you were so good as to be anxious about everything 
that concerns me. I cannot help telling you that I have lost 
my dear Puff. We have advertised him at two guineas 
reward. I hope I shall find him. 

" But papa has made me a beautiful present of a 
beautiful white Italian greyhound, with cropt ears, &c. 
Captain Lake 2 took a ship in which the dog was, which 
dog belonged to the Empress Napoleon, and was going to 
some gentleman as a present from her. He took the ship 
and brought the dog as an offering to papa. But he said, 
' I don't care for dogs, I will send it to Charlotte, who 
loves them.' He did, and by Dupaque. 

" I send you a letter I have had from the great U.P., 3 
and one for you I took the liberty to open. 

"When we meet I want to tell you about the picture 
Blomfield has got. I am rather in an embarra (sic] about it. 

" Pray let me know how dear Elizabeth 4 is. Pray give 
my kindest love to her and remembrances to Sophia, 5 
Augustus, 6 &c., and my kind compliments to my Lord. 7 

1 Mrs. Udney, sub -governess. 

2 Captain, afterwards Admiral Sir Willoughby Lake, R.N., Bart., 
was at this time serving on the coast of Spain in command of the 
Magnificent, 74. 

3 Dr. Fisher, Bishop of Salisbury. 

4 My mother. 

5 My sister, whom the Princess used to personate, afterwards 
married to Sir James Macdonald, Bart., M.P. 

6 My brother Augustus, Lord Buiy, afterwards fifth Earl of 
Albemarle. 7 My father. 


" God bless you, my dearest Lady. Forgive this long 
letter, and 

" Believe me ever 

" Your very sincerely attached and 
" Gratefully obliged 


" Mrs. U. sends her love to you. Au sujet louche dose 
I always find when I write or see you that I have volumes 
to say. 

"Let me know how poor Parsons' 1 child is. My 
remembrances to her. 

" When I answered the Bishop's letter I did all I could 
to make it over waite [weight]. I hope I succeeded." 

The letter just quoted, I believe to contain the genuine 
sentiments of the writer towards the person addressed; 
not but that Lady de Clifford and her Royal charge had 
constant quarrels with each other, for they were both very 
hot-tempered. The Princess used frequently to complain 
to me of her Governess's harsh treatment of her; but 
Her Eoyal Highness in her cooler moments would say, 
"After all, there are many worse persons in the world 
than your snuffy old grandmother." 

As soon as the Princess Charlotte became aware of 
Lady de Clifford's intention to retire, she wrote a letter 
to the Prince Eegent, couched in respectful terms, begging 
that as she had now nearly completed her seventeenth 
year, no other governess should be appointed, but that 
she might have an establishment of her own, and that 
ladies in waiting should be assigned her. Her father, 
who was jealous of her growing popularity, and aware of 
his proportionate disfavour in the public estimation, told 

1 Mrs. Parsons, wife of a coal merchant, Lady de Clifford's maid. 

I 2 


her in answer that as long as he lived she should not 
have an establishment, unless she married. On or about 
the 6th of January, 1813, her seventeenth birthday, she 
made the same request in form to Lord Liverpool, the 
Prime Minister. This step, Miss Knight conjectures, was 
suggested by Miss Elphinstone and Lord Erskine. " The 
Begent," she says, "was furious;" and doubtless if His 
Royal Highness shared Miss Knight's conjecture, it would 
have greatly increased his wrath. The extent to which 
his feeling of resentment was carried may be guessed by 
the effect that the expression of it produced on his usually 
high-spirited daughter. 



"Trusting to your goodness, I trouble you with 
these few lines. I am wretched ; I know not what to 
do. 1 have been thinking in my own mind, and have 
written this enclosed letter. Should you approve, I need 
not say you will be the means of restoring me to 

"Tor ever, 

" Your most sincere and affectionate 
" and grateful 


"P.S. To be branded with deceit and duplicity I cannot 
bear. By throwing myself on papa's mercy I am sure I 
will succeed. I fear not telling him the whole every- 

" If you will, write me one line in answer." 

The following letter may possibly be of the same date 
as the foregoing^ 




" I hope you will not be angry with me in not 
having written that letter to you before, but I have long 
wished to open my heart to you. As you are always a 
true friend to me, I hope you will always find me one. 
" That secret you entrusted to me I will not disclose. 
"Pray excuse this short letter, but I am in a great 

"I am, 

" Your ever 
" Affectionate, 

" P.S. Pray do not be angry with me, if you were to 
be angry, you would break my heart." 

Although Princess Charlotte wrote a submissive letter 
to her father, she persisted in resisting the appointment 
of a successor to my grandmother, and was ordered to 
Windsor to answer for her contumacy. Accordingly on 
Sunday, the 17th of January, she went to the Castle 
attended by Lady de Clifford. In the Queen's room were 
assembled Her Majesty, Princess Mary, afterwards Duchess 
of Gloucester, and the Prince Eegent, who had brought 
with him Lord Chancellor Eldon. This great legal 
functionary pointed out to the Princess the somewhat 
despotic power which the law gives to the Sovereign over 
the members of the Eoyal family. During the interview 
the Eegent loaded his daughter with reproaches. At 
last, turning to the Chancellor, he asked him what he 
would do with such a daughter. " If she were mine," 
was the answer, " I would lock her up." The Princess 
burst into tears. " What," she exclaimed, " would the poor 


King have said if he could understand that his grand- 
daughter had been likened to the granddaughter of a 
coal-heaver ! " 

There are other versions of this story. Such, to the 

best of my recollection, is the account of this strange 

scene as frequently related to me by my grandmother, 

and my impression is confirmed by a letter of my cousin 

' Sophia, the late Baroness de Clifford. 

This was the last day of Lady de Clifford's court life. 
On the Monday the Duchess Dowager of Leeds was 
installed as her successor. I dined with my grandmother 
on the Saturday following, and went with her to Curzon 
Street Chapel on the Sunday. It was the 24th of the 
month, as I remember from a particular circumstance. 
One of the Psalms for the morning service was the 
hundred aud eighteenth. When we came to the ninth 
verse she whispered into my ear, "Excellent advice, my 
dear boy ; remember it as long as you live." The words 
are, "It is better to trust in the Lord than to put any 
confidence in princes." 

Yet with all her experience of courts, the good old lady 
was fated once more to experience in her own person the 
truth of the advice she enjoined upon me. Not long 
after the stormy scene at the Castle she was surprised at 
receiving a Royal command for a party at Carlton Palace. 
She took her card of invitation to her son, Lord de 
Clifford, who prevailed upon her to go, and accompanied 
her to the Palace. When the Regent entered the drawing- 
room the company ranged themselves into the usual court 
circle, and His Royal Highness proceeded to address every 
guest in turn with that gracefulness of manner for which 
he stood unrivalled. But when he came to Lady de 
Clifford he turned his back upon her, and thus showed to 
the assembled courtiers his idea of the manner in which 
" the first gentleman in Europe " ought to behave to a lady. 


[1814] There was much excitement in the London 
world this year at the breaking off of the projected match 
between the Princess Charlotte and the hereditary Prince 
of Orange. I was probably one of the few persons to 
whom the rupture of the engagement caused no surprise. 
The decision which the Princess came to was in keeping 
with the language which she had always held with me 
on the subject of her marriage. It was one of the few 
topics which drew from her any allusion to her exalted 
situation. " I am not," she used to say, " one of those 
Princesses who mean to leave the choice of her husband 
to others." No one who had seen the rejected and accepted 
suitors would for a moment dispute the naturalness of 
Her Eoyal Highness's election. 

It was some months after the termination of this affair 
that my brother, Lord Bury, was appointed to the staff of 
the discarded pretender to the Princess's hand. One day 
the Princess met my cousin, Miss Townshend. 1 Her Eoyal 
Highness, after making many eager inquiries after her old 
friends the Keppels, asked what Bury was about. My 
cousin curtseyed and blushed, but did not answer. The 
question was repeated. " He is aide-de-camp to the 
Prince of Orange, Madam." " Indeed ! " said the Princess, 
laughing. " Poor brute ! how I pity him." 

On the entrance of the Allied Army into Paris in 1815 
the Prince of Orange had assigned to him as a quarter, 
No. 8, Eue de Mont Blanc, a few weeks before the hotel 
of the Emperor Napoleon's uncle, Cardinal Fesch. It 
was here that I had the honour of being presented to the 
Prince, but my acquaintance ended then and there. 

"The Prince of Orange," writes Lady Charlotte Bury, 

1 Honourable Sophia Townshend, daughter of John Thomas, 
Viscount Sydney, by the Honourable Sophia Southwell, daughter 
of Edward, twentieth Baron de Clifford. Miss Townshend married, 
in 1833, the late Lieut-Col, the Honourable Peregrine Gust. 


" is good-humoured and civil, but he has no dignity. The 
Flemings are surprised to see his English aides-de-camp 1 
run up to him and slap him on the back." The only one 
who treated him with proper respect was my old school- 
fellow, Lord March (the late Duke of Richmond). My 
brother and Henry Webster, of whom I was afterwards a 
brother aide-de-camp, both admitted this cavalier behaviour 
to their chief, but added that it was entirely the Prince's 
own fault. He was a mere boy, delighting in rough 
practical jokes but not complaining when he sometimes 
got a Roland for his Oliver. 

One of the barristers who went the Norfolk Circuit in 
my schoolboy days was Mr. Lewis Flanagan. The rich 
brogue of this gentleman and his stock of good stories 
often led me to pay him a visit in his chambers in Figtree 
Court. One day I met there a strong-built man with a 
red face, small black eyes, and large nose. This was 
General Sir Thomas Picton, G.C.B., the commander of 
the famous " fighting division " in the Peninsula. An 
account of some of my Westminster pranks seemed 
greatly to amuse him, and the General, the lawyer, and 
the schoolboy passed a merry quarter of an hour together. 
It was the only time I ever saw this distinguished veteran. 
There had been some misunderstanding between him and 
the Duke of Wellington, and it was only a few days 
before the opening of the campaign in the following year 
that they were sufficiently reconciled to enable him to 
take the command of a corps. He set out from London 
on the llth June, having first made his will, as if he had 
a presentiment of the fate that awaited him. My friend 

1 The English staff of General the Prince of Orange consisted of 
Lieut.-Col. Baron Tripp, 60th Foot ; Captain Lord John Somerset, 
h.p. ; Captain Francis Russell, h.p. ; Captain Earl of March, 52nd 
Foot ; Captain Viscount Bury, 1st Foot Guards ; Lieut. Henry 
Webster, 9th Light Dragoons. 


the late Mr. James Trotter, the Commissary-General of 
his division, was with him for an hour on the morning of 
the 18th of June. He told me that the demeanour of the 
General was that of a man who did not expect to outlive 
the day. He fell by a musket ball early in the action 
while "gloriously leading the division to a charge with 
bayonets, by which one of the most serious attacks made 
by the enemy on our position was defeated." l The ball, 
flattened by striking against Picton's right temple, was in 
1874 in the possession of his nephew, Dr. Thomas Picton, 
of 80, Cadogan Place. 

His body was taken to Waterloo, and there placed in a 
rough coffin made by the village carpenter. Thence it 
was conveyed to England. At the Vine Inn, Canterbury, 
it lay in state, as I have always understood, on the table 
on which he had dined a fortnight before. On the 3rd of 
July it was conveyed to the burial-ground of St. George's, 
Hanover Square, facing the north side of Hyde Park. 
There it remained four-and-forty years. It was then 
inclosed in oaken and leaden coffins, and on the 8th. of 
June, 1859, conveyed in solemn procession to St. Paul's 
Cathedral, my friend, the late Sir Frederic Stovin, of the 
" fighting division," being one of the mourners. 

The good people of England are notorious for their love 
of what is frequently called " a lion " while their attach- 
ment lasts it is always at fever-heat. At one time a Shah 
is the lion, at another a Claimant. In the month of June, 
1814, there was a whole menagerie of this description of 
animals in the persons of the Allied Sovereigns and their 
most distinguished Generals. They had come over to 
pay a visit to that ally whose powerful co-operation had 
enabled them to hurl from the throne the mightiest tyrant 
with which the world has been afflicted in modern times. 

1 Duke of Wellington's official despatch. 


I formed one of the crowd that assembled on Westmin- 
ster Bridge to witness the arrival of Field-Marshal von 
Bliicher, or " Blutcher," as the Londoners used to call him. 
We had been waiting a good hour and a half, when we 
heard loud cheering from the Surrey side, intermingled 
with cries of " Blutcher for ever ! " The object of this 
ovation turned out to be a fat, greasy butcher, mounted on 
a sorry nag, and carrying a meat tray on his shoulder, 
shortly afterwards Marshal " Forwards " appeared in a 
barouche drawn by four horses, which, from the density of 
the crowd, were obliged to go at a foot's pace. We gave 
him a most enthusiastic reception, and he returned our 
greetings by holding out his hand to be shaken by the 
men and kissed by the women. 

The next great object of attraction was Count Platoff, 
General of Cossacks. Our ideas of the troops of which 
he had the command was derived from the prints of them 
in the shop windows men of colossal form, with red lank 
hair, high cheek bones, and snub noses. My mother took 
me with her to Covent Garden, not so much to see the 
performances, as to have a sight of the renowned Hetman. 
We were in the Duke of Bedford's box, which was next 
to the Prince Eegent's, and, forming an obtuse angle with 
it, we could see without being seen. There was Count 
Platoff, sipping his coffee ; but instead of a semi-barbarous 
giant I beheld a little narrow-chested man, with regular 
features, olive complexion, black hair, eyes, and mustache, 
and teeth to match. 

The Emperor of all the Ptussias paid a visit one morning 
to Dean's Yard, and preserved his incognito so well that he 
was nearly going away without being discovered by us 
Westminsters, and greeted with three hearty cheers. Lean- 
ing on his arm was the lovely Grand Duchess of Oldenburg, 
and it was her big hat that gave us a clue to her Imperial 


At the time of the arrival of the Allied Sovereigns 
English ladies wore straw bonnets fitting close to the 
head, somewhat in the shape of a beehive cut in half, 
but the Grand Duchess had not been with us a week 
before the " beehive " disappeared, and the " coal-scuttle " 
usurped its place. I went one night to see Elliston in his 
best character Vapid in the "Dramatist." When the 
curtain dropped Vapid seemed to be so busy making notes 
for his new play as to be unaware that he was left alone. 
After trying both stage doors he declared that the " rogues 
had shut him out," and, advancing to the front, informed 
the audience that he meant to dramatize them all. He 
began by addressing some clever verses to the pit and 
gallery. He then pointed to a pretty woman sitting in 
the dress circle and coiffee d la Oldenburg. All eyes followed 
the direction of his pencil. The lady at first appeared 
unconscious of being the object of such universal obser- 
vation, but suddenly rose to escape, upon which Mr. 
Elliston called out 

" Nay ! Madam, stop ! you lady in the bonnet, 
I'll have you down, you may depend upon it." 

The whole affair was of course a preconcerted coup de 

The declaration of peace in the spring of this year 
produced a general rush of our compatriots of both sexes 
and of high and low degree to the French capital. This 
national exodus furnished materials for the winter panto- 
mimes. In one of them a scene was laid in the garden 
of the Tuileries, in which were assembled French and 
English groups, and the dress, manners, and appearance 
of the two nations amusingly contrasted. The peculiarities 
were further set forth from a song by Grimaldi the clown, 
called "All the World's at Paris." Pointing to a gor- 
geously dressed lady in the crowd, in an unusually large 
Oldenburg bonnet, he sings : 


" Lawk ! who is that, with monstrous hat, 

And parasol who handles 1 
It's Mrs. Flame, the Borough dame, 

Who deals in tallow candles. 
Nay ! Goody, pray don't turn away, 

These Mounseers do not trust 'em, 
When next we meet in Tooley Street 

I'll promise you my custom." 

I saw the same pantomime the following spring. But 
the song was not sung. " All the world " had fled from 
Paris. "Mrs. Flame, the Borough dame," and her fellow- 
citizens were scampering across the Channel, fearful lest 
the semi-barbarous tyrant who had just burst his bonds 
should repeat the outrage that he had committed at the 
rupture of the' treaty of Amiens, and seize upon the 
persons of peaceable travellers. 

I had always been taught to look to the law as my 
profession, and it was held out to me that if I should 
make a respectable figure at the bar, I might reasonably 
expect to be returned to Parliament for a Whig nomi- 
nation borough. It was my fate, unintentionally however, 
to frustrate these plans for the future, by an act which 
proved in its results to. be the turning point of my career. 

Passing through Dean's Yard from the north, you come 
upon Great College Street a single row of shabby-looking 
houses facing a stone wall, which Dr. Stanley, the Dean, 
tells me was built by Abbot Littlington in the reign of 
Edward the Third, at the same time as the Jerusalem 
Chamber and the College Hall. 1 But the wall, ancient 

1 In the former editions of these memoirs, I assigned the name of 
Livingstone to the builder of the college wall. Referring to this 
mistake of mine, the Dean writes : " In deference to my excellent 
predecessor, will you allow me to ask that in another edition you 
will convert ' Livingstone ' into ' Littlington ' ? My enemies will else 
say that I have endeavoured to glorify the Presbyterian Missionary 
at the expense of the Popish Abbot." 

vi.] MY ESCAPADE. 125 

though it be, has less of personal interest to me than the 
modern superstructure by which it is now surmounted. 

When I first went to Westminster a lamp iron was 
fixed in the wall, of which the use at least the only one 
to which I saw it applied was to enable Mother Grant's 
boarders to let themselves down into College Street after 
lock-up hours. I took kindly to the prevailing fashion, 
and the school authorities not wise in their generation 
rendered it still easier to follow, by allowing a building 
to abut on the inside wall. 

But on my return to school after the Bartlemytide 
holidays in 1814, I found that the wall had been con- 
siderably raised, and the top covered with broken glass 
bottles, which remain till the present day. 

How to circumvent the enemy was the question. I 
took into my counsel the school Crispin, one Cobbler Foot 
by name, an old man-of-war's man, and he made for me 
a rope ladder, a "Jacob's ladder" I think it is called, 
similar to that used for ascending ships' sides. Thus 
provided, I climbed the wall with much less risk to my 
neck than md the lamp iron. 

On the 18th of March, 1815, on my return from the 
play, the scaling apparatus was all ready for me at the 
street side of the Abbot's wall, but great was my disgust 
when, on reaching my room, I found the lay figure which 
I had left in my bed to personate me in my absence lying 
piecemeal on the floor: my escapade was no longer a 
secret to the authorities. 

The next morning when I went into school I was 
sorely puzzled at the silence in which so serious an act 
of insubordination seemed to be passed over. The mystery 
was solved next day. A letter from my father informed 
me that my school-days had come to an end ; inclosed was 
one from Dr. Page to him, dissuading him from thinking 
any more of a learned profession for me, and recommending 

126 FIFTY YEARS OF MY LIFE. [en. vi. 

him to choose for me a calling in which physical rather 
than mental exertion would be a requisite. 

Thus was I, still wanting three months to complete 
my sixteenth year turned adrift in the world to earn my 
bread, but virtually debarred from entering that profession 
by which bread might best be earned. 

Although I dispute not the justice of the sentence 
passed upon me by Dr. Page, I cannot help considering 
that reverend gentleman himself, if not quite a particeps 
criminis, at least the indirect cause of the act which 
brought with it so heavy a punishment. That cause was 
his treatment of me during the seven years of my West- 
minster pupilage. In that long period, not one kind 
expression towards myself ever passed his lips. On the 
contrary, his looks and actions, as well as words, unmis- 
takably denoted intense personal dislike. 

Perhaps if he had made an appeal to some better feeling 
than the fear of a flogging, he might have found me a 
" Tom Brown " in my schooldays, and as ready to uphold 
his authority among my juniors as I was, as in the wall- 
scaling instance, so much disposed to set it at defiance. 
But Page was not an " Arnold." To attempt to conciliate 
the affections of his pupils was never dreamed of in his 

The truth is that the doctor, with all his wit and learning 
and he had abundance of both, was as ignorant as 
a child of the motives that influence human actions, 
else he would have found out that there are other 
means available to the instructor of youth, besides the 
rod, for securing their, cheerful obedience, for. developing 
their intellectual faculties, and for imbuing their minds 
with a taste for classical studies. 


Am destined for the Army. A Brother Truant. Lansdowne House. 
Proceed to join the Army in Flanders. Three Campbells. 
Ostend. My first day's March. Join my Regiment. My 
Commanding Officer. The Fourteenth to the FRONT. Our 
Brigade. Sir Henry Ellis. Our Cantonment. Grammont 
Races. We receive the "Route." Mvelles. Hougoumont. 
The Belgic Lion. A pun upon " Waterloo." Colonel Sir John 
Colborne. My Sensations on going into Action. Napoleon's 
Illness on the Morning of the 18th. A Narrow Escape. My 
Captain's account of the Battle. Bivouac at Hougoumont. 

[1815.] IT was not without some trepidation that same 
afternoon that I knocked at the door of my father's house 
in Brook Street. The first person I saw there was my 
eldest brother, Bury, who, as I have already mentioned, had 
served in the Peninsula with the Foot Guards. He began 
quizzing me on my late adventure. I jokingly shook my 
fist at him. " What ! " said he, " would you dare to raise 
your hand against your superior officer ? " This was the 
first hint I received that the army was to be my profession. 

Just at the time that a Westminster boy, impatient of 
confinement within the narrow little back yard of Mother 
Grant's boarding-house, was scaling the wall into College 
Street for the enjoyment of a freer range of his limbs, a 
truant on a much larger scale was also engaged in breaking 
the bounds which his masters had assigned him. On the 
first of March Napoleon Buonaparte landed from Elba on 
the coast of France. The first news of his escape was 


received by the 'Congress of the Allied Sovereigns with 
shouts of laughter. In England, too, the event was treated 
with a like contemptuous indifference. Beyond sending 
some troops into Belgium, no immediate action was taken 
by the Government. The earliest allusion in Parliament 
to the landing of Napoleon was made on the 7th of April. 
Wellington was in Vienna, and remained there the whole 
month of March. My father's opposite neighbour in 
Brook Street, Lord Uxbridge, fated a few weeks later to 
play no mean rdle in the European drama, was quelling 
Corn Law riots, or chaperoning his handsome daughters 
to London assemblies. The Moniteur was holding up to 
execration the " cowardly hero of Fontainebleau." Soult 
was calling upon the French troops " to rally round the 
spotless lillied banner at the voice of the father of his 
people," and Marshal Key, the " bravest of the brave," was 
setting out to take command of the army to stop the 
progress of the invader. 

The consequence of all these circumstances was that on 
the day that I quitted Westminster School, the British 
public were in a fool's paradise, and looked upon the 
progress of the Corsican adventurer as a matter in which 
they could have no possible concern. 

Yet on that same Saturday evening the 20th of March, 
Napoleon, once more Emperor of the French, entered Paris, 
and was borne aloft amidst loud acclamation on the shoulders 
of his troops into the Palace of the Tuileries, from which 
Louis XVIII. had taken his departure a few hours before. 

The news of this great event did not reach England till 
the beginning of the next week. It then became known 
that the most ardent of the supporters of the restored 
Emperor was the same Marshal Ney who had promised 
Louis XVIII. that he would bring back the usurper alive 
in an iron cage. 

Thinking over those eventful times, I am reminded of 


an epigram of which, as I have been unable to find it in 
the broadsheets of the period, I must ask the reader to be 
content with my version : 

" When Boney broke loose, Ney swore to his King 
That, living or dead, he that traitor would bring. 
To be true to his oath, and to make his words sure, 
He brought him alive, crying, ' Vive 1'Empereur !' " 

My father had been given to understand that my name 
would appear in the Gazette of that same Saturday even- 
ing, but the Prince Regent, happening at that time to be 
in one of his most self-indulgent moods, could not be 
induced to spare a few moments from his pleasures to affix 
the sign-manual to the commissions of officers destined for 
the seat of war. ' It was not till five weeks after Napoleon 
had landed in France that a London Gazette appeared 
containing a batch of military appointments. In that 
Gazette my name figures as Ensign in the Fourteenth 
Regiment of Foot. 

Holding now a king's commission, I looked upon myself 
as a man, and was what young ladies would call "out." 
My first gaiety was a grand reunion at Lansdowne House. 
A less gay evening I have seldom spent. I still wanted 
two months of sixteen, and my fair complexion made me 
look still younger. In my excessive bashfulness, I thought 
that every one, whose eye I met, was speculating upon 
what business a mere schoolboy could have in such an 
assembly. To complete my confusion, I encountered my 
mother, who, still young and handsome, did not care to see 
a second grown-up son in society. " What, George ! " she 
exclaimed ; " who would have thought of seeing you here ? 
There, run away, you'll find plenty of cakes and tea in 
the next room." I did run away, but not into the tea- 
room ; and some years elapsed before I again dared to put 
in an appearance at a London " at Home." 

It was a salve to my wounded vanity to receive shortly 



after an official communication " On His Majesty's Service," 
ordering me forthwith to proceed to Flanders to join the 
third battalion of my regiment. 

In obedience to the order, I, on the 27th of April, took 
my seat on the box of a stage coach which in due time set 
me down at the principal inn at Ramsgate. 

The town was swarming with military, destined, like 
myself, to the seat of war. Observing the respect shown 
by the men to commissioned officers, I donned my uniform 
and sauntered forth to come in for a share of the compli- 
ments due to my rank. There was no lack of salutes, but 
the irrepressible smile that accompanied them soon drove 
me back to my inn. To indemnify myself for my mortifi- 
cation, I ordered a dinner, the price of which would have 
enabled me to fare sumptuously for a week on the other 
side of the water. A kind friend in London had recom- 
mended me to the especial care of Colonel Sir Colin 
Campbell. 1 The Colonel was chief of the personal staff 
of the Duke of Wellington, with the title of " Commandant 
at Head-quarters." He was now about to proceed to 
Brussels to prepare for the reception of the Field-Marshal. 

I had just finished dinner when Sir Colin arrived post 
from London, called for me at the inn, and took me with 
him on board a small cutter called the "Duke of Wel- 
lington " packet. The moment we reached the deck, the 
vessel weighed .and sailed, and landed us at Ostend at 
daylight the following morning. 

At the moment of setting foot on shore I found myself 
in company with three officers all three colonels, 
knights, and Campbells Sir Colin, Sir Guy, and Sir 
Neil. This last was a man of some celebrity, as having 

1 Colonel Sir Colin Campbell, K.C.B., received the cross and six 
clasps for Talavera, Busaco, Fuentes de Ofioro, Badajoz, Salamanca, 
Vittoria, Pyrenees, Nivelle, Nive, and Toulouse. To these decora- 
tions was to be added Waterloo. 


been one of the last Englishmen who had had speech of 
Napoleon before his escape. The year preceding, Sir Neil 
was appointed British Commissioner at Elba, and was 
directed to remain on the island till further orders, in case 
Napoleon should consider the presence of a British officer 
of use to protect him from insult or attack. At first 
the Emperor admitted him freely to his presence, but 
latterly discouraged his visits. It was during Colonel 
Campbell's absence from Elba, between the 17th and 28th 
of February, that Napoleon took flight, and Campbell was 
popularly, but improperly, pointed out as " the man who 
let Boney go." I remember hearing my father mention 
many of the criticisms which Napoleon made to Sir Neil 
upon some of our Generals Lords Anglesey and Lynedoch 
among others. Respecting the great Captain, with whom 
he was about to come into conflict for the first and last 
time, he said, " "Wellington is a good General, but he is too 
prodigal of his men." Campbell's countenance expressed 
surprise. " You think this strange as coming from me ; 
what I mean is, that he sends Englishmen on expeditions 
involving a great sacrifice of life, when Spaniards or 
Portuguese would answer his purpose just as well." 

Depositing me at an inn, Sir Colin told me to be ready 
to start with him for Brussels at two in the afternoon. 

After breakfast, as in duty bound, I reported myself 
to the Commandant, Colonel Lord Greenock, afterwards 
Assistant Quartermaster-General to one of the divisions at 
Waterloo. Lord Greenock told me that an Ensign of my 
regiment was on his way to join, and advised me to accom- 
pany him. If I had had a grain of worldly wisdom I 
should have stuck close to the skirts of the Commandant 
at head-quarters, but freedom of action was the ruling 
passion of the moment, and this I thought I should not 
obtain in the company of one so much my senior as 
Sir Colin, so I said nothing to Lord Greenock of my 

K 2 


engagement to the Colonel, and cast in my lot with the 

Hiring a horse and cart for our baggage, Ensign 

and I set out on foot from Ostend. I had not proceeded 
far when I discovered that I had made a had choice of a 
travelling companion. My brother ensign was some two 
years older than myself, and a few weeks my senior in the 
regiment. He availed himself of this latter advantage to 
" come the commanding officer over me," and ordered me 
about as if I had been his fag. At Bruges I fell in with 
my cousin and schoolfellow, Captain Frederick Keppel, of 
the Third Guards, who was returning to England with a 
detachment of invalided men. My kinsman was highly 
amused at my account of the young martinet, whom he 
advised me to leave in the lurch. I did so then and there. 
We cousins passed a very pleasant evening together, and 
thus ended my first day's march. 

The next night I slept at Ghent, then the residence of 
the ex-King of France. I here learnt that I should find 
my regiment at Acren, which place I reached the following 
day. Acren is a village on the left bank of the Dender, 
about two miles from Grammont, now a station on the 
Quievrain and Ghent Railway. 

The third battalion of the 14th Foot, which I now 
joined, was one which in ordinary times would not have 
been considered fit to be sent on foreign service at all, 
much less against an enemy in the field. Fourteen of the 
officers and three hundred of the men were under twenty 
years of age. These last, consisting principally of Buck- 
inghamshire lads fresh from the plough, were called at 
home " the Bucks," but their wi-Buckish appearance abroad 
procured for them the appellation of the " Peasants." 

Our Colonel, Lieut.-General Sir Harry Calvert, bore the 
same name as a celebrated brewer, and as the Fourteenth 
was one of the few regiments in the service with three 


battalions, we obtained the additional nickname of 
" Calvert's Entire." 

In my commanding officer, Lieut.-Colonel Francis Skelly 
Tidy, I found a good-looking man, above the middle height, 
of soldier -like appearance, of a spare but athletic figure, 
of elastic step, and of frank, cheerful, and agreeable 
manners. He had been present at the reduction of all 
the French islands in the West Indies, had served under 
Baird and Wellesley in Spain, in 1808, and in the Wal- 
cheren expedition the following year. When I reported 
myself, Tidy was in high spirits at having procured for his 
regiment a prospective share in the honours of the forth- 
coming campaign. The battalion had been drawn up in 
the Square at Brussels the day before, to be inspected by 
an old General of the name of Mackenzie, who no sooner 
set eyes on the corps than he called out, " Well, I never 
saw such a set of boys, both officers and men." This was 
of a piece with my mother's speech to me at Lansdowne 
House. Tidy asked the General to modify the expres- 
sion. " I called you boys," said the veteran, " and so you 
are ; but I should have added, I never saw so fine a set of 
boys, both officers and men." Still the General could not 
reconcile it to' his conscience to declare the raw striplings 
fit for active service, and ordered the Colonel to" march 
them off the ground, and to join a brigade then about to 
proceed to garrison Antwerp. Tidy would not budge a 
step. Lord Hill happening to pass by, our Colonel called 
out, " My lord, were you satisfied with the behaviour of 
the Fourteenth at Corutma ? " " Of course I was ; but 
why ask the question ? " " Because I am sure your lord- 
ship will save this fine regiment from the disgrace of 
garrison duty." Lord Hill went to the Duke, who had 
arrived that same day at Brussels, and brought him to the 
window. The regiment was afterwards inspected by his 
Grace, and their sentence reversed. In the meanwhile a 


priggish staff officer, who knew nothing of the counter- 
mand, said to Tidy, in mincing tones, " Sir, your brigade 
is waiting for you. Be pleased to march off your men." 
" Ay, ay, sir," was the rough reply, and, with a look of 
defiance, my Colonel gave the significant word of com- 
mand, " Fourteenth, TO THE FEONT ! Quick march." 

From henceforth our regiment formed part of Lord 
Hill's corps. 

Desperate were now my struggles to extricate myself 
from leading strings. My youthful appearance caused the 
Colonel to appoint me to the company of the oldest and 
steadiest officer in the regiment, Captain (afterwards 
General) William Turnor, who took great care of me 
much too great, according to my then mode of thinking 
made an inventory of my " kit," sent my clothes to , the 
wash, and even superintended the darning of my stockings. 
All these acts of real kindness were repaid with ingra- 
titude by me, and obtained for him in the regiment the 
nickname of " Keppel's dry nurse." 

For four days in a week, from daylight to nine in the 
morning we were generally engaged in regimental drill. 
The other two days were devoted to exercise in brigade 

Our brigade, under the command of Brigadier Mitchell, 
was composed of the 14th, 23rd, and 51st regiments. The 
commanding officers of these corps had all been actively 
engaged against the enemy in various parts of the. world. 
The most distinguished of them was Sir Henry Walton 
Ellis, K.C.B., Lieut-Colonel of the 23rd Koyal Welsh 
Fusiliers. For half his life his arms had used 

" Their dearest action in the tented fiejd." 

He had served in Holland, Egypt, America, the West 
Indies, Spain, Portugal, and France. He was wounded at 
the passage of the Helder, again at Aboukir, again at 


Badajoz, again at Salamanca, again at the Pyrenees, again 
at Orthes and at Waterloo a shot from a carbine put an 
end to his glorious career. Although frequently in the habit 
of seeing Sir Henry/' I was not personally acquainted with 
him, but I used to hear much of him from his nephew, a 
volunteer in his regiment. He was a light-hearted man, 
of an affectionate disposition, and much loved by officers 
and men. He lies buried at Braine 1'Alleud, within a few 
hundred yards of the spot where he fell. At the time 
of his death he was only thirty-three, and very young- 
looking for his age. 

Time hung somewhat heavily on the hands of us officers 
in the Acren cantonment : a swim across the Dender, or a 
stroll into Grammont, where we made acquaintances with 
the 23rd, 51st, and 52nd regiments, formed our principal 
recreations. Our men were more agreeably and usefully 
employed : they were quite at home with the " Peasants," 
upon whom they were billeted, and clubbed their rations 
of bread, meat, and schnapps, with the vegetables, cheese, 
butter, and beer of their hosts. Whenever not on duty 
they were to be seen assisting the Boers and Boerrinen in 
their various labours. Before they left the cantonment, 
they had weeded the flax and the corn, and the potato crop 
of that year was entirely of their planting. 

Eaces on a grand scale came off at Grammont on the 
13th of June. There was a strong muster of men of all 
ranks and of all arms. On that day I completed my 
sixteenth year, and passed my birthday very pleasantly 
with some " Old Westminsters." Everybody seemed de- 
termined to make the most of his holiday. Perhaps the 
pleasure of the assembled thousands would not have been 
without alloy, if they had known that, within two days' 
march of us there lay, concealed behind the low hills of 
Avesnes, a hostile army 122,000 strong, commanded in 
person by the greatest Captain of the age. 


I was standing close to Lord Uxbridge, when a cheer 
from the neighbourhood of the judge's stand announced 
the winner of a sweepstakes. I thought I had hardly 
ever seen so handsome a lad. He was beaming with 
health and spirits, as he took his place in the scales in 
his gay jockey dress. It was Lord Hay, an ensign in the 
First Regiment of Guards, and aide-de-camp to General 
P. Maitland. The races were on a Tuesday ; on the 
Friday young Hay was killed at Quatre Bras, and the 
following Sunday the gallant veteran by my side left 
a leg on the field of Waterloo. 

Nearly forty years after Lord Hay fell at Waterloo his 
nephew, the present Earl of Erroll, at that time an ensign 
in the Guards, was severely \vounded at the Alma. M. 
Guizot somewhere mentions the occurrence in order to 
point out the anomaly of the " Grand Connetable d'Ecosse," 
serving as a subaltern in an English regiment. 

June 15th. I was this afternoon, about sunset, one of 
a group of officers who assembled near the principal inn at 
Acren, when a Belgian, dressed in a blouse, told us that 
the French had crossed the frontier. I well remember the 
utter incredulity with which his statement was received 
by us all, but it proved to be perfectly correct. At day- 
light that morning Napoleon opened the campaign by 
attacking the first corps of the Prussian army, com- 
manded by Count Zieten, in the neighbourhood of 

June Wth. The following morning as I was proceeding 
to fall in with my company as usual, I found the regiment 
in heavy marching order, and all ready for a start. They 
had received the "route" to Enghien. The Wellington 
despatches show that this route was in obedience to the 
Duke's orders for the two divisions of Lord Hill's corps, 
the 2nd and 4th, to proceed to that place, and that the order 
was written just as the Field-Marshal was setting out to 

vii.] HOUGOUMONT. 137 

attend the ball given at Brussels by the Duchess of 

Hurrying back to my billet, I swallowed hastily a few 
mouthfuls of food, and with the assistance of iny weeping 
hostesses packed up my baggage. I then placed it on my 
bat horse, and consigned it to the care of the baggage 
guard. I had taken my final leave of both horse and 
baggage. Thus, when I entered upon the Waterloo cam- 
paign, all my worldly goods consisted of the clothes on 
my back. 

As we passed through the village, our drums and fifes 
playing " The girl we left behind us," or some such lively 
air. we were greeted with the cheers of the men and the 
wailing of the women. Their leave-taking was as if we 
were their own countrymen, sallying forth in defence of 
a common " Vaderland." 

At Enghien we received a fresh route for Braine-le- 
Comte. During this afternoon we could hear the booming 
of the artillery at Quatre Bras. I know nothing of Braine- 
le-Comte, for I entered the town long after dark and left 
it before the break of day. 

June Vlth. We were now ordered to Nivelles. As we 
approached the town we met several spring carriages of 
the Eoyal Waggon Train, full of the men wounded at 
Quatre Bras. As I shall not have occasion to speak again 
of this admirably conducted branch of the service, I may 
just mention the sobriquet of its chief a man of colossal 
form, whose real name was Carpenter, but who was known 
in the army as Magna Carta (Carter). 

We were detained two hours at Mvelles to allow some 
Belgian cavalry to pass through our ranks. We resumed 
our march at three in the afternoon. Before we reached 
our ground, the rain came down in torrents, and in a few 
moments wetted us to the skin. 

A march of seven miles from Nivelles brought us to the 


avenue which leads to the Chateau de Goumont, now 
better known by its anglicised name of Hougoumont. 
Soon after passing the Chateau we quitted the chaiisste 
and ascended the hill which gives its name to the village 
of Mont St. Jean. That same hill has since shifted its 
quarters. It forms part of the pedestal on which now 
stands " Le Lion de Waterloo." If the erectors of that 
hideous mound had confined their operations to this part 
of the field, they would have done quite mischief enough, 
but they continued their vandalism along our whole line, 
so that when the British sight-seer visits the spot on which, 
sixty years ago, some fifty-four thousand of his country- 
men were drawn up in battle array, he looks in vain for 
that rising ground which afforded them such cover as 
almost to warrant the complaint of the French, that in 
their last battle against us they had been beaten by an 
invisible foe. 

Our divergence from the high road brought us in sight 
of a village with a church having a globe-shaped belfry. 
" That," said the Colonel, " is Waterloo." The name, which 
I had never heard before, suggested to my mind a pun so 
execrable that nothing but the consideration of the time 
and place of its utterance could justify "the repetition. 
Pointing to our drenched clothes, I said, " We have had 
plenty of Water to-day, we shall have something in loo 
(lieu) of water to-morrow." 

Prior to taking up our position for the night, the regiment 
filed past a large tubful of gin. Every officer and man 
was, in turn, presented with a little tin-pot full. No 
fermented liquor that has since passed my lips could vie 
with that delicious schnapps. As soon as each man was 
served, the precious contents that remained in the tub 
were tilted over on to the ground. 

We soon after halted and piled arms. 

Looking in the direction of the ground we had lately 


traversed, we heard heavy firing to our left. This 
proceeded from La Haye Sainte, where Picton had ordered 
two brigades of artillery to play upon the French infantry, 
which was pressing upon the Anglo-Allied forces in retreat 
upon Waterloo from Quatre Bras. It was probably then 
that Napoleon, who was with this portion of his army, first 
understood that Wellington was in position, and prepared 
to receive him on the morrow. 

For about an hour before sunset, the rain that had so 
persecuted us on our march relieved us for a time from its 
unwelcome presence, but as night closed in, down it came 
again with increased violence, and accompanied by thunder 
and lightning. For a time I abode as I best could the 
pitiless pelting of the storm : at last rny exhausted frame 
enabled me to bid defiance to the elements. Wearied with 
two days of incessant marching, I threw myself on the 
slope of the hill on which I had been standing. It was 
like lying in a mountain torrent. I nevertheless slept 
soundly till two in the morning, when I was awoke by my 
soldier-servant, Bill Moles. Eising from the bivouac, I 
followed him down the hill, and entered one of those small 
cottages which comprise the hamlet of Merbraine : here 
fragments of chairs, tables, window 7 -frarnes, and doors were 
heaped into the chimney-place. Around the fire made of 
the fuel thus supplied, were three men seated on chairs 
and drying their clothes. Not a word was spoken, but 
room was made for me. I followed their example. At 
daybreak my fellow-occupants of the hut resumed their 
uniforms. With the appearance of one of them, I was 
particularly struck a fine soldierlike looking man, con- 
siderably above six feet in height. This was Colonel Sir 
John Colborne, in command of the 52nd Regiment, after- 
wards Field-Marshal Lord Seaton, G.C.B., &c. &c. Colborne 
had served with distinction under Wellington in nearly all 
his great European battles, and played no mean part in the 


crowning event of their respective military careers, for 
before night closed in upon the memorable day then 
dawning, Sir John and the gallant regiment under his 
command had the honour of encountering the Imperial 
Guard of France, in their last attack on the British position, 
of putting them to the rout, of pursuing them along the 
Charleroi road single-handed, as far as Rossomme, and 
of bivouacking within a couple of hundred yards of 
the spot whence Napoleon had only recently taken his 
departure. 1 

Sir John had known my brother Bury in the Peninsula. 
When his servant brought him his breakfast, he asked me 
to partake of it, but the portion was so infinitesimally 
small that, hungry as I was, I could not bring myself to 
take advantage of an offer that could only have been made 
in courtesy. 

June 18th. During the first hour after sunrise on the 
morning of the 18th, our regiment, like the rest of the 
troops, were occupied in cleaning and drying their arms, a 
very necessary business after such a night as we had passed 
through. That done we had a rigid inspection of every 
musket and ammunition-pouch. We then piled arms and 
fell out till the bugle recalled us to the ranks. 

If I were asked what were my sensations in the dreary 
interval between daylight and the firing of the first 
cannon-shot, on this eventful morning, I should say that all 
I can now remember on the subject is, that my mind 
was constantly recurring to the account my father had 
given me of his interview with Henry Pearce, otherwise 
the Game Chicken, just before his great battle with 
Mendoza for the championship of England. "Well, 

1 " Lord Seaton's Regiment at Waterloo," by the Rev. William 
Leeke the ensign who carried the 52nd Regimental Colours in the 


Pearce," asked my father, " how do you feel ? " " Why, 
my lord," was the answer, "I wish it was Jit (fought)." 
Without presuming to imply any resemblance to the Game 
Chicken, I had thus much in common with that great man 
T wished the fight w&sfit. 

There was, I should suppose, hardly any British soldier 
in the field that morning who did not understand that we 
were there, not to give, but to receive battle, and who was 
not surprised that hour after hour should pass away with- 
out any indication from the enemy that he intended to 
pay us a visit. 

Jomini, passing in review Napoleon's plan of operations 
for the battle, says, " II eut beaucoup import^ a la reussite 
de ce projet de pouvoir brusquer 1'attaque des le matin" 

After refuting the Emperor's plea for delay, set forth n,t 
St. Helena, namely, that in consequence of the rain that 
had fallen in the night, some hours' sunshine was necessary 
to dry the ground so as to enable him to bring his guns 
into position, the celebrated strategist adds, " Dans la 
situation des affaires ce retard de quatre heures fut une 
faute." x 

In common with the rest of the British public, I was 
puzzled for sixty years to account for this " retard de 
quatre heures." 

The enigma has at length found a solution. 

From an able article on the " Memoirs of the Count de 
Se"gur," in the Quarterly Review, it appears that for several 
years the Emperor had been the victim of a painful 
malady, which during its paroxysms prostrated the 
energies alike of his mind and body : that there were four 
or five occasions on which the destinies of the Empire and 
the world were more or less influenced by this complaint. 2 

For several of these occasions I must refer to the 

1 Jomini, " Campagne de 1815," 198-9. 

2 Quarterly Review for January 1876. 



Review itself: I quote only that which bears upon this 
narrative : 

"A few days before he left Paris for Waterloo, the 
Emperor told Davoust and the Count de Se'gur, p&re, that 
he had no longer any confidence in his star, and his worn, 
depressed look was in keeping with his words." Then 
follows Segur's account. I borrow the Eeviewer's transla- 
tion : " Some days later, at Charleroi, the morning of the 
battle of Fleurus (Ligny), the Emperor having sent for 
Eeille, this General on seeing him was affected by a painful 
surprise. He found him, he told me, seated near the fire- 
place in a state of prostration, asking questions languidly, 
and appearing scarcely to listen to the replies ; a prostration 
to which Eeille attributed the inaction of one of our corps 
upon that day, and the long and bloody indecision of this 
first battle." 

"As to the second, that of Waterloo, Turenne and 
Month yon, general of division and sub-chief of the staff, 
have told me a hundred times, that during this battle, 
which was deciding his fate, he remained a long time seated 
before a table placed on this fatal field, and that they fre- 
quently saw his head, overcome by sleep, sink down upon 
the map before his heavy eyes. Monthyon added that, 
when the catastrophe was declared, he, and the Grand 
Marshal Bertrand, could only enable the Emperor to make 
good his retreat to Charleroi by holding him up between 
them on his horse, his body sunk (affaisse] and his head 
shaking, overcome by a feverish drowsiness." 

The Eeviewer adds: " M. Thiers admits that Jerome 
Buonaparte and a surgeon in attendance told him that 
at Waterloo Napoleon was suffering from the malady 
described by M. de Segur." l 

My son Lord Bury, who was in 1870 the representative 

1 Quarterly Review for July 1875, p. 225. 


at Eouen of the Society for the Relief of the Sick and 
"Wounded in the war then raging between France and 
Prussia, became acquainted there with General Gudin, 1 
the commandant of the garrison. This officer, who was 
page d'honneur in waiting upon the first Napoleon at 
Waterloo, told Bury that the Emperor ordered his horses 
to be ready at seven in the morning. The order was 
obeyed, but time wore away and the Emperor made 
no sign. At last the Grand Ecw/er came down to the 
assembled staff and told them that his Imperial Majesty 
was in his room, that he spoke to no one, that he was 
seated and in a pondering attitude which forbade question 
or interruption. It was nearly noon when the Emperor 
descended the ladder that led to the sleeping-room and 
rode away. 

" Do you know, mon general," asked Bury, " why the 
Emperor was so dilatory ? He must have known, what 
all the world knows now, that minutes were of the highest 
importance to him on that day." 

" Certainement," answered the General, " tout le monde 
se le disait. II avait joue son coup et il le savait 

Gudin also told Bury that when Napoleon came down 
from his' apartment to mount his horse, the equerry in 
waiting had stolen away to get some breakfast ; the duty 
therefore of assisting the Emperor to mount devolved 
upon Gudin, who gave him such a vigorous hoist under 
the elbow that his Majesty nearly rolled off on the other 
side. " Petit imbecile," exclaimed Napoleon, " va-t-en a 
tons les diables," and rode off, leaving the unlucky page, 
overwhelmed with confusion, to mount and to ride sadly 
on in the rear. They had ridden a few hundred yards 

1 General Gudin was, on the advance of the Prussians, transferred 
to Paris, where he was killed, it is said, in a sortie. 


when Gudin saw the staff open right and left, and the 
Emperor came riding back. "Mon enfant," said he, 
putting his hand kindly on the lad's shoulder, " quand 
vous aidez un homme de ma taille a monter, il faut le 
faire doucement." 

The recollection of the implied apology, and the kind- 
ness which induced one in Napoleon's position to think 
at such a moment of a young man's feelings, brought 
tears into the old General's eyes as he told my sou 
the story. 

Since the above remarks on Napoleon's health appeared 
in print, they are corroborated by the account which 
Mr. George Ticknor gives of a visit which he paid to 
Madame Davoust, the wife of the Marshal, in August 

" We fell," says Mr. Ticknor, " into a discussion almost 
political, and as nothing touches the French and the 
Bonapartists .like the loss of the battle of Waterloo, she 
gave me reasons for it. I could have given her better 
if it had been polite ; but one she gave was' curious 
as an authentic anecdote. To prove that the Emperor 
was ill that day, she said he did not rise till seven o'clock, 
and never spoke while he dressed. When his secretary 
gave him his sword he drew it with a sigh, and then, 
thrusting it back into the scabbard, said with an air of 
weariness which he had never shown before, ' Encore une 
bataille,' sprang upon his horse, and hurried into the 
field, as if more impatient to finish the day, than anxious 
how it should be finished." l 

We had been under arms for six hours, when a numerous 
cavalcade appeared on the crest of the opposite hill 
evidently some great man and his suite: they were so 
near that a small body of Volunteer Eiflemen of the 

1 Life, Letters, and Journals of George Ticknor, vol. i. p. 149. 


present day could easily have emptied every saddle. My 
comrades and I made sure that we had seen Napoleon 
himself we were wrong: it was Jerome Buonaparte, 
whose division was posted on the extreme' left of the 
French line, facing Hougoumont; he had just received 
his Imperial brother's order to give the signal of battle. 
Almost the moment he disappeared from view a single 
cannot-shot was fired ; a pause of two seconds was dis- 
tinctly perceptible, and then arose a roar of artillery, 
which did not cease for the next eight hours. 

For some time after the firing had begun, Mrs. Ross, 
our Quartermaster's wife, remained with the regiment. 
She was no stranger to a battle-field, and had received 
a severe wound in Whitelock's disastrous retreat from 
Buenos Ayres (1807), at which time her husband was a 
sergeant in the 95th (now Eifle Brigade). She was loth 
to quit the field : " accidents might arise," she told us, 
" that would render her services useful." At last it was 
suggested to her that what was right and proper in a 
sergeant's wife, was not so becoming in an officer's lady. 
Upon this hint she withdrew and passed the rest of the 
Sunday in a neighbouring church, not in the aisle, in 
attendance upon divine service, but in the belfry, where 
she enjoyed a better view of the battle than could have 
been obtained by the Commander of either army. 

From the spot we then occupied we could see neither 
friend nor foe. Our arms were piled, and we were waiting 
for orders to fall in. I was one of a group assembled 
round our sergeant-major, James Graham, who was fighting 
some of his Peninsular "battles o'er again." Suddenly 
the spokesman fell to the ground, a chance musket-ball 
had struck him on the neck. Although in great pain, 
nothing would induce him to leave the battle-field. 

As junior ensign, I carried one of the colours on the 
first two days' march, and when the bugle sounded to 



fall in, I proceeded to take my usual post in the centre. 
Inasmuch, however, as there were no less than sixteen 
ensigns of " Calvert's Entire " in the field, and the service 
entailed some additional labour, the Colonel determined 
that the duty should be performed by roster, and Ensigns 
Newenham and Eraser relieved me and my comrade. A 
colour-sergeant of the name of Moore, who had served 
with the regiment in the Peninsula, thought this would be 
a good opportunity for instructing the two military neo- 
phytes in what they had to expect. " Now you see," said 
he, " the enemy always makes a point of aiming at the 
colours, so if anything should happen to either of you 
young gentlemen, I ups with your colour and defends it 
with my life." One of the first casualties of the day 
happened to Sergeant Moore. He did not belong to my 
company, and I know not what became of him afterwards, 
but as he was carried off the field, I heard the Colonel 
say, " Serve him right for talking such nonsense to the 

Colville's division, the 4th, to which we properly be- 
longed, was posted at Hal, eight miles distant from the 
field. We were therefore attached for the day to the 2nd 
infantry division, commanded by Lieutenant-General Sir 
William Clinton. 

I must borrow Siborne's account of our first position : 
" Along a portion of this road, 1 principally consisting of 
a hollow way, were posted in advance, some light troops of 
the Anglo- Allied army. They formed a part of the fourth 
brigade of the fourth division (under Colonel Mitchell) 
attached to the second corps commanded by Lieutenant- 
General Lord Hill. The brigade consisted of the third 
battalion of the 14th British Eegiment, under Lieutenant- 

1 A narrow road leading from the Nivelles chaussee across the 
plateau in the direction of Braine 1'Alleud. 


Colonel Tidy ; of the 23rd Fusiliers, under Colonel 
Sir Henry Ellis, 1 and of the 51st British Light Infantry 
(under Lieutenant-Colonel Eice), in the following manner. 
Along that portion of the Hougoumont avenue which is 
nearest to the Nivelles road, was extended the light com- 
pany of the 23rd Regiment. On its right was an abattis 
which had been thrown across the great road, and close 
upon the right of this artificial obstacle a company of the 
51st was posted. Four more companies of this regiment, 
and the light company of the 14th, were extended along 
the hollow way alluded to as stretching across the ridge 
on the extreme left of the French position. The remainder 
of the 51st stood in column of support about two hundred 
yards in rear of the hollow way. The 23rd Eegiment was 
stationed on the left of the Nivelles road, on the reverse 
slope and immediately under the crest of the main ridge, 
in rear of the second brigade of Guards. The 14th Regi- 
ment was posted in column on the southern descent of 
the plateau, on which was assembled the second British 
division." 2 

To arrive at this position we descended the plateau we 
had hitherto occupied, and entered upon a narrow ravine 
covered with brushwood. This ravine has since been filled 
up, and the ground, thus reclaimed, applied to arable 
purposes ; but the spot is well known to the guides 
over the battle field. Shot and shell occasionally came, 
but as we were out of sight of the French artillerymen, 
they did us no harm. How long we remained here I have 
no idea. It is now known that at about three in the 
afternoon, Napoleon, who in the early part of the action 
had directed his principal attack on our left and left 
centre, sent strong reinforcements to his troops engaged 

1 Colonel Sir Henry Walton Ellis, K.C.B., was killed in this 

2 Siborne's " Waterloo," vol. i. pp. 347-8. 

L 2 


in attacking Hongoumont that part of the field in which 
we were posted. As a consequence General Byng carried 
his brigade to assist his brother guardsmen in the Chateau. 
His departure left an open space between Halkett's and 
Kemp's brigades. Sir James Shaw Kennedy pointed out 
the chasm to the Duke, who said to him, " I shall order 
the Brunswick troops to the spot, and other troops besides ; 
go you and get all the German troops of the division to 
the spot where you are, and all the guns that you can 
find." ! 

I presume that our regiment formed a portion of the 
" other troops " whom the Commander-in-Chief sent to fill 
up the hiatus, for it must have been about this time that 
Captain Bridgeman, one of Lord Hill's aides-de-camp, 
brought us the order to advance. We marched in columns 
of companies. Emerging from the ravine we came upon 
an open valley, bounded on all sides by low hills. The 
hill in our front was fringed by the enemy's cannon, and 
we advanced to our new position amid a shower of shot 
and shells. Tumor, the captain of my company, writing 
home, "June 19th: from the Field of Battle," says, " The 
whole day we were exposed to the fire of several batteries 
of artillery, and particularly two pieces brought to bear 
upon us." I can well remember the interest I took in 
those two pieces an interest heightened by the conscious- 
ness that I formed part of that living target against which 
their practice was pointed. 

Fifteen years after the battle I was present at Paris at 
the Grands Couverts, the annual dinner which the older 
Bourbon Princes were in the habit of eating in public. 
A French officer on duty entered upon a subject of his 
own choosing, but one generally avoided by his country- 
men " Waterloo." He told me that he was an artillery 

1 Kennedy's "Waterloo," p. 128. 

vii.] A NARROW ESCAPE. 149 

officer posted in that action on the extreme left of the 
French line, and that his orders were to fire upon three 
British regiments the colours of which were respectively 
blue, buff, and green ; thus proving, beyond all doubt, that 
it was against our brigade that his practice had been 
directed. 1 

But to resume; we halted and formed square in the 
middle of the plain. As we were performing this move- 
ment, a bugler of the 51st, who had been out with skir- 
mishers, and had mistaken our square for his own, 
exclaimed, " Here I am again, safe enough." The words 
were scarcely out of his mouth, when a round shot took 
off his head and spattered the whole battalion with his 
brains, the colours and the. ensigns in charge of them 
coming in for an extra share. One of them, Charles 
Fraser, a fine gentleman in speech and manner, raised 
a laugh by drawling out, " How extremely disgusting ! " 
A second shot carried off six of the men's bayonets, a 
third broke the breastbone of a Lance-sergeant (Robinson), 
whose piteous cries were anything but encouraging to his 
youthful comrades. The soldier's belief that " every bullet 
has its billet," was strengthened by another shot striking 
Ensign Cooper, the shortest man in the regiment and in 
the very centre of the square. These casualties were the 
affair of a second. We were now ordered to lie down. 
Our square, hardly large enough to hold us when standing 
upright, was too small for us in a recumbent position. 
Our men lay packed together like herrings in a barrel. 
Not finding a vacant spot, I seated myself on a drum. 
Behind me was the Colonel's charger, which, with his head 
pressed against mine, was mumbling my epaulette, while 
I patted his cheek. Suddenly my drum capsized and 

1 The French, officer's statement corroborates Garrod's account of 
the relative positions of the 23rd, 14th, and 51st at Waterloo. 


I was thrown prostrate, with the feeling of a blow on the 
right cheek. I put my hand to my head, thinking half 
my face was shot away, but the skin was not even abraded. 
A piece of shell had struck the horse on the nose exactly 
between my hand and my head, and killed him instantly. 
The blow I received was from the embossed crown on the 
horse's bit. 1 

The French artillerymen had now brought us so com- 
pletely within range, that if we had continued much 
longer in this exposed situation I should probably not 
have lived to tell my tale. We soon received the order to 
seek the shelter of a neighbouring hill. As I was rising 
from the ground, a bullet struck a man of my company, 
named Overman, immediately in front of me. He, falling 
backwards, came upon me with the whole weight of knap- 
sack and accoutrements, and knocked me down again 
With some difficulty I crawled from under him. The' 
man appeared to have died without a struggle. In my 
effort to rejoin my regiment I trod upon his body. The 
act, although involuntary, caused me a disagreeable 
sensation whenever it recurred to my mind. 

Our new position was further in advance, but less 
exposed to the enemy's fire. We were now about a 
hundred yards from the Nivelles chaussee, near to the 
abattis, spoken of by Siborne, on which dbattis the left 
wing of our right company rested. In our front were 
some riflemen in grey uniforms faced with green, their 
hats looped up on one side, and bearing the Hanoverian 
badge of the white horse. They lined the road, and were 
engaged with some French skirmishers in the corn-fields 
on the opposite side. 

On our right flank, and a little in advance, was a brigade 

1 This adventure is mentioned by the late Mrs. (Colonel) "Ward in 
her " Recollections of a Soldier's Daughter." 

vii.J AN ALARM. 151 

of artillery, which I find from a recent publication was 
the 9th, under the command of Captain Mercer, who in 
describing his position also marks ours. " Thus," says he, 
" we were formed en potence with the first line, from which 
we (my battery) were separated by some hundred yards, 
in our rear the 14th Kegiment of Infantry (in square, I 
think) lay on the ground." x 

Looking back to the part of the field we had lately 
quitted, we saw another brigade of artillery hurrying into 
position a howitzer shell had penetrated one of their 
ammunition waggons which exploded, drowning for a 
moment the roar of the cannon, and dealing death and 
destruction on all around. Our sympathies were for the 
moment principally excited by the sufferings of some poor 
horses, which were the principal sufferers by the cata- 
strophe, and were galloping about the field. Some would 
suddenly stop, and nibble the grass within their reach till 
they fell backwards and died. One poor animal, horribly 
mutilated, kept hovering about us, as if to seek the pro- 
tection of our square. 

The steadiness of our peasant lads, which had already 
been tolerably tried, was about to be subjected to another 
test. There appeared on our right flank an armed force, 
some thousands strong, w r ho advanced towards us singing 
and cheering. They wore the dress which the prints of the 
day described as belonging to the French army. Charles 
Brennan, an Irish lieutenant, who had served all through 
the Peninsular War, called out, " Och then, them's French 
safe enough ! " " Hold your tongue, Pat," thundered out our 
Colonel; " what do you mean by frightening my boys?" 
but the expression of his countenance showed that he 
shared Pat's apprehension. They were neither of them 
singular in their belief. The attention of our neighbours, 

1 General Mercer's " Waterloo," vol. i. p. 300. 


the 9th Brigade of Artillery, was directed to the same phe- 
nomenon. "For a moment," says General Mercer, " an awful 
silence pervaded that part of the position, to which we 
anxiously turned our eyes. ' I fear all is over/ said Colonel 
Gould, who still remained by us. Meantime the 14th, spring- 
ing from the earth, had formed their square, whilst we, 
throwing back the guns of our right and left divisions, stood 
waiting in momentary expectation of being enveloped and 
attacked. The commanding officer of the 14th, to end our 
doubts, rode forward and endeavoured to ascertain who they 
were, but soon returned assuring us they were French. The 
order was already given to fire, when Colonel Gould re- 
cognised them as Belgians." 1 The new comers were 
General Chassis Dutch and Belgian division, who had 
been posted in the early part of the day at Braine 1'Alleud 
and were now ordered to the front. They had so recently 
formed a part of Napoleon's army that the slight change 
in their old uniform escaped the notice of the casual 

Towards evening, the 14th was the right-hand infantry 
regiment of the British line. We were placed there by 
Lord Hill's brother, Sir Noel Hill. Our instructions were 
to keep a good look-out upon a strong body of the cavalry 
of the Imperial Guard. 

We now occupied the crest of a gentle eminence, and 
looked down upon what, from a few blades still standing, 
was shown to have been in the morning a field of rye, ripe 
for the sickle. It had now, from the action of horse, foot, 
and artillery, been beaten down into the consistency and 
appearance of an Indian mat. 

From the reverse side of the hill in front of us there 

now appeared the enemy our Colonel had been taught to 

expect. They were a magnificent body of horsemen, wore 

black helmets, and, if my memory does not deceive me, 

1 General Mercer's Waterloo," vol. i. p. 301. 


black cuirasses. As soon as they reached the ascent of our 
hill they advanced towards us at the pas de charge. For a 
moment they left us in doubt which square they intended 
to honour, but gave the preference to our left-hand neigh- 
bour, a regiment of Brunswickers, which was at wheeling 
distance from ours. After one or two vain attempts to 
pierce the square, they went some fifty paces to our rear. 
Their presence amongst us procured us a momentary respite 
from the fire of the enemy's artillery. They now repassed 
between the two battalions. As soon as they were 
clear of our battalion, two faces of the attacked square 
opened fire. At the same instant the British gunners on 
our right, who at the approach of the Cuirassiers had 
thrown themselves at the feet of our front rank men, re- 
turned to their guns and poured a murderous fire of grape 
into the flying enemy. For some seconds the smoke of the 
cross fire was so dense that not a single object in front of 
us was discernible. When it cleared away the Imperial 
horsemen were seen flying in disorder. The matted hill was 
strewed with dead and dying : horses were galloping. away 
without riders, and dismounted Cuirassiers running out of 
the fire as fast as their heavy armour would allow them. 

This is the last incident that I remember of that event- 
ful Sunday. The next day I wrote to my father a detailed 
account of the scenes of which I had been an eye-witness. 
My letter created a great sensation in the family. If it 
should reappear, it will, I think, be seen that my reminis- 
cences agree tolerably with the observation made on the 
spot. In the account which I now give, I have been 
assisted by Major-General Thomas Holmes Tidy, the son 
of my good old commanding officer, himself the wearer o^ 
a medal for his services with the 14th at the capture of 
Bhurtpore. To the General's kindness I am indebted for 
the perusal of letters from my Colonel and the Captain of 
my company, addressed to a friend in Northamptonshire. 


By these documents I am enabled to give to our corps a 
very different position to that assigned to it in Siborne's 
celebrated model of the battle-field. 

In the absence of my letter to my father, also written 
on the 19th of June, I give the following from the Captain 
of my company, William Tumor, my " dry nurse " as he 
was called by his comrades, addressed to his friend J. P. 
Clarke, Esq., Welton Place, Daventvy : 


" 19th June, 1815. 

"Tho' the papers will give you better information 
relative to the sanguinary conflict of yesterday, I am 
unwilling to permit a courier to proceed to England 
without acquainting you that your friends in the 14th are 
well The contest just terminated commenced at twelve 
o'clock, and lasted without intermission till nine in the 
evening. It was the most bloody as well as the most 
decisive battle that has been fought since the commence- 
ment of the French Revolution, and its result will be 
more important than even that of Leipsic. The cannonade 
was tremendous on both sides. The French fought with 
desperation, and I am fully convinced that no troops on 
earth except the English could have won the victory. They 
are in action savagely courageous. The cavalry of the 
enemy particularly distinguished themselves, and charged 
our infantry when in squares of battalions, four, five, six 
times, but they were not to be broken. Our infantry has 
immortalized itself, and its conduct has never been sur- 
passed, indeed never equalled. "We are so fortunate as 
not to have suffered very great loss, having been posted 
on the right of the line to hold in check a very strong 
body of the Imperial Guard. The whole day we were 
exposed to the fire of several batteries of artillery, and 


particularly to that of two pieces brought to bear upon 
us. The situation was trying in the extreme, but our 
young soldiers behaved well. They would have been 
glad to have been led against the infantry, but we dared 
not lose sight of the cavalry. Many regiments both of 
infantry and cavalry are almost annihilated, but it is said 
that some regiments of dragoons were not so forward as 
they ought to have been. One regiment of hussars is 
particularly mentioned as having refused to charge. The 
field of battle exhibits this next morning a most shocking 
spectacle, too dreadful to describe. Every effort was 
made by Buonaparte to turn our right, within 200 yards 
of which we were posted ; he showed the greatest courage, 
led in person many charges both of infantry and cavalry. 
Those officers who were in the Peninsula describe the 
battles there as mere combats in comparison with that 
of yesterday, and this may easily be credited when we 
reflect that Napoleon fought for a crown, and was opposed 
to the greatest General of the age. The escape of Lord 
Wellington is next to a miracle, for he was exposed the 
whole day to the hottest fire. We know not the extent of 
our loss, but it must be great indeed." 

At sunset I found myself at Hougoumont, in the 
immediate neighbourhood of which I had been posted 
the greater part of the day. I bivouacked that night 
under a tree facing the entrance to the Chateau. When 
about a quarter of a century ago I visited the field of 
battle in company with my son Bury, I looked in vain 
for the tree the roots of which had served me for a 
pillow. It was gone. The battle had been alike destruc- 
tive of vegetable and animal life. The whole range of 
those fine elms which formed the avenue leading to the 
Chateau had died of wounds received in the action. 


Ca ira. Our Entry into Nivelles. A False Alarm. Le Gateau. 
Our General's Congratulations. My Westminster Fag Master. 
Commandant of Head-quarters Attack on Cambray. Louis 
XVIII. 's Proclamation. Open Right and Left. Hare-hunting 
extraordinary. First Sight of Paris. A "Ghost." A Cata- 
strophe. Mr. Alexander Adair. Lady Castlereagh and her 
Dogs. "Bonapartists." Bummelo. General La Bedoyere. A 
Dinner at the Louvre. 

June 19th. All was still as the grave at daylight on the 
morning of the 19th. The Prussians had gone the night 
before along the Charleroi road in pursuit of the enemy. 
The British army was ordered to Nivelles, a distance of 
only nine miles. As the troops were marching upon one 
road, we were some time moving off the ground. Some 
of my comrades went over the field of battle. I set out 
with the same intent, but soon returned to the Chateau 
from the deep depression which the scene produced upon 
me. One sight especially riveted my attention. It was 
the body of a boy, who from his appearance could not 
have been more than fourteen years of age. The finely- 
chiselled features of the poor lad contrasted strongly with 
the coarse lineaments of corpses in his neighbourhood, 
which had been rendered still more grim by the agony 
of the death-struggle. Like the bodies around him, no 
vestige of dress remained to show his rank or nation. 
Prom his peculiarly fair hair it may be assumed he was 
a German ; from his small white hands, that he was of 
gentle race; and from the heaps of dead horses around 


him, that he had fallen in a charge of cavalry. I have 
looked over the lists of the killed and wounded, but can 
find no one answering his description. The probability is 
that he was a " freiwilliger," or volunteer, some of whom 
were attached to most regiments, British or Prussian. 
One thing is proved to me, that there was in the field 
one younger>than myself. 

The 14th bears on its colours the name " Tournay." 
It was a distinction granted to the regiment for their 
conduct in the action fought near that town in the War of 
the Eevolution, on the 8th of May, 1793. In marching 
to the attack, the band, as a mark of defiance, played the 
Jacobin air of Ca ira, which thenceforth became the quick 
march of the corps. To that un-English tune we marched 
into Nivelles. Nor was this our only eccentricity ; our 
lads had decked themselves in the spoils of the vanquished, 
and presented a motley group of Imperial cuirassiers, 
hussars, and grenadiers a cheval. One young fellow was 
conspicuous as the wearer of the cumbrous cap of a 
" tambour major." 

The old hands quizzed our " Johnny raws " for volun- 
tarily imposing upon themselves such burdens. They told 
them that with a little more experience in campaigning 
they would find their kit, arms, accoutrements, and sixty 
rounds of ball-cartridge quite enough to carry for any 
man's amusement, without gratuitously adding to these 

In marching to our ground we passed the First Regiment 
of Foot Guards drawn up on one side of the street. From 
them I learned the fate of Lord Hay, the winner of the 
sweepstakes at Grammont races, and of a kinsman of my 
own, Ensign the Honourable Samuel Barrington, who also 
fell at Quatre Bras. The names of these two young men 
will be found on the monument in the church at Waterloo 
erected by the officers of the regiment to the memory of 


their comrades who fell on the 16th and 18th of June. I 
heard at the same time that two of iny Westminster 
schoolfellows, Croft and Fludyer, ensigns in the same 
regiment, had been severely wounded. 

My Colonel's -billet was on a most charming house with 
a bay-window looking out on an ornamental garden. 
Tumor and I were his guests for the day. Our breakfast 
was a most sumptuous one, not the less acceptable as 
being almost the first food we had tasted since we left ou r 
cantonment. Meals on the march to Paris were few and 
far between. Indeed, if it had not been for an occasional 
hard-boiled egg from the pistol holster of a friendly field- 
officer, I should have hardly imbibed sufficient nourishment 
to sustain life. Even Tidy, an old campaigner, and likely 
from his position to have his full share of what was 
procurable, says in one of his letters, "I am quite well, 
though sleeping out and going often without food." 

June 2Qth. On the 20th we bivouacked in the neigh- 
bourhood of Mons. The next day we first set foot on 
French territory. As we were entering a wood we heard 
several discharges of musketry, at the same time some 
clerks of the British Commissariat came running towards 
us, telling us that the French were drawn up in line and 
hotly engaged with our troops. We dashed through the 
wood at " double quick ; " but when we came to the outside 
" we met no foe to fight withal." The only person I saw 
was a tall young man standing at the door of the village 
inn, who was said to be a Belgian officer of rank. A few 
years ago I met at Torquay, Prince Frederick of the 
Netherlands, who commanded one of the Belgian divisions 
of Lord Hill's corps. Upon my mentioning to him this 
occurrence on the French frontier, his Eoyal Highness 
told me that he was the officer whom I had seen, and that 
our double quick march was caused by the Colonel of one 
of his regiments who had determined to celebrate the entry 


of his men into France by firing a feu de joie. No one 
was more astonished than the Duke of Wellington himself, 
who thought that a part of his army had fallen into an 

Our night's halt was in the neighbourhood of Valen- 

The next day we arrived at the heights above Le Gateau 

The services of our brigade had been acknowledged by 
the Duke in his despatches ; by Lord Hill, to whose corps 
we belonged; by Lieut.-General Sir Henry Clinton, to 
whose division we had been attached ; and at Le Gateau 
the following order was read at the head of every regiment 
of the brigade, from the Commander of our own division : 

"Lieutenant-General Sir .Charles Colville cannot deny 
himself the satisfaction of adding to those of Lord Hill, 
his own most hearty congratulations to Colonel Mitchell 
and the 4th brigade on the share they so fortunately had 
on the glorious and ever memorable battle of the 18th 

"From every statement' it appears that the 23rd and 
51st regiments acted fully up to their former high 
character, while the very young battalion of the 14th 
displayed a gallantry and steadiness becoming veteran 

The Duke was this day at Le Gateau. Staff-officers, 
dressed in their best, were parading the town. They had 
been dining at head-quarters, where they met Louis XVIII. 
and the Due de Berri. Among the guests I recognised the 
fag-master who had given me such a terrible licking for 
hiding in the coal-hole. I addressed him by his name : he 
bowed coldly as he turned upon his heel, and said that " I 
had the advantage of him." The reverse was the fact he 
had greatly the advantage of me. He was well fed, well 
dressed, and well lodged, whereas I had scarcely tasted 


food since I left Nivelles, and my wardrobe, consisting of 
the clothes on my back, was none the smarter for five days' 
bivouacking. I was chewing the cud of resentment at this 
rebuff when who should make his appearance but Colonel 
Sir Colin Campbell, his breast blazing with stars and other 
military distinctions. He immediately thrust his embroi- 
dered sleeve into my ragged one. " Holla, youngster," he 
called out, " what did you mean by giving me the slip at 
Ostend ? But never mind that now. What can I do for 
you ? " " Give me something to eat," was the reply. He 
immediately took me to a traiteur's, where I had food to 
my heart's content. Having thus played the part of a good 
Samaritan, Sir Colin returned with me into the principal 
street. The pride I felt at being seen in such company 
could only be understood by those who know how wide 
was then the social gulf that separated the staff from the 
regimental officer. Everyone, I suppose, has " the proudest 
day of his life." Mine unquestionably was that on which 
I walked through the streets of Le Cateau with the 
Commandant of head-quarters leaning on my arm. 

June 23rd. A general halt of the Prussian and British 

June 24:th. Sir Charles Colville was ordered to proceed 
with his division, consisting of our brigade and two others, 
to the attack of Cambray. I give Colonel Tidy's account 
of the part our regiment took in the affair : 

" Two of the brigades were ordered to attack it (Cambray) 
on one side, whilst ours, the 4th, the only one of the divi- 
sion engaged on the 18th, were to make a, feint on the 
other, which we did accordingly, but having got close to 
the wall with a few haystack ladders tied together, we 
resolved to try our luck on a real attack. My position 
happened to be on the bridge with a great part of the 51st 
and all my own, who were getting over the top of the 
gate, which being tedious we knocked at it, and an 


inhabitant actually let down the bridge and we walked in 
and marched in sub-divisions to the Grand Square in the 
most regular order in columns of battalions." 

June 25tk. We remained at Cambray on the 2oth, for 
although we were in possession of the town, the citadel 
still held out. Its Governor, Baron Eoos, proposed an 
armistice which was refused. He then made an offer to 
surrender to Napoleon II., which was also rejected. 
Whereupon Comte d'Audenarde was despatched to Eoos 
to summon him to surrender in the name -of Louis XVIII. 
The last summons was obeyed. 

It was said of the Bourbons in 1814 that they returned 
to France along with the " foreigner's baggage. 1 ' The 
same phrase would have been equally applicable to them 
the following year. Thus at Cambray we marched out at 
one end while the Due de Berri entered it in the French 
King's name at the other. 

The town was the only one in France which then owned 
allegiance to the ancient dynasty. It was decided by 
Louis XVIII.'s Councillors that a proclamation should be 
issued; Count Beugnot, in his autobiography, says that 
the duty of drawing one up devolved upon him. In the 
performance of this task he endeavoured to preserve " the 
moderation and dignity which he thought should never be 
departed from when the King of France is made to 
speak." The Count thought perhaps that a modest 
demeanour would best befit a king lacking a kingdom. 
Louis XVIII. thought otherwise. Another draft of a 
proclamation was adopted which certainly did not err 
either on the side of modesty or moderation. It is 
.dated Cambray, the 28th of June, 1815. It purports to 
be in the twenty-first year of the King's reign. In this 
document, his Majesty hastens to bring his misguided 
subjects to their duty. It asserts that " treason had 
summoned foreigners into the heart of France/' that " the 



King owes it to the dignity of his crown, to the interests 
of his people, and to the repose of Europe, to except from 
pardon the instigators and authors of this horrible plot." 

When a soldier has to march from sunrise to sunset on 
a broiling midsummer's day, in a cloud of dust raised by 
the simultaneous action of several thousand pairs of feet, 
he does not view with complacency any aggravation of his 
discomfort. Thus there was an intense amount of 
grumbling each time that we were momentarily compelled 
to leave the crown of the road for some passing carriage 
or horseman. " Open right and left " had always for us a 
peculiarly distasteful sound. One day these words came 
upon us from the rear, accompanied by hissing, hooting, 
and yelling. I looked round to see the object of such 
universal execration, and beheld, mounted on a grey 
pony, a hideous-looking man with an enormous head, a 
pale pasty complexion, small cunning grey eyes, and a 
disagreeable expression of countenance. His cocked hat, 
silk sash, and silver epaulette bespoke him to be an 
officer, but no dress could have made him look like a 
gentleman. It was the Provost Marshal. He was 
accompanied by half a dozen drummers who held on to 
his horse by straps attached to his saddle. They were in 
the lightest marching order, carrying nothing but their 
drum cases, which were slung across their shoulders. 
These, I was told, contained either cat-o'-nine-tails or 
some well-soaped ropes with nooses all ready for imme- 
diate use. 

" Men arc but children of a larger growth." 

The reception that the Provost Marshal experienced was 
somewhat similar to that with which we "Westminsters 
used to greet the boy bringing in a fresh supply of 
birch to the " birch-room." 

Our division halted on the night of the 27th at 


Puzeaux, of the 28th at Petit Crevecceur, of the 29th at 
Clermont, and of the 30th between La Chapelle and 

On the 1st of July my regiment and some other troops 
of Colville's division were ordered to occupy the heights 
above St. Denis, one of the advanced posts of the 
British army. Three light companies of our division 
were thrown into the neighbouring village of Auber- 
villiers, which, in the course of the day, had been 
alternately in the hands of Prussians, French, and 
English ; for although French commissioners were striving 
to induce the allies to agree to an armistice, there was no 
intermission of military operations. 

Ascending a small hill we came to the ornamental 
grounds of a handsome chateau. Loud cheering of those 
in advance of me announced that there was something 
extraordinary to be seen. It was Paris. The rays of the 
setting sun were throwing a brilliant light on the gilded 
dome of the Hotel des Invalides. I thought we should 
never have ceased hallooing. 

At this moment, a staff officer, whose neatness of dress 
bespoke a fresh arrival from England, inquired for a Mr. 
Keppel. Upon my answering to the name, he touched his 
hat, put into my hand a small packet, which he said an 
elderly lady at an evening party had given him in charge, 
and immediately disappeared. The packet contained 
twenty golden guineas a present from my grandmother 
Albemarle. As, in consequence of the war indemnity, 
each of these gold coins was at a very high premium in 
the French money market, I was probably the most flush 
of cash of any man of my corps. 

Our position for the night was in the centre of a well- 
stocked game preserve. As the sun went down, swarms 
of hares came out to graze. Officers and men simulta- 
neously gave chase. The poor animals, attacked in front, 

M 2 


flank, and rear, fell a prey to their numerous enemies, not 
however till they had afforded abundance of sport. Any- 
one who had seen our soldiers a few hours before, listlessly 
dragging one weary leg after another along the dusty 
chaussec, would hardly have known them again in the 
active merry lads, who with peals of laughter were 
tumbling over each other in the eagerness bf pursuit I 
question whether a single hare escaped. Sure I am that 
there was not a camp-kettle in which one of them, was not 
seething into soup. Tidy, Turnor, and M'Kenzie (my 
brother subaltern) and I were in the same mess. The 
potager of the chateau supplied us with vegetables ; some 
flour from a neighbouring mill we converted into Norfolk 
dumplings. The canteens of such of us as had not lost 
their baggage were laid under contribution for brandy, of 
which commodity the owners, now that we were approach- 
ing a land of plenty, could afford to be generous. The 
glass, I should rather say the tin pot, was passing merrily 
round, when a soldier rushed forward, with a " Please, sir, 
one of our men has been poisoned by flour from the mill. 
He is lying dead close by." " Here's a pretty kettle of 
fish," said the Colonel, his usual expression in .moments 
of excitement. Our faces lengthened. We went to see 
the defunct comrade, whose fate we feared we should soon 
share. The man was dead in one sense dead drunk. 1 

July 2nd. Attention to our creature comforts had pre- 
vented us from bestowing a thought upon the chateau 
the night of our arrival. We now paid it a visit. The 
Prussians, whom we succeeded, had left their mark behind 
them. The broad mahogany hand-rail of the banisters 
was hacked apparently with swords from top to bottom. 
Fragments of gilt ornaments were strewed over the par- 
quet floors. The green and yellow silk hangings were 

1 This anecdote is recorded in Mrs. (Colonel) Ward's " Remi- 
niscences of a Soldier's Daughter." 

via.] CHATEAU DE ST. OUEN. 165 

torn down. Pier glasses which had reached to the ceiling 
were smashed to pieces. The salle a manger was semi- 
circular and surmounted by a dome. The walls had been 
tastefully decorated in fresco, with representations of 
mythological subjects. These were half obliterated by 
the smoke of the fires of the Prussian camp-kettles. 
Some of Nassau's contingent were there when we entered, 
and busy preparing their dinners. The chateau had been 
gutted of its furniture before we arrived, but oddly enough, 
the marauders had forgotten to take a peep at the cellar. 
We found it full of the choicest wines, some bottles of 
which we made free to appropriate to our own use. 

I have been at some pains to find out the name of our 
resting-place on the night of the 1st of July. The late 
Hon. Henry Wodehouse, when an attach^ of the British 
Embassy at Paris > suggested to me that our bivouac must 
have been in the grounds of the Chateau of St. Ouen, and 
the conjecture is, I think, strengthened by an entry in the 
diary of Miss Cornelia Knight. 

By this it will be observed that Louis XVIII. " rebuilt " 
the chateau in 1815, a presumption that the former edifice 
had been somewhat roughly handled, and his Majesty 
might very naturally have been desirous that there should 
remain no evidence of the sort of friends that had helped 
him to recover his crown. 

" Aug, 1st, 1827. Went to St. Ouen to visit the Countess 
of Cayla and her daughter the Princess of Craon. Their 
house is in the midst of extensive grounds. On Louis 
XVIII.'s return in 1815 he rebuilt the house, or rather 
erected the very beautiful villa, and made all the plans 
himself. He presented it to Madame de Cayla as a resi- 
dence for her life. The present king (Charles X.) allows 
her 2,500 livres a year to keep up the place." x 

St. Ouen is a place of historical interest. When the 

1 Cornelia Knight, vii. p. 167. 


Bourbons were on the throne, the cMteau was a royal 
residence. In the time of Louis XV. it was occupied by 
Madame de Pompadour. A few days before Louis XVIII. 
fled from his capital in 1814, he gave the chateau 'to 
Madame de Cayla to prevent its being confiscated as state 
property. It was at the Chateau of St. Ouen that Louis 
XVIII. slept in 1814, the night before he made the public 
entry into the capital of his forefathers. It was from this 
same chateau that he issued the famous " Declaration " 
that goes by its name a declaration in which he made 
those promises to the French people which, if he had but 
kept, he would probably not have been sent a few months 
later on his travels. 

July 3rd. In the afternoon, and just as we had begun 
to test the merits of our looted wine, the order came to 
proceed immediately to the attack of St. Denis. Leaving 
our scarcely tasted meal, we fell in ; soon the bugle 
sounded the advance. Descending from our eminence 
we came to a road which lay between stone walls that 
had at intervals been pierced for musketry. At these 
apertures we could not avoid casting sundry oblique 
glances, for we expected every moment to see hostile fire 
issue from them. Within a few hundred yards of the 
outworks we learned that an armistice had been agreed 
upon, and that we were to take military possession of the 
town. We were detained a couple of hours at the entrance, 
for the bridges had been blown up, and we were obliged 
to wait till temporary ones could be substituted. 

With a view to ensure the peace of the town it was 
arranged that parties consisting of an equal number of our 
men and of the Garde Nationale, and commanded alter- 
nately by an officer of one or the other nation, should patrol 
the streets throughout the night. I was one of those told 
off for this duty, and not a little proud did I feel at being in 
the momentary command of a body of armed Frenchmen. 


July 4th. In accordance with the military convention 
signed the day before, the French army retired behind the 
Loire, and that portion of the allied troops to which I 
belonged was encamped outside the walls of St. Denis. 
We remained there three days. 

While in this neighbourhood I visited the hospitals, 
then full of French soldiers who had been wounded at 

On the 7th my division (the 4th) took up its encamp- 
ment in the Bois de Boulogne. We lined the road through 
the wood from the Barriere de Neuilly to the town of 
Boulogne. The officers' tents were pitched on the eastern, 
or Paris side, those of the men on the other. 

I know not what others did, but for my part I lay 
awake all night thinking of the pleasure in prospect on 
the following day. 

July Sth. Long before sunrise this morning a party of 
us set out on foot for Paris. So early were we that we 
found the whole space lying between the gardens of the 
Tuileries and the Champs Elyse'es, then called Place 
Louis XV., covered with a Prussian bivouac. 

I entered Paris barefooted and in rags. For the tattered 
condition of my uniform there was no immediate help, 
but the defects of the other parts of my wardrobe were at 
once remedied by the bootmaker and haberdasher. 

After a bath and a dejeuner a la fourchette, we sallied 
forth to the Louvre, to view the finest collection of pic- 
tures that the world ever saw, or will probably ever see 
again. Towards evening, hunger drove us from this en- 
joyment into the restaurant of Verey's, then the most 
celebrated in Paris. Chance placed us at the same table 
with some Prussian officers, one of whom spoke a little 
English. We became companions for the rest of the 
evening. After a sumptuous dinner we accompanied our 
associates to the parterre of the theatre of the Palais 


Eoyal. The first piece was nearly over when we arrived. 
One of our newly-made German friends, inspired probably 
by champagne, started up from his seat, and asked for 
" God save the King." The call met an immediate re- 
sponse ; actors and actresses, some in plain clothes, others 
dressed in character, rushed upon the stage and sang the 
familiar song in a manner that made it not the least 
amusing of the night's performances. I was puzzled to 
think why my friend preferred the English to the 
Prussian national anthem, not being then aware that 
" God save the King " and the " Konig's Hymne " are 
one and the same air. If this interruption had been 
caused by a British officer, his commission would pro- 
bably have paid the forfeit. But the Prussians were 
" chartered libertines " at this time. Bliicher, their chief, 
was bent on pulling down the column in the Place 
Vendome, and the train was already laid which was to 
blow up the Pont de Jena. 

July 8th. The next day Captain Turnor and I strolled 
into the Tuileries. Huissiers in embroidered uniforms 
were posted at the doors of the several apartments, but 
we were allowed to pass unquestioned. While we were 
gazing at the pictures, a body of gentlemen in court-dresses 
advanced towards us from the opposite end of the room. 
The only one in plain clothes we at once recognised by 
his portraits as Louis XVIII. The King was dressed like 
an English country gentleman of the period a blue coat 
with gilt buttons, pantaloons, and Hessian boots. We had 
only just time to draw up on one side, to assume the 
attitude of " attention," and to greet his Majesty with a 
military salute as he passed a mark of respect which was 
acknowledged by a bow and the most gracious of smiles. 

Why we were permitted thus to penetrate into the 
Eoyal sanctum is to me a riddle. Perhaps the King 
he had only been twenty-four hours on the throne had 


given orders to allow British officers a passepartout. It 
was exactly one year before that he had acted in the 
same spirit when holding a drawing-room at Grillion's 
Hotel in Albemarle Street. His attendants proposed to 
shut out the crowd. "No," exclaimed the King, "open 
the door to John Bull, he has suffered a good deal in 
keeping the door open for me." l 

July 2<ith. The 24th of each month was pay-day. 
After the morning's muster, not an officer, except the 
orderly one, was to be seen in camp. All the others 
were off to Paris to get rid of their money, a process 
which the rouge el noir tables made easy and speedy. 
On the 24th of July I was orderly officer. I well 
remember the date. Towards sunset I was sitting at 
the door of my tent when I saw a private soldier coming 
towards me by the path on the officers' side of the 
road. This was of itself an, unusual occurrence. As he 
approached, I saw to my horror the deadly pale counte- 
nance of Thomas Overman, the man upon whose body 
I had unintentionally trod at Waterloo. The figure 
saluted me as it passed. I put my hands before my 
eyes to shut out the apparition from my sight: when 
I removed them it had vanished. I spent an unusual 
time in visiting my sentries, but was at last compelled 
to retrace my steps with the prospect of being haunted by 
the ghost the live-long night. I now remembered that 
the sergeant-major's tent was close to mine. Thither I 
went for company's sake. Unspeakable was my relief 
on hearing from him that some wounded men had just 
arrived from Brussels ; amongst others was Thomas 
Overman of my company. 

As each pay-day came round, there was a like exodus 
from the camp. Happy the man who, at the end of the 
first week, had saved a few francs wherewith to buy 
1 Lockhart's " Life of Scott." * 


vegetables to season his tough ration pound of meat, or 
provide himself with some more palatable beverage than 
the very ordinary wine that was served out to him. 

Our chief amusement in these camp-days was to swim 
our &<-horses over to an island in the Seine. On the 
bank of the river was the brigade of artillery attached to 
our division. One day as a party of us bathers were 
approaching the artillery camp, we heard a loud explosion, 
and the next moment learned the cause. Two men had 
been employed in unloading live shells from an ammuni- 
tion waggon, and were passing them over to each other, 
two at a time, in the manner in which I have seen men, 
in London, treat bundles of firewood. ' Two of these shells 
coming in contact had exploded and blown one of the 
men so completely to pieces that a tarpaulin had been 
thrown over his remains. The other man was still alive, 
but the flesh was completely stripped off both his arms. 
What astonished us was that he appeared to suffer no 
pain, and when we came up to him, he was calmly 
bequeathing to his comrades the contents of his kit. 
He survived the accident four hours. 

Our dress off parade was of the lightest description 
a forage cap, a shirt, a pair of trousers, and a pair of 
slippers. Once, when thus attired, I was busy felling trees 
to make a stable for my Mf-horse, and heard my name 
called. Hatchet in hand, I jumped into the road, and 
saw a carriage full of pretty Englishwomen dressed in 
the height of the fashion. As they were strangers to 
me I was about to return to my work, but was arrested 
by a voice saying, " Come back, Mr. George," and from 
among the huge Oldenburgh bonnets there emerged the 
small familiar face of Mr. Alexander Adair, the wealthy 
army agent of Pall Mall. I was again rushing back to 
put on my uniform, but my old friend called out, " Stop 
where you are; these young ladies see plenty of smart 


officers in Paris, and I promised them I would show them 
one en deshabille, arid I think," he added, eyeing me from 
top to toe, " I have kept my word." 

The Adairs of Flixton, Suffolk, were a junior branch of 
the family of which my friend Lord Waveney, now the 
inheritor of the estate, is the head. 

For a century the greatest intimacy subsisted between 
the Adairs and the Keppels. It began before my friend 
Mr. Alexander was born, and he lived to the age of 
ninety. William Adair, his uncle, owed his success in 
life to my grandfather's influence with the then Duke 
of Cumberland. Frequent reference to this William is 
made in my family papers. 

If his nephew Alexander had lived in the days of 
Vanity Fair, he would not have escaped the notice of 
the inimitable " Ape." He was a very small man, wearing 
his back hair plaited and twisted into what was called 
a " club," as great a singularity then as the pigtail would 
be now. 

Adair, who almost idolized Lord Keppel, was fond of 
telling how, sauntering one day down Wardour Street, he 
saw in a window a portrait of the Admiral, which he 
knew to be an undoubted Sir Joshua. In the same shop 
was a picture of himself. Pretending to be wonderfully 
taken with his own likeness, he looked with an air of 
indifference upon that of his friend, and asked the man 
what he would take for the two. " Ten guineas," was the 
reply, "is my price for the officer, but, if you will not 
attempt to beat me down, I will make you a present of 
the other fellow." 

This picture, which I frequently saw in the saloon at 
Flixton Hall, was a half-length replica of the full-length 
portrait in the possession of the Queen, now in one of the 
state apartments of St. James's Palace, and hanging in 
company with the portraits of Howe, St. Vincent, and* 


Nelson. The picture belonging to Mr. Adair shared the 
fate of his mansion, which was burned down in 1847. 

Mr. Adair was probably one of the last persons who had 
learned " to ride the high horse : " he was a bold and 
skilful rider. His kinsman Lord Waveney has heard of 
his clearing a turnpike gate. I have been told that when 
nearer eighty than seventy, he would, as a captain of 
Suffolk Yeomanry Cavalry, leap over his own deer hurdles 
in. full uniform, and invite his troop to follow him. He 
had a villa near Croydon. Hyde Park was then sur- 
rounded by wooden palings. It was his frequent practice 
to jump over the enclosure as a short cut to his office. A 
young Suffolk groom attempting to follow him one day got 
a bad fall. The poor stunned lad was immediately col- 
lared by the park-keeper, who said, " I will not let you go 
till you tell me the name of your fool of a master." 

In the Champs Elyse'es, and on the right-hand side of 
the road looking towards the Barriere de 1'Etoile, was en- 
camped the Brigade of Guards. Under the shade of a 
large plane-tree near the officers' tents used to assemble 
men of every rank from that of General to Ensign to hear 
the last shave. Of a morning might be seen the portly 
form of Lady Castlereagh taking her constitutional walk. 
Her ladyship was accompanied by a large pack of dogs of 
all sorts and sizes. One of these pets once strayed into 
the camp, when, alas for the gallantry of my profession, 
it afforded a good twenty minutes' chase to the idlers 
round the plane-tree. The offence was of a nature that 
Lady Castlereagh, although one of the most good-tempered 
of women, could not put up with, so she sent a formal 
complaint to the Commander-in-chief. In due time she 
received an answer from F.M. the Duke of Wellington 
informing her that he had made the necessary inquiries 
respecting the delinquents, but found that they were 
men of such distinguished rank that they could not be 

viii.] BUMMELO. 173 

proceeded against without prejudice to the discipline of 
the army. 

The follies of the Bourbons during their short reign of 
1814 led many Englishmen of liberal tendencies to be- 
lieve that the French would have been more likely to obtain 
constitutional government from Napoleon than from their 
own incorrigibly stupid race of legitimate princes. Men so 
thinking were called " Bonapartists." My father was of 
this school, and fully indoctrinated me with his opinions. 
I have before me a miniature of the great Corsican captain, 
which used to hang in his dressing-room. On its frame he 
caused to be inscribed in gilt letters the words " Magnse 
virtutes, nee minora vitia." If my good sire had known 
as much of his hero as history has since revealed to us of 
him, he would, I think (if we except the lellica VIRTUS), 
have been puzzled to point out any other signification of 
the Latin noun which would apply to this ATTILA 1 of 
modern times. For my own part I have long recanted 
this youthful heresy, but I thought differently when an 
Ensign in the Bois de Boulogne, and was fond of sporting 
my opinions to whomsoever would grant me a hearing. 
One man I brought to my way of thinking, and as he was 
a type of a numerous class of his countrymen, I give him 
a place in my memoirs. He was the fruit-seller of the 
camp, called by our men " Bummelo," the sound produced 
on their ears by the cry of the staple of his wares, " Bons 

Bummelo, a squat, black-muzzled Frenchman with rings 
in his ears and a white cotton capon his head, used to 
make us aware of his presence by his vociferous loyalty. 
" Vive le Eoi ! vivent les Bourbons ! " was his constant 
cry, and then would follow the eternal " Vive Henri 

1 " Je serai un Attila pour Venise," words addressed by General 
Bonaparte to the deputies of the Venetian Republic, April 19th, 


Quatre ! " a royalist air with which our ears were nauseated 
morning, noon, and night. One day a party of brother 
subs, and I, meeting Bummelo, told him that he was 
much mistaken if he supposed we cared a rush for his 
Louis XVIII. that all our sympathies were with 
Napoleon le Grand." The conversion produced by this 
speech was instantaneous. Seizing his cap by the tassel, 
Bummelo waved it over his head and began screaming 
at the top of his voice " Vive 1'Empereur ! a bas 
les Bourbons ! a bas Louis dixhuit ! a bas ce vieux 
cochon ! " and instead of " Henri Quatre " he favoured 
us with a parody which I here give together with its 

" Vive Bonaparte ! 
Vive ce conque'rant ! 
Ce diable a quatre 
A bien plus de talent 
Que Henri Quatre 
Et tous ses descendants." 

" Vive Henri Quatre ! 
Vive ce Roi vaillant ! 
Ce diable a quatre 
A le triple talent 
De boire et battre 
Et de faire le galant." 

"With Englishmen the belief that Napoleon was capable 
of sustaining the novel character of first magistrate in a 
limited monarchy, was a mere speculative opinion. On 
the other side of the Channel it was a vital principle. 
There were Frenchmen who looked upon "Liberty and 
the Emperor " as the war-cry of a cause in which they 
implicitly believed, and for which they were ready to 
shed their blood: they were for the most part men who 
had shared in the victories of Austerlitz and Jena. A 


conspicuous example of this class of politicians was 
General La Bedoyere, who, in violation of the treaty 
of Paris, was put to death one evening shortly after our 
entry into the French capital. 

A veteran in point of military service, although only 
twenty-nine years of age, covered with wounds, one of 
the handsomest men of his day, of engaging manners, of 
the most amiable disposition, La Bedoyere, whatever may 
have "been the errors of his political opinions, was guided 
in his actions by an ardent love of country. 

This officer, it will be remembered, was the first who in 
March of this year (1815), brought an entire regiment under 
the standard of the imperial adventurer. At the moment 
that he approached Napoleon at the head of his men, he 
gave vent to the feeling uppermost in his mind. He openly 
assured Napoleon that Frenchmen would no longer lend 
themselves to his schemes of ambition, but that they 
expected to live under his rule a free and happy people. 
The inchoate sovereign smiled at the enthusiasm of the 
youthful patriot, for before the Colonel had ended his 
harangue his regiment had donned the tricolor. When in 
the month of June La Bedoyere found himself a peer of 
France, general of division, and aide-de-camp of the 
Emperor, he could not conceal his astonishment. " Mais," 
exclaimed he, "je n'ai rien fait pour 1'Empereur; j'ai tout 
fait pour la France." 

Among the last to quit the field of Waterloo, La Be- 
doyere hurried to Paris to endeavour to obtain the throne 
for the son of the abdicated Emperor, as the best bargain 
he could make for his country. Finding he could produce 
no impression on that assembly, he cried out, " Quant & 
moi, mon sort n'est pas douteux." His words were 

It was at the moment when all Paris was execrating 
this act of perfidy, that I met in the streets Count Alfred 


de Vaudreuil, an old Westminster schoolfellow and 
brother boarder. He afterwards became Secretary of 
Embassy to the British Court under the reign of Charles 
the Tenth. His elder brother had borne a commission 
in one of our hussar regiments. 

These De Vaudreuils were of the same family as the 
Marquis of that name who ceded Canada to the British in 
1757, and as another Marquis de Vaudreuil who com- 
manded a line-of-battle ship in d'Orvillier's action with 
Admiral Keppel in 1778. 

On Alfred de Vaudreuil's invitation, I dined with his 
father at the Louvre, of which palace he was Governor. 

The Count, an old man bordering on decrepitude, had 
served throughout the Seven Years' War against Frederick 
the Great, as aide-de-camp to Marshal Soubise. Besides 
his post of Governor of the Louvre, he was Grand 
Fauconnier and Pair de France. The Countess, many 
years his junior and still handsome, was a friend of my 
grandmother De Clifford, and, if I remember right, an 
Englishwoman. I met at dinner Alfred's elder brother, 
and a man between forty arffl fifty years of age, whom 
the young men addressed as " mon oncle." This gentle- 
man, as I gathered from his conversation, had passed his 
time under the Consulate and the Empire, and was, as 
may well be imagined, not over pleased with the new 
order of things. Unfortunately, politics cropped up. In 
the course of dinner " mon oncle " came to high words 
with the Governor, and the two young Royalist sons were 
struggling for the honour of fighting their Imperialist 
kinsman. Madame de Vaudreuil took me aside, and with 
tears in her eyes begged me to help her to get rid of her 
foolish boys, then said aloud to them, " Pray show Mr. 
Keppel the sights of the Palais Eoyal." Although this 
was just the locality in which I had no need of a cicerone, 
I took the Countess's hint and carried off her sons, for 


although more of a Bonapartist than a Bourbonite, I coultl 
not help feeling with Mercutio, 

" A plague of both your houses." 

We three young men now sauntered into the Palais 
Royal. In every print-shop was a picture of La Bedoyere. 
Our conversation naturally turned upon the event to 
which I have just alluded. As I had been oftener in the 
habit of calling my old schoolfellow " Froggy " than by 
his real name, I felt no scruple in telling him that I looked 
upon the execution of La Bedoyere as a judicial murder. 
Whereupon the brothers, like two furies, turned upon me 
at once. I was worse than " mon oncle." Did I mean to 
insult them by espousing the cause of such a traitor to his 
lawful sovereign ? 

Somehow I managed to escape from the two young 
Legitimists with a whole skin, but I at once -dropped my 
acquaintance, and came to the conclusion that a tough 
ill-dressed ration in camp was better than a feast in a 
palace with such combative hosts. 


Our March through Paris. Ordered Home. Our Cold Reception 
in England. The Sea Horse its fate. Property-tax Re- 
. pealed. Princess Charlotte at the Chapel Royal. Our Waterloo 
Medals. Embark for Mediterranean. Zante. Santa Maura. 
Corfu. Frederick Chamier. A Military Execution. Return 
to England. Embark for the Mauritius. Crossing the Line. 
Peter Booth. Mauritius during the " Reign of Terror." Slave 
Trade and Slavery. A Hurricane. Cape of Good Hope. Lord 
Charles Somerset. Dr. James Barry. St. Helena. Napoleon's 
last moments. Laud in England. 

WE remained in camp till the cold became so intense that 
the troops could no longer be kept in safety under canvas. 
On or about the 1st of November our division was ordered 
into cantonments. Our line of march was by the Bar- 
ri^re de Neuilly and the Champs Elyse'es, past Place Louis 
Quinze, up Piue Koyale through the Boulevards des Italiens 
and Poissoniere, and out of the Porte St. Martin, our 
bayonets fixed, our drums beating, and our colours 
flying. My company, which formed a part of the head- 
quarters of the regiment, was billeted on a village to the 
north of Paris, called Le Massy. 

" We have come," writes Colonel Tidy to his friends in 
Northamptonshire, " into a place successively occupied by 
Prussians, Cossacks, and Austrians, and, would you believe 
it, of the three they (the French) prefer the Cossacks ? 
When we came in they expected to have everything eaten 
and drunk up, and prepared accordingly ; but our fellows, 
having been paid the day before, began to pull out their 


five-franc pieces. The villagers are actually enriching 

In this village we assembled as a mess for the first time 
since the regiment left England. There was no end to 
the schemes that the division did not form for its winter 
amusements ; amongst others, one for setting up a pack of 

In a letter, dated Le Massy, November 4, 1815, Colonel 
Tidy writes : " I am at length settled in a village nine 
miles from Paris, with six companies of the 14th ; the 
other four divided between two smaller villages, in one of 
which resides the Lieutenant- General, Sir Charles Colville, 
commanding the division^ who has taken our two flank 
companies for his own guard." 

In the above paragraph my good Colonel speaks of being 
" settled ; " such a word ought to have no place in a 
soldier's vocabulary. Within a few weeks of' the date of 
Tidy's letter we were ordered home. 

We landed at Dover in the latter end of December. 
Public feeling in England had undergone a great revulsion 
in regard to us soldiers. Iftie country was satiated with 
glory, and was brooding over the bill that it had to pay for 
the article. An anti-military spirit had set in. Waterloo 
and Waterloo men were at a discount. We were made 
painfully sensible of the change. If we had been convicts 
disembarking from a hulk we could hardly have met with 
less consideration. " It's us as pays they chaps," was the 
remark of a country bumpkin as our men came ashore. 
The very atmosphere contributed to the chilliness of our 
reception. It was on a bitter winter day that we landed. 
No cheers like those which greeted the Crimean army on 
its return welcomed us home. The only persons who 
took any notice of us were the Custom-house officers, and 
they kept us for hours under arms in the cold while they 
subjected us to a rigid search. These functionaries were 

N 2 


more than usually on the alert at this time, because a day 
or two before a brigade of artillery with guns loaded to 
the muzzle with French lace had just slipped through their 

Our treatment throughout the day was all of a piece. 
Towards dusk we were ordered to Dover Castle, part of 
which building served as a prison. Our barracks were 
strictly in keeping with such a locality cold, dark, 
gloomy, and dungeon-like. No food was to be had but 
our "ration." No furniture procurable but what the 
barrack stores afforded. In this bitter winter's night, the 
first of my return from campaigning, I lay on a bed of straw. 

[1816.] One day early in January 1816, we marched to 
Hy the. With the aid of the upholsterers of the town we 
had made ourselves tolerably comfortable in our weather- 
boarded barracks, when we received our route for Deal. At 
Deal we met with like treatment ; we were ordered at a 
moment's notice to Ramsgate, there to take shipping for 
the south of Ireland. We had accordingly embarked our 
baggage on board the Sea Horse transport. That same 
morning an order arrived for the disembarkation of our 
baggage and the immediate disbandment of our battalion. 

Deep were the lamentations of those of my brother 
officers whose military career had been thus nipped in the 
bud ; but it may be surmised that they became reconciled 
to their fate when they learned the still heavier calamity 
from which the decree of the Horse Guards had probably 
saved them. 

On the 26th of January of this year, the Sea Horse 
sailed from the Downs, having on board, instead of my 
regiment, the head-quarters of the 59th, and a few days 
later was wrecked off Kinsale. The numbers on board, 
counting women and children, amounted to 394. Of these, 
365 were drowned ; among the saved was neither woman 
nor child. 

ix.] FATE OF THE "SEA HORSE." 181 

The troops that relieved us at Deal met a like fate. 

The Lord Melville and the Boadieea transports sailed at 
the same time with the Sea Iforse. Like their consort, 
they also were lost off Kinsale. The Lord Melville saved 
all her crew but seven. Out of 280 in the Boadicea, only 
60 were saved. 

Beyond a short paragraph in the papers, no public 
notice was taken of the catastrophe. There was then no 
Plimsoll in Parliament to inquire what were the circum- 
stances that caused those vessels taken up by Government 
and nearly 600 soldiers to go to the bottom. But if such 
a calamity were beneath the notice of the Legislature, it 
was by no means a matter of indifference to us, who were 
so nearly becoming its victims. Perhaps our apprehensions 
made us judge unfairly, but I well remember the language 
of the mess-table. It was argued that with the return of 
peace, soldiers had become a drug in the market, while 
freight was a costly commodity ; that hence our rulers 
were much disposed to accept the lowest tender for 
tonnage without examining too closely into the seaworthi- 
ness of the ships engaged, and that consequently vessels 
unfit to carry coals from Newcastle to London were taken 
up to convey troops to all parts of the world. Nor was 
the demeanour of the skippers of these transports re- 
assuring ; they were generally men of very little education 
their dialect showed that they belonged to the " black 
country," and though they seemed to have a practical 
knowledge of the soundings in the Channel, it was a 
question whether, to many of them, the use of a Hadley's 
quadrant was not an unknown science. It was frequently 
my lot, as a subaltern, to sail in one of these coal-tubs ; 
and often in a gale of wind I have fervently wished that 
the craft in which I was a passenger might prove a bettev 
swimmer than the Sea Horse. 

The 14th Begiment, stripped of its third battalion, lost 


its nickname of "Calvert's Entire," or rather exchanged 
it for that of another malt liquor, " Calvert's All Butt " 

Being " out of the break," I was told to hold myself in 
readiness to join a detachment of the regiment about to 
proceed to the Ionian Islands, where our second battalion 
was stationed. Previous to embarkation I was granted a 
few weeks' leave of absence. 

When I arrived in London the opposition party in 
Parliament were engaged in a fierce war against the 
property-tax ; and their objections to the continuance of 
this war impost in time of peace were the more strongly 
urged in consequence of Lord Castlereagh's having taunted 
the people with "an ignorant impatience of taxation." 
After a struggle of six weeks a majority of thirty-seven 
declared in favour of its repeal. I was not altogether 
uninterested in the decision of the Legislature, for by it 
I came, for the first time, into the enjoyment of the full 
pay of an Ensign:, heretofore I had been mulcted four- 
pence out of my day's pay of five shillings and threepence 
as my contribution towards the expenses of the war. 

The public was at this time wholly engrossed with the 
approaching marriage of the Princess Charlotte. A short 
time before the wedding, her .Royal Highness went in 
state to the Chapel Royal. On that same morning I 
went to the peers' seat in the chapel, and could not 
resist looking furtively up at the Royal pew. It was five 
years since I had seen the Princess. I wished to observe 
what changes that lapse of time had wrought in her. 
In form she was considerably altered, but a glance showed 
me that in other respects she was the same Princess 
whose playmate I had had the honour of being in my 
under-school days. She knew me immediately, and from 
under the shade of her hands, which were joined together 
over her face as she knelt, she made me sundry telegraphic 

ix.] ZANTE LADIES. 183 

signals of recognition in her own peculiar manner. The 
moment the service was over I rushed to the corner of 
St. James's Street to see her pass. She kissed her hand to 
me as she drove by, and continued doing so till her 
carriage turned out of Pall Mall. Up to the moment 
that I lost sight of her, I could see her hand waving from 
the window. 

I saw her for the last time. 

When, after an absence of eighteen months, I returned 
to England, the flags of the ships in the Channel were 
hung half-mast high, and the whole nation was mourning 
for her whom it had fondly looked upon as its future 

My leave expired, I joined a detachment of my regiment 
then quartered at Chichester. The good people of that 
town were very hospitably disposed towards our little 
garrison. At a ball given by one of them, we " Waterloo 
men" wore for the first timeithe medals which had just 
been distributed to us. Towards the end of the month 
we marched to Portsmouth. .Here I embarked on board 
the Kennersley Castle transport. : on or about the day that 
the Princess Charlotte was married to Prince Leopold of 
Saxe-Coburg, my ship set sail for .Zaute. In due course 
we landed in that very pretty island. 

The ladies of Zante led the lives of Mohammedans 
rather than of Christians. When I was quartered in 
their town, we soldiers could never get a glimpse of their 
proverbially pretty faces, save through the bars of the 
latticed windows, at which they used to pass their days. 
We did all in our power to entice them from their zenanas. 
First, we tried to see what our band in the piazza would 
do for us. But our music had no charms for them. 
Failing to make an impression on their ears, we attacked 
another sense. When the beccafico came into season we 
invited the elite, of the island of both sexes to a feast, of 


which that delicious bird formed the staple; but no; the 
gentlemen indeed gorged the hook greedily enough, but 
their kinswomen would not rise to the bait. 

Thus thrown on our own resources, we passed our time 
in boating and swimming, and were almost as much on, 
or in, the water as on dry land. 

After some weeks of this amphibious life, my company 
was ordered to Santa Maura, another of the Ionian 
Islands, the Leucate of ancient history. 

Taking leave of the Fiore di Levante, as its inhabitants 
fondly call Zante, we embarked on board the Leonforte, a 
Neapolitan man-of-war schooner. Our course, was the 
same that Virgil assigns to the hero of his immortal poem. 

Had I been a pupil in Tom Brown's School Days, and 
had for tutor a Thomas Arnold, instead of a William 
Page, I should doubtless have thoroughly enjoyed following 
in .ZEneas's wake; but that "pius" worthy was so painfully 
associated in my mind with my old Westminster task- 
master, that I did not fully appreciate my advantage- 
Even, however, with this drawback, it was impossible not 
to admire the faithful delineation of the aspect the 
surrounding country presented. 

Like ^Eneas, we continue some time in sight of the 
" Zacynthian woods ; " we sail past the " rocky Neritos ; " 
we avoid " Ithaca's detested shore." 

"At length Leucate's cloudy top appears, 
And Phoebus' temple, which the sailor fears." 

While gazing upon " Leucate's cloudy top," the Leonforte 
runs aground. Thus, at one and the same moment we 
are enabled by sight and feeling to test the fidelity of the 
Roman poet's description. 

The bump ashore was attended by no other incon- 
venience than preventing us from reaching Amaxichi, the 
capital of the island, till after dark. For this delay we 


were indemnified by the beautiful appearance which the 
lighted town presented as it lay reflected on the water by 
a bright Mediterranean moon. But Amaxichi could not 
stand the scrutiny of open day. It is, or more properly 
speaking was, a collection of wooden two-storied houses, 
small, low, and rickety, having verandas to the front. 
Nearly the first time I set foot in Amaxichi the in- 
habitants were on their knees in prayer. There was at 
that moment, although I did not perceive it, a slight 
shock of earthquake. The poor people had good reason 
to be alarmed at such a phenomenon. Nine years later 
their town was destroyed by an earthquake, and in 1870 
its successor was a heap of ruins from the same cause. 

My quarters lay in the old fort of Santa Maura, 
separated from the town by a large lagoon some miles in 
circumference, and nearly a mile across. The lagoon is 
spanned over by a narrow stone causeway, consisting of 
some three hundred and odd arches. The causeway has 
no parapet, and is not a safe road even for a sober man. 
It was the cause of more than one of our tipsy soldiers 
finding a watery grave. 

The first objects that met my eye on entering the fort 
were five Greeks in irons, who now came under our 
especial surveillance. They were murderers, whose capital 
sentence had been commuted to hard labour for life. Upon 
them devolved the scavenger work of the fort. They all 
wore the picturesque dress of their nation the red skull- 
cap, the short embroidered jacket, the sash round the 
waist, the Albanian belt, the greave-shaped leggings, and 
the sandals of undressed hide secured by thongs. 

One of the five, a short, thick-set man, looked the 
villain he was. With this exception, they were bright, 
intelligent-looking men, of the usual Ionian type : 
orange complexions, oval faces, highly-developed fore- 
heads. They had thick moustaches, and wore their long 


black hair flowing down their backs. Their gait was erect, 
and their step, in spite of their fetters, elastic. 

If a romance writer had wanted a den for his robbers, 
he could have hardly found one better suited for 
description than the actual abode of these convicts. It 
was a huge cave hewn out of the solid rock, against which 
the sea used to break with a perpetual roar. 

It was my duty, as orderly officer, once or twice a week 
to pay a visit to this dungeon in the still hours of the 
night. I was accompanied by a sergeant who with an iron 
bar would strike every link or ring of the prisoners' 
fetters, in order to ascertain that they had not been filed 

We were as ill off for society at Santa Maura as at 
Zante. The only house open to us was that of Sir Patrick 
lioss, the Capo del Governo of the island ; but the broad 
lagoon that lay between us prevented our visits from being 
very frequent. Shooting was our principal amusement, 
and of that we had abundance. The lagoon swarmed with 
water-fowl, and on the island there was no lack of 
partridge. The contents of our sportsmen's bags helped 
greatly to lighten our weekly bills. We had a Scotch 
brother officer for our caterer, one Lieutenant M'Kenzie, 
and he managed admirably. A cow fed on the line wall 
supplied us with milk and butter. We had a pound of 
meat each for our ration. Fish, wine, and fruit were 
nearly at nominal prices. Our money contributions to the 
mess rarely exceeded fivepence-halfpenny a day. 

Santa Maura has no rivers, but numerous mountain 
rills. Whenever the snow descended below a certain line 
in the mountains, well known to the natives, the sports- 
men used to be in a state of great commotion. They 
knew by this token that the rills were frozen over and 
that the woodcocks would descend into the plains in 
search of food. Once, when the snow had passed below 

ix.] A GREEK FAST. 187 

this line, Sir Patrick Ross invited some Greeks and the 
officers of the garrison to accompany him on a shooting 
excursion on the coast of Acarnania. We were escorted 
by several guardianos to protect us from quarantine, and 
by a number of our own men to act as beaters. Our 
place of meeting was the skirts of an olive grove extend- 
ing two or three miles along the sea-shore. The place 
literally swarmed with game. There appeared to be a bird 
under every tree. In point of skill we were perhaps 
rather below the average of fowlers, yet game so abounded 
that the slaughter was immense. I have forgotten the 
quantity killed ; it was so large, that at the time I dared 
not mention the actual amount for fear of being supposed 
to indulge in a traveller's privilege. The garrison had 
more than it could consume, and for some days our Greek 
fellow-sportsmen glutted the market of Amaxichi with 
their share of the game. 

The only time that I sat at table with any of the Santa 
Mauriote gentry was at a state-dinner given by the Capo del 
Governo to the Bishop and \ the notabilities of the island. 
Sir Patrick discovered when too late that his invitation 
had been issued for one of the 191 fast-days of the Greek 

Accordingly a good supply of eggs and fish was 
provided for the native guests, and a noble sirloin for the 
English. But the scent of the savoury joint no sooner 
reached the nostrils of the worthy primate than he gave 
himself and his co-religionists permission to eat meat. Of 
this they amply availed themselves by picking the sirloin 
to [the bone, and by leaving us to become the vicarious 
observers of their fast. 

Towards the close of the year I was ordered by Sir 
Thomas Maitland, the Lord High Commissioner of the 
Ionian Islands, to proceed to Corfu to join the head- 
quarters of my regiment, then stationed in the island. 


On my arrival I went to report myself to the redoubt- 
able Lord High Commissioner " King Tom," as he was 
universally called. I saw a soldier-like, stout-built man, 
with a stern expression of countenance, and a pair of 
penetrating grey eyes that seemed to dive into your very 
thoughts. He was somewhat uncouth in his manners, and 
his homeliness of language was rendered still more homely 
by the broad Scotch accent in which his blunt phrases 
were uttered. 

My principal chum at Corfu was Frederick Chamier, a 
lieutenant in one of the men-of-war in the harbour, but 
afterwards known to the public as the writer of Ben 
Brace and some other amusing sea novels. I was once 
reading one of them in the full persuasion that it was from 
Marryat's pen, until I came to the account of " a lark," in 
which Chamier and I were the only persons engaged, and 
thus discovered the real author. 

Chamier's bete noire was his own commanding officer 

Captain - of H.M.S. , the "tautest hand" in the 

squadron. During the Carnival at Corfu, I was sitting 
one evening in the naval officers' opera-box opposite this 
redoubtable gentleman, when a mask personating a Jack 
Tar of Nelson's days told the captain a " bit of his mind." 
" Mr. Chamier," said that officer in a fury, " you shall 
repent of this insolence." "Ay, ay, Sir," answered the 
mask, respectfully grasping his forelock sailor-fashion. 
At the door he was met by Chamier himself in full uni- 
form, who took a seat next his skipper, looking the picture 
of innocence, and in apparent unconsciousness of the scene 
that had just been enacted. 

This friend of mine had an uncle who, although blest 
with as full a share of health and spirits as usually falls to 
the lot of mortals, was always grumbling. To punish him, 
Chamier made him the subject of a novel which he 
entitled The Unfortunate Man; and that there might be no 


mistake of the person intended, he designated his uncle 
by name. In the title-page he inserted the words which 
Shakespeare puts in the mouth of Richard the Second : 

" What comfort have we now ? 
By heaven, I'll hate him everlastingly 
That bids me be of comfort any more." 

A strait scarcely a mile broad separates Corfu from the 
mainland. The short distance proved a sore temptation 
to the soldiers of the garrison. The desertions were so 
numerous that Maitland, who was Commander-in-chief as 
well as Lord High Commissioner, declared that he would 
make an example of the next offender, and when he 
threatened he always meant what he said. In defiance 
of this warning, one Thomas Pryke, a private of the 10th 
Regiment, deserted to the Albanian coast. He was brought 
back, tried by a court-martial, and condemned to be shot. 
The whole garrison were ordered out to witness the carry- 
ing into effect of the sentence. 'The column halted opposite 
the condemned cell, which, like the Santa Mauriote prison, 
was hewn out of the solid rock. The prisoner here took 
his place in the procession. 

Then was enacted the sad tragedy in all its grim details. 
The muffled drums, the band playing the " Dead March in 
Saul," the black coffin, and the living man performing the 
chief mourner in his own funeral. The troops formed three 
sides of a square. The fourth side was occupied by the 
condemned. The sentence was read, a discharge of mus- 
ketry followed, the prisoner fell, the garrison marched past 
the lifeless corpse, and then, as is usual in like cases, they 
returned to their private parades to the merriest of tunes. 

That same day I lunched with the Lord High Commis- 
sioner. I had expected to find his spirits visibly affected 
by the course which a sense of duty had compelled him to 
adopt. Not a bit of it a " Graham of Claverhouse " or a 
General Hawley could not have shown less concern. 


In the autumn of the year we were ordered home. We 
encountered a heavy gale in the Bay of Biscay, and had 
afterwards to grope our way up Channel in a thick 
November fog. As the haze dispersed, we saw every vessel, 
whether under way or at anchor, with its colours half-mast 
high. The Princess Charlotte had died in childbirth a 
few days before. In addition to the sorrow I felt for the 
loss of one who had been associated with so many happy 
boyish recollections, I had a still heavier grief to bear, for 
almost at the same time that I learned the national calamity 
I received intelligence that my mother had died within a 
fortnight of the Princess, also after giving birth to a still- 
born child. We anchored off the Isle of Wight on the 
23rd of November. I obtained immediate leave of ab- 
sence, and reached home a few hours before the funeral of 
my mother, who was followed to the grave by her eleven 
surviving children. 

The second battalion of the 14th Eegiment was dis- 
banded at the moment of disembarkation. As I was this 
time " within the break," I lost my full pay and Sir Henry 
Calvert his " All Butt " as well as his " Entire." 

[1818.] My next appointment was to an Ensigncy in 
the 22nd Eegiment of Foot. In January, 1818, I joined 
the depot at Chatham. Here also were the depots of 
several other regiments, the head-quarters of which were, 
like mine, doing garrison duty in some of the more distant 
British possessions. 

At Chatham I passed several pleasant weeks, and was 
buoying myself up in the hope that I was at length com- 
fortably settled in an English country quarter, when a 
circumstance occurred to dispel the illusion. 

There were, at the time I am speaking of, periodical 
shipments of convicts to Botany Bay. The charge of the 
felons in their passage thither usually devolved on a sub- 
altern of the Chatham consolidated Depots. The officer 


next above me on the roster was ordered on this duty. 
Not knowing how soon, if I continued in the garrison, 
my turn might come for such an employment, I obtained 
leave from the Horse Guards to join the head-quarters of 
my regiment, and in a few days I found myself on board 
a vessel bound indeed for the Southern Hemisphere, but 
not for that part of it which Sydney Smith used to call 
" the fifth or pickpocket quarter of the globe." 

When our ship reached the line, the sailors had their 
usual holiday. The sun was in the meridian, eight bells 
were struck, the log was heaved, and the watch called. A 
voice from the forecastle called " Ship ahoy ! " Neptune 
was announced, and invited on board. The representative 
of the water deity, a man of colossal form, wore on his 
head a huge indented crown made of tin. In his right 
hand he grasped dolphin grains by way of a trident. He 
had a long oakum wig and beard ; his body from the 
waist upwards was painted to represent scales of fish. 
He was seated on a gun-carriage covered with flags, and 
drawn by six amphibious-looking monsters of the same 
type as himself. As if to mark our latitude, a little 
Mauritius slave-boy, grinning from ear to ear, was perched 
on a dicky behind Neptune. Mr. Markham, surgeon of 
the 56th Eegiment, who had been well ducked in a voyage 
to the West Indies, vowed that he would not submit to a 
repetition of the ordeal. So when his name was called he 
accosted Neptune as an old acquaintance. " Well, doctor," 
said that functionary, "I may have seen you somewhere 
about the tropics, but this 'ere is the first time as you 
have visited me at the ekynoxial." Before my friend 
could answer, he was on his back in a huge tub of water. 
My turn came next. " Keppel ? " said Nepture, with a 
ruminating air, while he ran his fingers through his 
dripping beard ; " sure I must have seen Mr. Keppel afore. 
Scratchetary (secretary), just cast your eye over my list." 


" Please your honour," was the reply, " you must mean the 
gen'leman's uncle, the Admiral, \vho, you must remember, 
was always a crossing o' your line." " Just so," rejoined 
Neptune, " a little salt water will do his nevy no harm ; " 
in a trice, I was floundering alongside the doctor. 

After three dreary months on shipboard, our sailors 
thought by their reckoning that we must be somewhere in 
the latitude of the Mauritius. Ever since the early dawn 
of one day we had been straining our eyes for this speck 
on the ocean. Just as the sun was dipping below the- 
horizon there was seen on its disk something resembling 
the profile of a man's head and neck. " Land ! land ! " 
resounded from all quarters. We had caught sight of the 
summit of " Peter Booth," the most conspicuous mountain 
of the Mauritius, which, from whatever point it is seen, 
always presents this singular appearance. 

The next morning we sailed into the harbour of Port 
Louis. A boat came alongside almost as soon as we 
anchored ; it was manned by some eight or ten negroes, 
all of whose backs bore marks of the recent infliction of 
the whip. They were maroons runaway slaves in the 
temporary custody of the government police to be returned 
to their respective owners within a given time. 

The boat which came alongside brought on board two 
planters notables habitants, as they were called. One of 
them, addressing himself to me, wished to know what was 
the general state of feeling in England respecting the 
important subject which was agitating the breast of every 
colonist. Now geography formed no part of the West- 
minster curriculum. At the time that I ought to have 
been learning this useful branch of science, Dr. Page was 
whipping me into " longs and shorts." I could not there- 
fore give my querist a direct answer without wounding 
his vanity as well as my own, for I should have been 
obliged to confess that so far from understanding the 


nature of his question, I was not even aware of the exist- 
ence of his island until I was appointed to a regiment 
which formed part of its garrison. 

In course of time I became better informed. I dis- 
covered that the Mauritius, small as it is, has a history 
of its own, and that it is not an uneventful one will be 
shown by a few extracts from its annals : 

The island was discovered by the Portuguese early in 
the sixteenth century. From them it passed to the 
Spaniards, and then to the Dutch, who called it Mauritius 
after Prince Maurice, then Stadtholder. The Dutch aban- 
doned it on account, it is said, of the rats by which it 
was infested. For three years it was wholly deserted. The 
French then took possession of it, gave it the name of the 
Isle of France, and called its capital Port Louis, after their 
reigning sovereign. For three-quarters of a century the 
colonists lived under the ancient dynasty of France happy 
and contented and well they might, for from all those ills 
which drove the mother country into rebellion the Mauri- 
tians were happily free. Here there were no titles, no 
seignorial rights, no rivalry between the spiritual and 
temporal authorities, no classes exempt from taxation, no 
lettres de cachet, no Bastille, no corvee, none at least for 
the white man. The colonists were in the full enjoyment 
of these immunities, when, on 30th January, 1792, there 
anchored in the port a vessel from Bordeaux. It was 
observed that the captain and crew wore red, white, and 
blue cockades. In a few moments the island learned the 
meaning of this adornment. As a bull at the waving of 
a red rag, so were these impulsive islanders roused to 
instant fury at the sight of the tricolor. They straight- 
way abjured all further allegiance to their Sovereign, 
proclaimed the "one and indivisible Eepublic," assumed 
the badge of Liberty, Fraternity, and Equality, and com- 
pelled the General in command of the Eoyal garrison to 



do likewise. Nor did they stop there ; they formed them- 
selves into a Constituent Assembly, dispossessed Louis 
XVL's civil officers, and filled their places by their own 
retainers. At the same time, the soldiers of the garrison, 
who had thrown off all discipline, sent delegates to the 
self-appointed government to assure them of their adhesion 
to the new order of things. 

The Assembly now sent deputies to France, in order to 
obtain a sanction to their proceedings ; but apprehensive 
lest the Admiral on the station, Count de Macne"mara, a 
stout Royalist, might intercept them in their passage, they 
required as a guarantee that he should send on shore the 
rudder of his ship. 

As soon as the vessel containing the deputies was safe 
out of port, four hundred soldiers, seizing the boats in the 
harbour, went on board the Thetis the flagship to secure 
the person of the Admiral. That officer would fain have 
received them with a broadside, but his men fraternized 
with the soldiers and refused to fire upon them. Making 
a virtue of necessity, Macne"mara accompanied the sol- 
diers ashore, first arming himself with a brace of pistols, 
of which his valet without his knowledge had drawn the 

On arriving in the Rue Royale, the Admiral came in 
sight of a gibbet, from which was suspended a lanthorn. 
Aware now of his danger, he rushed into a watchmaker's 
shop. He was followed by some soldiers, at whom he 
snapped both his pistols, and was immediately put to death ; 
his head was severed from his body, fixed upon a pole, and 
carried in triumph through the streets. 

Throughout the " Eeign of Terror in France," these slave- 
holding apostles of freedom endeavoured to ape the follies 
and atrocities of their European cousins. Under the name of 
" Les Chaumieres," they formed themselves into assemblies 
on the Jacobin model, and when they heard that the 


National Assembly had issued assignats, the Mauritians had 
likewise recourse to an inconvertible paper currency. To 
complete the horrible farce, they erected a guillotine in the 
square, and were about to bring some of the officials of 
the ancien r&gime under its knife x when the news of the 
downfall of the Robespierre government defeated their 
intentions, and in some degree restored the isle to its 

During the "Revolution war" the Mauritians made most 
successful inroads upon our commerce. It is computed that, 
in the first ten years of the war, the value of British ships 
and cargoes taken by the privateers of the island amounted 
to two millions and a half sterling. This profitable venture 
of course ceased when in 1810 the island surrendered to 
British arms. 

But there was another lucrative employment which was 
also threatened with deterioration by the capture. The 
colonists were busily employed in importing negroes from 
the island of Madagascar a commodity for which there 
was a great demand, in consequence of the mortality of the 
slaves, caused by excess of work and insufficiency of food. 
An Act of the British Parliament was in force by which 
traffic in slaves was punishable by transportation. But 
the Mauritians were not slow to discover that they had not 
much to apprehend from a too rigid enforcement of the law 
on the part of the Governor, Mr. (afterwards Sir) Robert 
Townsend Farquhar. If, therefore, their slavers could elude 
the vigilance of the British war-cruisers off Madagascar, 
the difficulties of landing their victims would be nearly 
nominal. Farquhar was an almost undisguised advocate for 
a continuance of the trade. I have before me some of 
his despatches that were laid before Parliament. In one of 
them he laments over " the great deficiency of labourers in 
consequence of the strict blockade of these islands." He 
expresses his fears, that " unless some means be speedily 

o 2 


devised for supplying these colonies with hands, they cannot 
continue in cultivation, and must become deserts." He 
assures the Minister of the Colonies that " without a fresh 
importation of slaves, these islands, he is given to under- 
stand, and is led to believe, cannot continue in cultivation." 
His Excellency had not far to go in search of persons who 
gave him thus to understand and led him thus to believe, 
for Belombre, the largest slave estate in the colony, was 
the joint property of three members of his family, one of 
whom, his aide-de-camp, Captain Thomas le Sage, was an 
officer in my regiment. The immediate neighbourhood of 
Belombre was one of the favourite creeks of the slavers 
for running their contraband cargoes of human flesh. 

The result of the connivance on the part of the Governor 
was that, in contravention of the Act of Parliament, fifty 
thousand negroes were smuggled into the island during 
the first ten years that the Mauritius became a dependency 
of the British Crown. Farquhar was in high favour with 
the Prince Eegent and with Louis XVIIT. The one made 
him a baronet, the other invested him with the Legion of 
Honour. It is hardly necessary to add that he was a 
zealous supporter of the Tory Government. He used to 
boast in Parliament of the " series of measures he had 
passed to better the condition and alleviate the oppression 
of the slave." One of these alleged alleviations was the 
abolition of the public flogging of women. No document 
was produced in proof of this assertion, for the simple 
reason that none such ever had an existence. I was an 
eye-witness of one of these whippings. It took place in 
the market-place. The poor woman was tied to a ladder 
placed against the wall of the theatre. The punishment 
was inflicted by a government policeman. 

These castigations were not unfrequently imposed by 
command of some lady in a sudden fit of passion against 
a servant of her household. Fully to understand the 


severity of the sentence, we should bear in mind the 
wideness of the social space that separated the house slave 
from the " negresse de pioche," as the female worker in a 
plantation was commonly called. It must be obvious, that 
to a modest young woman reared in the luxury of an 
opulent white man's family, the public exposure would 
cause more mental anguish than the stripes could inflict 
bodily torture. 

During my residence in the island I was occasionally 
the guest of a planter. What most surprised me in these 
visits was the demeanour of the negroes towards their 
white superiors. All the morning they would be romping 
with their master's children, and at dinner time would 
take part in the conversation of the persons behind whose 
chairs they were standing. But while within the dwelling 
of my host such a patriarchal scene was being enacted, 
some unhappy wretch at the boiling-house might be 
pinioned to the ground and writhing under the terrible 
lash of the cowhide. 

I am one of the few surviving members of that majority 
in the House of Commons whose votes in 1833 caused 
slavery to cease in the British dominions, and thereby 
led the way to its extinction throughout the whole 
civilized world. 

At the period of which I am speaking, authentic 
documents were made public, whereby it became evident 
that in no one of our dependencies did slavery assume a 
more frightful aspect than in the Mauritius. Scarcely 
indeed does Mrs. Beecher Stowe, in her account of the 
working of that hellish system in the Southern States 
of America, describe one horror the counterpart to which 
could not have been found in this small speck in the 
Indian Ocean. 

It has been commonly supposed that the author of 
Uncle Tom's Cabin has over-coloured her picture when 


she speaks of the manner in which the negro used to be 
lumped together with other descriptions of goods and 
chattels ; but the following extracts from the advertisement 
sheets of the Mauritius Gazette a file of which I have 
before me will contain a prosaic refutation of this belief : 

" Mercredi, 25 Janvier, vente a Fen can chez M. cle Marign'y, bazin a 
vaies, cambrick, toile bleue, cartes a jouer, drap, casimir, liqueur, eau 
<le vie, eau de Cologne, bouchons, arinoires, table. Plus seront 
vendus sans retrait six noirs et negresses de pioche appartenant a 
M. de Marigny, savoir Antoine, Mozambique ; Sarima, Mozambique ; 
Sabine, Mozambique, et son enfant ; Rosalie, Malgache, et son enfant. 

"A la suite de la dite vente M. Aveline e"tant sur son depart, fera 
vendre les nommes : 

" Jean Baptiste, creole, age de 30 ans, excellent maitre d'hotel et 

" Henri 1'Eveille, creole, age de 17 ans, domestique et palefrenier, 
sachant laver et plisser. 

" Luron, Abraham, Moise et Valentin, tons noirs orfevres, bijoutier.*, 
avec d'excellens outils. 

"Plus quatre belles vaches et deux bouvillons, une jolie petite 
maison, trois jeunes noirs, et 40 douzaines de biere. S'adresser au 
M. Marchais." 

Here follows a government advertisement for the hire 

of slaves: 


" 22nd February, 

" Sealed tenders in duplicate, marked on the envelope, " Tenders of 
hire of Carpenters, Mason's, &c.," will be received at this office on 
Saturday the 10th of March for the hire of 
14 Negro Carpenters 
6 Negro Labourers 
and 4 Negro Masons 

required by the Engineer department, and to be employed at Flacq 
for such time as they may be required. 

" Deputy Commissary-General." 

" A LOUER, une excellente et belle nourrice, chez M. Petit." 
" Une bonne nourrice, sans enfant, chez M. Prezelin, tailleur, sur la 

ix.] A SLAVE AUCTION. 199 

The word " Creole " attached to a slave's name indicated 
that he was born in the colony " Malgache," that he 
was imported from Madagascar ; " Mozambique," that he 
came from the channel so called. The Mozambique was 
considered more docile and intelligent than his fellow 
slaves. From this class the domestic servant was generally 
selected they are distinguishable by a peculiar smell. 

An American of one of the Southern States was jus- 
tifying his dislike of some of his negroes on account of 
the offensiveness of their smell. " You ought not," replied 
Sydney Smith, " to allow yourself to be so led by the nose." 

Who does not remember the vivid picture of the con- 
sternation that pervaded the household of Mr. St. Clare 
(Uncle Tom's master) when that gentleman was brought 
home in a dying state ? How his widow after his death 
broke up the establishment, and thus caused husband to 
be separated from wife, and mother from child, by a tap 
of the auctioneer's hammer ? This violent tearing asunder 
of all domestic ties used to occur in the Mauritius in 
almost every day of the year Sundays not excepted. 
Take as a sample the following notice from the Mauritius 
Gazette. It relates to the estate of a M. Antoine Curtat, 
whose widow acted in the same manner as the Mrs. St. 
Clare in Mrs. Beecher Stowe's tale : 

" II sera par le ministere de M rae- Bonnefin etsoii Collegue present 
precede a la continuation de la vente a 1'encan du plus oft'rant et 
dernier encherisseur, et an comptant, des meubles, effets, mobiliers, et 
(;sclaves, dependant de la succession du dit M . Curtat, et consistant en 
argenterie, line montre d'or a repetition, un troupeuu d'environ cin- 
quante betes, et trente-six esclaves." 

Out of the thirty-five lots I select the following : 


5. Marianne, malgache, 28 ans, faiseuse de sacs. 
17. Jean-Paul, creole, 6 

18. Jeannette, id. 5 J tous 3 enfans de Marianne. 

19. Ernest, id. 2 



22. Clementine, Creole, 

23 domestique. 

23. Julien, id. 

6 } 

24. Laurencienne, id. 

7 ( tine. 

25. Angelique, id. 


27. Brigitte, , id. 

25 domestique. 

28. Hypolite, id. 

4 ) 

29. Polidor, id. 

1 ( 

30. Victorine, id. 

21 couturiere. 

31. Alphonse, id. 

5 enfant de Victorine. 

The above extract will show that in this single sale nine 
children were forcibly torn for ever from their mothers 
their ages ranging from the Laurencienne of seven years 
to the little Polidor of one. 

" How long do slaves generally last ? " asks a stranger of 
Simon Legree, " Uncle Tom's " last master. 

" Well, dunno ! 'cording as their constitution is. Stout 
fellers last six or seven years ; trashy ones gets worked up 
in two or three. I used to, when I furst begun, have 
considerable trouble fussing with 'em and trying to make 
'em hold out. Law ! 'twasn't no sort of use. I lost money 
on 'em, and 'twas heaps of trouble. Now you see I just 
put 'em straight through, sick or well. When one nigger's 
dead I buy another ; and I find it comes cheaper and easier 
every way." 

It appears by a return laid before the British Parliament 
that the annual mortality among the slaves of the Belombre 
estate from 1816 to 1821 averaged 16 per cent. But the 
average mortality of the free black and coloured popula- 
tion in the Mauritius for the same number of years 
scarcely amounted to 2f per cent. 

What a cruel expenditure of human life, and what 
a fearful amount of human suffering do these official 
documents reveal? and how nearly do they tally with 
the calculations of Mr. Simon Legree ! 

The Belombre estate, be it remembered, was that with 


which Governor Farquhar was indirectly connected, and 
which he was constantly declaring in Parliament to be 
the best regulated in the island. 

The year before I arrived in the island, Farquhar went 
to Europe on account of his health. Major-General Gage 
John Hall, Commander of the troops, became Governor ad 
interim. The new functionary soon became convinced that 
not only his predecessor in office, but that all those whose 
duty it was to carry out the provisions of the Slave-Trade 
Abolition Act, were resorting to every expedient to make it 
a dead letter. Acting upon these convictions, Hall sus- 
pended the Chief Justice and the Attorney- General^ 
dismissed several civil servants from their posts, and 
established domiciliary visits to planters' " habitations," in 
search of newly-imported negroes. Remonstrances against 
his proceedings by the colonists to the mother-country 
procured his immediate recall ; and this brings me to the 
question put to me by the notable habitant in Port Louis 
harbour, namely, whether the removal of the obnoxious 
Governor was to be construed into a virtual admission on 
the part of the British Government that the planters were to 
have no further let or hindrance to their free importation 
of " hands." 

In the month of December, General Hall embarked for 
Europe, having first surrendered his post to the commanding 
officer of my regiment, Colonel, afterwards Major-General, 
Sir John Dalrymple ; and I became so far benefited by the 
change of administration that I was appointed aide-de-camp 
to the new Governor. 

; [1819.] My chief resided for the most part at Mon Plaisir, 
a country-house situate in that beautiful Shaddock Grove, 
in which Bernardin de St. Pierre has placed the cradles 
and the tombs of his Paul and Virginia. One event only 
occurs to me as worthy of record during the six weeks I 
abode in this pleasant retreat. This was a hurricane a 


visitation to which this island is unfortunately liable. It 
commenced on the 25th of January, at about six in the 
evening. The sea-breeze had subsided, and the land-breeze 
came not, as on ordinary occasions, to replace it. Over 
our usually clear atmosphere there hung a lurid haze. In 
the midst of a dead calm, a sudden gust of wind blew off 
the tops of the cocoa-nut trees, which came bounding over 
the country with the lightness of thistledown, presenting 
the appearance of huge artichokes engaged in a steeple - 
chase. In common with other houses in the island, Mon 
Plaisir was built entirely of wood. As the storm increased, 
which it did towards midnight, the timbers of the building 
cracked and groaned like those of a ship at sea in a heavy 
gale of wind. It was an anxious night that we passed, for 
every moment we expected the walls would fall in and 
bury us in the ruins. 

Major- General, afterwards Sir Ealph Darling, who had 
been appointed from home to succeed General Hall, arrived 
in the island early in February, and continued me in iny 
post of aide-de-camp. I now shifted my quarters from 
Mon Plaisir to Eeduit, another charming country-house, 
where I resided till June, when my regiment embarked 
for England. 

As we approached the Cape of Good Hope, called by its 
early discoverers " Cabo Tormentoso " (the stormy cape), 
we encountered the most violent tempest I ever witnessed. 
The lightning was awful. Wet blankets were placed at 
the foot of each mast. Every moment we expected that a 
thunderbolt would send us to the bottom. But we pro- 
videntially weathered the gale, and came safe to anchor in 
Simon's Bay. 

As soon as we set foot on shore, we started off on a 
visit to Cape Town. In a few minutes our " wagen " 
drew up before our inn-door a most unwieldy concern, 
fitted up with benches, and covered with a canvas hood 


resembling a huge gipsy tent on wheels. On a board in 
front, and on a level with the horses, sat the driver. By 
his side was his mate, whose sole business it was to keep 
his horses up to the collar. This man was armed with a 
whip, the handle of which was of bamboo and the thong 
of rhinoceros-hide, roughly plaited together, and of suffi- 
cient length to reach the foremost horses of the team. 

The " wagenvoerman " belonged to a race of people 
called at the Cape " Bastaards," the offspring of a Dutch 
boer and a female Hottentot slave. He was of huge 
dimensions, and inherited the peculiar form respectively 
attributed to the race of both his parents. 

In the first half of our journey, which led principally 
along the seashore, we were almost stifled by the effluvia 
arising from the carcasses of dead whales which lay rotting 
on the beach. 

The manner in which our coachman managed his sixteen- 
in-hand was something marvellous. He piloted us with 
great dexterity over a rough, rocky road, full of boulders. 
It was with a nervous admiration I saw him wheel our 
cumbrous vehicle into the inn-yard of " George's Half-way 

While at the Cape I became a frequent guest of the 
Governor- General, Lord Charles Somerset, a man of con- 
siderable humour, and possessing that easy, engaging 
manner which seems to sit so naturally on the House of 
Beaufort. When I first saw Lord Charles he was full of 
a visit from Theodore Hook, the famous improvisatore, 
who had made a short stay at the Cape on his way home 
from the Mauritius. Dining one day at the Government 
House, Hook was asked to give a sample of his talent. 
He had been previously furnished with the names and 
peculiarities of his fellow guests. For each of them he 
had a verse which set the table in a roar. He, however, 
made no allusion to Lord Charles himself. " No, no, 


Mr. Hook," said his Excellency, " that won't do. I do not 
choose to be passed over." Upon which Hook said, or 
rather sang : 

" When we come to a Governor, 

Silence is best, 
So we'll tip him a Summerset, 
And pass on to the rest." 

There was at this time at the Cape a person whose 
eccentricities attracted universal attention Dr. James 
Barry, staff-surgeon to the garrison, and the Governor's 
medical adviser. Lord Charles described him to me as 
the most skilful of physicians, and the most wayward of 
mortals. He had lately been in professional attendance 
upon the Governor, who was somewhat fanciful about his 
health; but the Esculapius, taking umbrage at something 
said or done, had left his patient to prescribe for himself. I 
had heard so much of this capricious, yet privileged gentle- 
man, that I had a great curiosity to see him. I shortly 
afterwards sat next him at dinner at one of the regimental 
messes. In this learned Pundit I beheld a beardless lad, ap- 
parently of my own age, with an unmistakably Scotch type 
of countenance reddish hair, high cheek bones. There 
was a certain effeminacy in his manner, which he seemed 
to be always striving to overcome. His style of conversation 
was greatly superior to that one usually heard at a mess- 
table in those days of wow-competitive examination. 

A mystery attached to Barry's whole professional career, 
which extended over more than half a century. While 
at the Cape he fought a duel, and was considered to be of 
a most quarrelsome disposition. He was frequently guilty 
of flagrant breaches of discipline, and on more than one 
occasion was sent home under arrest, but somehow or 
other his offences were always condoned at head-quarters. 

In Hart's Annual Army List for the year 1865 the 
name of James Barry, M.D., stands at the head of the 

ix.] ST. HELENA. 205 

list of Inspectors-General of Hospitals. In the July of 
that same year, the Times one day announced the death 
of Dr. Barry, and the next day it was officially reported 
to the Horse Guards that the Doctor was a woman. It is 
singular that neither the landlady of her lodging, nor the 
black servant who had lived with her for years, had the 
slightest suspicion of her sex. The late Mrs. Ward, 
daughter of Colonel Tidy, from whom I had these par- 
ticulars, told me further that she believed the Doctor to 
have been the legitimate grand -daughter of a Scotch Earl, 
whose name I do not now give, as I am unable to sub- 
stantiate the correctness of my friend's surmise, and that 
the soi-disant James Barry adopted the medical profession 
from attachment to an army-surgeon who has not been 
many years dead. 

Before I left the Cape I paid a visit to Constantia, and 
had the pleasure of drinking at the fountain-head some of 
the celebrated wine which derives its name from the place. 
Very different from the luscious Constantia was a cheap 
and nasty beverage, called Cape Madeira, of which our 
mess laid in a stock for consumption on the voyage home. 
My palate retains an unpleasant recollection of its dis- 
agreeable earthy flavour. Doomed for three months to 
taste the juice of no other grape, I can enter into the fun 
of a travestie of " Eomeo and Juliet," in which the author 
makes his hero poison himself with a bottle of South 
African wine. 

I was rejoicing at the prospect of a run with the Cape 
foxhounds when I was informed that " Blue Peter " was 
flying at the masthead of my transport, so I hurried back 
to Simon's Bay, and was soon in full sail out of the 

Our next trip on shore was at St. Helena, a gloomy 
little island, consisting of huge masses of arid rocks rising 
abruptly from the sea a thousand or fifteen hundred feet. 


He must have been a bold adventurer who first thought of 
settling in so uninviting a locality. When viewed from 
the sea there does not appear a spot level enough to build 
a house upon even Jamestown, the only town in the 
island, occupies the bed of a deep, narrow, and almost 
perpendicular ravine. The first appearance of the place 
produced upon me a deep feeling of depression, aggravated 
doubtless by reflecting on the fate of the extraordinary 
man whose prison it then was. 

During my stay on the island, I was the guest of Captain 
Power, brother of the late Ladies Blessington and Canter- 
bury. He was just married to Miss Brooke, the prettiest 
woman in the island, and daughter of the Secretary of the 
Government. When Napoleon first arrived at St. Helena, 
and before Longwood was ready for his reception, he took 
up his residence with Mrs. Power's father, and showed by 
his manner how much he was struck by the beauty of his 
young hostess ; but his attentions were received with a 
coldness and reserve that, said the St. Helenians, the 
ex-Emperor could ill brook (Brooke). 

O'Meara's " Voice from St. Helena " had exasperated all 
Europe against Sir Hudson Lowe for his alleged ill-treat- 
ment of his illustrious prisoner. There was probably 
much exaggeration in the charges of the Irish doctor 
against that functionary, but I do not believe them to 
have been altogether without foundation. Whatever may 
have been the merits of Sir Hudson as a brave officer in 
the field, he appears to have been ill fitted for the difficult 
and delicate duties he was called upon to perform. 
When in the Ionian Islands, I was quartered with the 
Pvoyal Corsican Eangers, of which regiment Lowe was a 
long time in command, and several of the officers who had 
served under him 1 spoke of him to me as a man of 

1 One of these officers was Captain Susini, a native of Ajaccio, and 
a second cousin of Napoleon. . 


churlish manners and an irritable and overbearing temper. 
Nor did his personal appearance speak much in his favour. 
Cruikshank's sketch of Ealph Nickleby in Dickens's 
novel forcibly recalls Sir Hudson to my mind the large 
head and small body, the beetle brow, the shaggy 
projecting eyebrows, the forbidding scowl on the coun- 

My brother officers, having obtained leave from the 
Governor, went to Longwood, in the hope of getting a 
glimpse of the Emperor. My principles as a Buonapartist 
would not allow me to be of the party. I lost nothing by 
my forbearance. My comrades returned much disap- 
pointed, and with a certain feeling of injury. " The 
beast," they said, " would not stir out of his den." 

Two years after I quitted St. Helena, Napoleon had 
ceased to breathe. His body, it will be remembered, after 
lying nearly twenty years in the island, was taken from 
its tomb and reinterred with great pomp in the Hotel des 
Invalides. Comte de Jarnac, the late French ambassador 
to our Court, was one of the Commissioners deputed by 
King Louis Philippe to convey the body to France. 
Associated with him in the Commission was Field- 
Marshal Bertrand, that faithful servant of Napoleon, 
who had fought by his side, and was with him in his 
last moments. Comte de Jarnac, whose acquaintance 
I had the pleasure to make some years ago at Woburn 
Abbey, gave me a most interesting account of the process 
of exhumation. 

Shortly before Napoleon's decease, as the Marshal was 
leaning over his bed to learn his wishes, the Emperor said 
feebly, " C'est vous, Bertrand, qui me fermerez les yeux." 
The Marshal heard the words, but did not seize their 
import. " Parce que," added Napoleon, " naturellement 
ils restent ouverts." In mentioning this incident to 
de Jarnac, Bertrand added, " C'est singulier, mais je ne le 


savais pas " singular indeed, that such a well-known 
phenomenon should have escaped the notice of one so 
conversant with battle-fields ! 

The landing of a corps of officers, even for a couple of 
weeks, created quite a sensation in the beau monde of 
Jamestown. But the gay season was when the East 
Indiamen used to anchor in the harbour for water and 
provisions. A young lady of the island dancing with a 
Captain of one of these vessels, said to him, " How dull 
London must be when all you gentlemen are away ! " 

My regiment landed in England towards the end of 


Appointed Equerry to the Duke of Sussex. The Duke's Political 
debut. A. Regal Canvasser. Accompany the Duke of Sussex to 
Holkham. " Coke of Norfolk." A Norwich Corn'Law Riot. 
The Norwich Fox Dinner." The Trumpet of Liberty." The 
" Taylors " of Norwich. Death of the Duke of Kent. George 
the Fourth to General Keppel The Holkham Sheep-shearing. 
Lord Erskine. Queen Caroline. A Ball at the Argyll 
Rooms. Attend the Queen's Trial. Her Personal Appearance 
and Demeanour. Witnesses for the Prosecution. The Queen 
and Teodoro Majocchi. Lord Albemarle to Lady Anne Keppel. 
Brougham and Lord Exmouth. A Letter from Lord Albe- 
marle. House of Lords adjoiirns to the 3rd of October. 
Letters from Lord Albemarle. Second Reading of the Bill. 
Brougham, Denman, Gifford, and Copley. Lord Holland 
on the " Call of the House." George the Fourth and the Irish 
Primacy Vice-Chancellor Leach. "Othello "and the Queen's 
Trial. Beefsteak Club. 

[1820.] EARLY in this year I was appointed Honorary 
Equerry to the Duke of Sussex. The labours of my new 
office were light and agreeable. My attendance on His 
Eoyal Highness was not to interfere with any engagements, 
whether of duty or pleasure. I had free quarters in Kensing- 
ton Palace, access to an excellent library, and admission 
on terms of intimacy to the society of one who was among 
the best-natured of men and the best-instructed of Princes. 

During a long life the Duke of Sussex was, as is well 
known, a consistent asserter of popular rights. As he 
used to tell me, he was an early sufferer in the good cause. 
When only seven years old, he was, by order of the King, 



locked up in his nursery and sent supperless to bed for 
wearing Admiral Keppel's election colours. 

The youthful politician had doubtless been instigated to 
this display of partisanship by his uncle, William Henry, 
Duke of Cumberland, an enthusiastic supporter of the 
Admiral. The occasion was the contest for the borough of 
Windsor in 1780 a contest without a parallel in election 
annals. In the preceding year Admiral Keppel had been 
brought to a court-martial and honourably acquitted. He 
had represented Windsor in Parliament for twenty years. 
His brother, Frederick Keppel, Bishop of Exeter, who was 
also Dean of Windsor, had considerable property in the 
town. On the dissolution of Parliament the Admiral 
asked his constitutents for a renewal of their suffrages. 
He found that he was opposed by a candidate of the 
King's own choosing, and that the Court and Government 
had united their influence against his return. Erskine, 
under the signature of " A Freeholder," affirmed that the 
highest power of Government, not content with having 
deprived the nation of his (Keppel's) abilities in his 
profession, made itself a party to rob it of his zeal and 
honesty in the senate. Walpole says, "all the royal 
brewers and bakers voted against Keppel." I have heard 
my father and the late Sir Eobert Adair repeatedly affirm 
that George III. canvassed the town in person against 
their uncle. The Admiral himself, in his speech from the 
hustings, affecting to treat as a rumour what he knew to 
be a fact patent to the assembly whom he addressed, said, 
"This cannot be true, it OUGHT not to be believed it 
MUST not be believed." Special mention used to be 
made of a certain silk mercer, a stout Keppelite, who 
would mimic the King's peculiar voice and manner as 
His Majesty entered his shop and muttered, in his hurried 
way, " The Queen wants a gown wants a gown. No 
Keppel no Keppel." 

x.] "COKE OF NORFOLK." 211 

In January, 1819, my father had presided at a grand 
public dinner at Norwich, ostensibly to celebrate the 
birthday of Charles Fox, but in reality to raise a feeling 
of indignation against the unconstitutional conduct of 
the Tory Government. In the winter of the same year 
ministers had succeeded in carrying through Parliament 
the famous " Six Acts," which placed the liberties of 
England in a state of suspension. With a view to elicit 
a strong expression of disapproval of these arbitrary 
measures, Lord Albemarle was requested to resume the 
chair at Norwich, at the next anniversary of the great 
Whig statesman's birthday (1820). To give the meeting 
more of a national than of a provincial character, men of 
rank and station were invited from different parts of the 
kingdom to take part in the proceedings. The Duke of 
Sussex was one of those who responded to the call, and the 
first act of my Equerryship was to accompany His Eoyal 
Highness into Norfolk for the purpose of attending the 

Our second day's journey landed us at Holkham, where 
we found assembled the Duke of Norfolk and other leaders 
of the movement. I now first became acquainted with 
the owner of the mansion, the late Earl of Leicester, then 
so well known as "Coke of Norfolk." He was in his 
sixty-sixth year, and retained much of that prepossessing 
appearance which in his youthful days had procured for 
him at Eome the appellation of " the handsome English- 
man." Among the most ardent of his admirers in the 
eternal city was the Princess Louise de Stolberg, wife of 
the Count of Albany, James II.'s unfortunate grandson, 
" Prince Charlie." As an acknowledgment of the impres- 
sion which young Coke's good looks had produced on the 
Countess, she insisted upon making him a present of his 
own portrait, which is now at Longford Hall, Derbyshire, 
the seat of his second son, Mr. Edward Coke. He is 

P 2 


represented with a mask in his hand, and in a pink-and- 
white masquerade dress. The Countess has caused herself 
to be typified by the statue of a reclining Cleopatra, at 
the moment that she is applying the asp to her arm. 
Under date of August 18, 1774, Horace Walpole writes : 
' The young Mr. Coke is returned from his travels, in love 
with the Pretender's queen, who has permitted him to have 
lier picture." 1 It was probably the Cleopatra in the back- 
ground of Mr. Coke's own picture to which Walpole alludes. 

On his return from Eome, Mr. Coke became member for 
Norfolk, and was for many years " Father of the House of 

Over one of the chimney-pieces in the saloon at Holkham 
is Opie's picture of Charles Fox. Although, as a work of 
art, it may not bear a comparison with the " Sir Joshua " 
of that statesman, it recalls more forcibly to my mind the 
form and features of my illustrious adversary at trap-ball. 

Beneath the portrait are the well-known lines, 

" A patriot's even course he steered, v 
'Midst faction's wildest storm unmoved, 
By all who marked his mind revered, 
By all who knew his heart beloved." 

Over the other chimney-piece is a charming picture by 
Gainsborough, the last portrait, I believe, painted by that 
artist, who thenceforth confined himself to landscapes. 
Mr. Coke is depicted in the act of loading a gun ; a dog is 
at his feet. He wears long boots, a broad-brimmed hat, and 
the shooting-jacket of a century ago. Apart from its merit 
as a work of art, it has an historical interest, as exhibiting 
the actual dress in which Coke appeared before George III. 
when, as knight of the shire, he presented an address from 
the county of Norfolk, praying that monarch to recognise 
the independence of the American colonies. 

The high price of wheat and the low price of wages in 
1 Letter to Conway. 


1815 led many of the working classes in the provincial 
towns to hold tumultuous meetings for the repeal of the 
Com Laws. Mr. Coke, as a true disciple of Fox, was no 
believer in Adam Smith, and was all the more opposed 
to his doctrine because Fox's great rival William Pitt was 
one of Adam Smith's early disciples. Accordingly Coke 
always voted, in common with other county members, for 
"protection to agriculture." In the month of March, 
1815, he and my father attended a Cattle Show in the 
Norwich Castle Ditches. On the same day an Anti-Corn- 
Law mob paraded the streets, preceded by a man bearing 
a small loaf on a pole. Mr. Coke was immediately recog- 
nised. "Let us seize the villain," cried some of the 
weavers, " and before night we will have his heart on a 
gridiron." At the same moment they made a rush 
towards their intended victim. In the crowd a stalwart 
poacher, whom my father had once befriended, formed 
with his body a temporary barrier between the mob and 
the object of their resentment. Coke and my father took 
advantage of the momentary respite, and, amidst a shower 
of stones, scrambled, over some cattle-pens. A butcher 
named Kett, seeing their danger, opened the door of one 
of his pens, and, having first twisted the tail of a large 
bull, let him loose on the crowd. The beast, maddened 
with pain, went bellowing and galloping down the hill. 
The mob dispersed in a trice, but quickly reassembled in 
greater force. The Eiot Act was read, and the military 
a cavalry regiment of Black Brunswickers (soon to deal 
with a more formidable foe) was called out. One trooper 
was wounded by a stone. 

In the meanwhile the two fugitives made their escape 
to the " Angel," now the " Royal " Hotel. The gates were 
closed; the Anti- Corn-Law rioters assembled round the 
inn. It was whispered that Coke would be found in 
the boot of the London night coach, just about to take 


its departure. The gates were opened, the coach was 
searched no Coke was to be found. He and my father 
having escaped by the back way, were on their road to 
Quidenham, where they arrived safely the same evening. 

[1820.] On our arrival in Norwich from Holkham on 
the morning of the 23rd of January, such alarming 
accounts were received of the illness of the Duke of 
Kent, that his royal brother gave up the intention of 
attending the dinner ; but a more favourable report 
arriving in the evening, he adhered to his original plan. 

The dinner, over which Lord Albemarle presided, was 
held in St. Andrew's Hall, a noble edifice built by Sir 
Thomas Erpingham, that gallant old Norfolk knight 
who gave the signal of battle to the English army at 

I give in inverted commas some of the toasts that were 
proposed from the Chair, and enthusiastically responded to 
by the assembled guests, as marking the excited -state of 
public feeling at this period : 


This was probably the last time that the health of 
George III. was given at a public meeting. He was 
known to be rapidly sinking, and he died a few days later. 


In deference to our illustrious visitor, the following 
words that usually accompanied this toast were omitted : 
"May he never forget those principles which placed his 
family on the throne of these realms." On one occasion 
when the health of the Eegent with the above affix was 
proposed, the band struck up the well-known air " Hope 
told a flattering tale." 









In the next toast from the Chair, my father declared 
himself an advocate for the Ballot and Triennial Parlia- 



In the intervals between the toasts and speeches several 
songs were sung, principally composed for the occasion 
by John Taylor of Norwich. One of these, in honour of 
Fox's birthday, set to music by his son Edward, was 
quoted by my father in one of his speeches 

" Come to his tomb, but not to weep ; 
Here Freedom's holiday we keep. 
The sacred altar let it be, 
Bound which we vow to Liberty." 

Nor must I pass over in silence another song, also by 
John Taylor, and sung by Edward in his deep majestic 
bass voice, to music of his own composing. Here is the 
first stanza : 

" The Trumpet of Liberty sounds through the world, 

And the universe starts at the sound ; 
Her standard Philosophy's hand has unfurled, 
And the nations are thronging around. 


The cruel dominion of priestcraft is o'er, 

Its thunders, its fagots, its chains ; 
Mankind will endure the vile bondage no more, 
While Eeligion our freedom maintains. 
Fall, tyrants, fall ! fall ! 
These are the days of Liberty ! 

Fall, tyrants, fall ! " 

The chorus was taken up by the guests upstanding. 
Among the five hundred voices raised on the occasion, 
that of the Duke of Sussex was distinctly audible. 

" The Trumpet of Liberty " had a good forty years' run 
and only fell into disuse when the restoration of the 
people to their rights and liberties deprived the song of 
its point. 

As this song appeared in England at about the same- 
time as the Jacobin air the " Marseillaise " in France, 
it was supposed to have been intended to commemorate 
the French Eevolution, whereas it was written for the 
centenary of the English Eevolution, and sung by its 
author in 1788 at a Norwich dinner in celebration of 
that event. 

Edward Taylor, who has edited some " Hymns and 
Miscellaneous Poems " of John Taylor, says, in reference 
to "The Trumpet of Liberty," "while my father was 
singing this song in Norwich, Dr. Priestley's house and 
laboratory were destroyed by a ' Church-and-King ' mob. " 

In the early part of the present century, when unwieldy 
double-bodied coaches afforded to country folks the ordinary 
access to the metropolis, the inhabitants of large towns 
were more dependent upon themselves for society than 
in these days of easy locomotion. 

Norwich, as has been described by Sir James Mackintosh, 
Mrs. Barbauld, Mrs. Opie, Henry Crabb Eobinson, and 
Harriet Martineau, stood pre-eminent among provincial 
towns for the intellectual character of its leading citizens. 


The Taylors, of whom I have just had occasion to speak, 
formed the centre of its social circle. The first represen- ' 
tative of the family came to Norwich a century and a 
half ago. Dr. John Taylor was a well-known Presbyterian 
divine, author, amoug other works, of a "Hebrew Con- 
cordance of the Old Testament." Literary talent seems to 
have descended on his posterity as an heirloom. It is 
a saying in Norfolk, that if a collection were made of the 
works of the Taylors of Norwich, it would form a 
respectable library. By the marriage of the Doctor's 
son Eichard, the family became connected with the 
Martineaus, from whom descended Harriet, the historian 
and political economist. One of the Doctor's great- 
grandsons, Edgar, was a writer on Law and History. 
Edgar's sister, who died in 1872, was long known for her 
poems and several excellent works for children. The wife 
of John Taylor, a woman of extraordinary energy and 
power, was styled in the language of the day the " Madame 
Koland" of Norwich. 

Among the children of this union were Eichard, editor of 
" The Diversions of Purley ; " Edward, Gresham Professor 
of Music; Mrs. Austin, the well-known authoress; and 
Philip Taylor of Marseilles. This last, who died in July, 
1870, the friend of Jean Baptiste Say and Eichard Cobden, 
was himself distinguished as the founder of an important 
public company, called " La Societe des Forges et Chantiers 
de la Mediterranee." Philip Taylor's kind and judicious 
treatment of his excitable Marseillaise workmen procured 
for him the title of "Le Pere des Ouvriers." A great 
great-grandson of the Presbyterian divine died last year 
(1876), Colonel Philip Meadows Taylor, C.S.I., author 
of "Confessions of a Thug," "Tara," "Ealph Darnell," 
" The Student's History of India." 

Henry Eeeve of the Council Office is the sole surviving 
representative of the literary tastes of the sixth generation 


of this gifted family. A few years ago the Taylors could 
boast of that most charming of letter-writters, my kins- 
woman by marriage, Lucie Austin, the late Lady Duff 

The post of the morning after the. Fox dinner brought 
the news of the death of the Duke of Kent. I had to 
break the sad intelligence to my chief. His Royal 
Highness was much affected. Of all his brothers, the 
Duke of Kent was the one to whom he was most warmly 
attached, and with whom he agreed most cordially in 
political sentiment. 

The Duke had taken up his abode for the night at the 
house of Mr. William Foster. An immense Norwich 
crowd assembled in the morning round the door to see 
the first Prince of the Blood who had honoured their 
town with a visit. They had intended to greet His 
Eoyal Highness ' with three hearty cheers, but the intel- 
ligence of his loss having reached them, they, with much 
good taste and feeling, observed a respectful silence when 
he made his appearance, and stood with their heads 
uncovered so long as his carriage remained in sight. 

The Duke was my father's guest that same evening. 
A large party had been invited to meet His Eoyal 
Highness, but in consequence of his late bereavement 
he dined by himself, and the next morning returned 
to Kensington alone, in order to pay the last tribute of 
respect and affection to his deceased brother. Scarcely 
had the Duke performed this melancholy office, when he 
was called upon to follow to the grave his father, George 
the Third, who survived his son only six days. 

From the time that my father had declined to accept 
the Mastership of the Horse from the then Prince Eegent 
in 1812, intercourse of any kind whatever had ceased 
between them. There was, however, one member of 
our family for whom friendly feelings of His Eoyal 


Highness underwent no change. This was my cousin, 
General William Keppel, whom I have already mentioned 
as the bestower upon me of my first tip. Shortly after 
that Prince ascended the throne as George the Fourth, he 
wrote to my kinsman as follows : 

"BRIGHTON, April 11, 1820. 


" If anything could have made a deeper impression 
upon my feelings than the sense I have for years enter- 
tained of your affection and attachment to me, it would 
l)e the conversation which Bloomfield has related to me 
that he has had with you. It is only when we feel 
ourselves perhaps in a momentary difficulty that we 
can appeal to our real friends. As such I called upon 
you, never doubting, but being certain, that I should always 
find you what you really are, and what the warmest 
wishes of my heart told me I should ever find you. After 
.so many years of affectionate intercourse it may be quite 
unnecessary to say anything, especially to you, respecting 
my nature or the genuine feelings of my heart. You 
know, my dear friend, that whenever I have the means, 
or am aware of the opportunity of giving or granting, 
I am not only ready but too happy to seize upon it that 
individually to yourself this has not only hitherto been 
my inclination, but I must also add will be, as it has been 
the study of my life, for there is no one deserves such a 
proof mor$ than you do ; and believe me, that whenever I 
shall be so fortunate as to be able to do so, it will be by far 
a greater gratification to myself than it can be to you. 

"Having said so much, it now shall rest with you 
(should it not occur to me) to point out to me that object, 
whenever the moment may arise, that will be most 
beneficial, as well as most gratifying, I hope, to you, and 


you shall find me most happy in completing it by giving it 
my sanction. I will not bore you with repeating thanks 
which, although certainly a good practice in genera], yet 
between such friends as you and I now and then might 
appear a little formal, for the heart is capable of feeling, 
much more than the tongue, with all its studied verbiage, 
is capable of expressing. 

" I remain, 

" My dear Keppel, 

"Your ever and most affectionate Friend, 


[June.] Early in June I accompanied the Duke of 
Sussex for a second time to Holkham. The occasion 
was the famous annual sheep-shearing. Here were 
assembled men from all parts of Europe to witness 
the practical working of a system of husbandry of which 
Mr. Coke was considered to be the founder. We sat 
down each day upwards of five hundred to dinner in 
the state apartments. There were plenty of speeches 
principally on the science of agriculture. An exception 
to the rule was one from Lord Erskine, who afforded 
much amusement from the manner in which he dealt 
with a subject of which he was so profoundly ignorant. 
One of the theories broached in the morning was that 
crushed oyster-shells would prove an excellent manure. 
The opinion was erroneous, but it was not then so con- 
sidered. "Gentlemen," said Erskine, "we lawyers have 
been accused of eating the oyster and of giving the shell 
to our clients. The charge is true ; but our host has 
shown this morning that we only take a fair share of 
the bivalve." 

The dinner, an early one, was followed by a supper for 
the guests who remained in the house. Erskine, the soul 
of the party, recited some humorous poetry of his own 


composition. The Duke of Sussex and some of us who 
were not so gifted with an ear for music sang songs, 
sentimental, bacchanalian, or comic ; and, not the least 
-amusing part of the performance, the foreigners made 
speeches in broken English. Altogether we passed several 
pleasant evenings. 

The sheep-shearing lasted till the 6th of June. At this 
period occurred an event which set the whole nation in a 
flarne the return to England, after an absence of six 
years, of the unhappy Caroline of Brunswick. 

Her Majesty landed at Dover on the 5th. Her journey 
to London was a perfect ovation. On the afternoon of the 
6th she arrived at Alderman Wood's, No. 77, South 
Audley Street, a house nearly opposite to that of my 
grandmother De Clifford ; and this ordinarily quiet 
neighbourhood, which usually knew no sounds but those 
of carriage-wheels, became for several days the rendezvous 
of the noisy " roughs " of London, who passed the nights 
in breaking the windows of such of the inhabitants as 
refused to "light up," and the days in cheering the Queen 
and calling upon her to show herself on the balcony. 

This summer I fell in with Sir Jacob Astley, afterwards 
Lord Hastings. We were for six years form-fellows at 
Westminster. At a later period we sat together as 
Members for Norfolk in the first Eeformed Parliament. 
I have a special reason for remembering a grand fancy 
ball which he gave at the Argyll Eooms, and at which I 
was present. Uniforms were admitted, and I was very 
proud of mine. Two maiden ladies connected with 
Norfolk, but well known in the West of London 
.assemblies, attracted universal attention. They were 
plump, dark-complexioned, and elderly ; they appeared 
as Swiss shepherdesses, wore broad-brimmed straw hats 
profusely decorated with ribands and flowers, scarlet 
'bodices tastefully ornamented, and skirts which, if worn 


on the stage, would have drawn down upon the wearers 
the censure of the Lord Chamberlain. The Swiss costume 
admits of much latitude, and of this they freely availed 
themselves. To heighten the effect of their charms the- 
rouge-pot had been called into requisition. The ball was 
kept up with great spirit till long after daylight. As in 
duty bound, I was among the last to go. I was hurrying 
downstairs when my name was called and my assistance- 
claimed in the shrill accents of my spinster friends. 
"Their coachman had played them false ; no hackney- 
coach was on the stand. Would I escort them home on 
foot?" There was no help for it off I set, with a 
shepherdess on each arm. As ill-luck would have it, we- 
encountered a crowcl of bricklayers on their way to work. 
Their comments on the trio may be imagined, but must 
not be repeated. With a soldier's gallantry, I stuck to- 
my shepherdesses ; but the epithets with which they and 
I were pelted are still ringing in my ears. 

[August IGth.] My father, wholly engrossed with his- 
farm, was forced to tear himself away from its attractions 
in obedience to a summons of the House of Lords to be in 
his place to take into consideration " A Bill intituled An 
Act to deprive Her Majesty Queen Caroline Amelia 
Elizabeth of the title, prerogatives, rights, and privileges 
of Queen Consort of this realm, and to dissolve the- 
marriage between His Majesty and the said Caroline 
Amelia Elizabeth." With a heavy heart he set out on the 
journey on the 16th of August. I accompanied him. 
We arrived late in London. My father took me to 
Brooks's. Only one member was present, but he the most 
popular man in all England Henry Brougham, Attorney- 
General to the Queen, the fearless advocate who in [public 
estimation had sacrificed all prospects of professional 
advancement in order to defend the cause of a cruelly 
persecuted woman. Brougham was in the highest spirits. 


I was thrown much in his company in after-life, and 
frequently enjoyed the brilliancy of his conversation, but 
never did he shine forth as on this evening when my father 
and I comprised his whole audience. 

{August 17^.] I started at nine the next morning for 
the House of Lords. In passing through St. James's 
Square I saw a large assemblage of persons waiting for 
the arrival of the Queen from her villa on the Thames. 
During the trial she occupied a house on the west side of 
the Square, within two doors of King Street. She was 
within a stone's throw of the residence of her husband 
of that palace into which, five-and-twenty years before, 
she had entered as bride, buoyant with the prospect of 
eventually becoming the Queen Consort of the greatest 
kingdom in the world. Her wish had been realized to- 
the letter, and she had now to learn the vanity of human 

With the exception of the day on which the present 
Queen was crowned (on which occasion I had the honour 
of forming part of the procession), I never beheld so dense 
a crowd as that which assembled between Pall Mall and 
Westminster Abbey on the morning of the 17th of August. 
The Household Cavalry, the City Light Horse, and the 
Horse Police patrolled the streets ; a regiment of Guards 
were posted in Westminster Hall and the avenues of the 
Law Courts, and the approach to the Houses of Parliament 
was lined with infantry. The mob seemed to make a 
shrewd guess at the manner in which almost every Peer 
would vote, and received with groans or cheers the 
supposed supporters or opponents of the Ministerial 
measure. The Duke of Sussex met with a most enthusi- 
astic greeting from them. 

The fine tapestries representing the Spanish Armada 
which hung on the walls of the House of Lords were 
almost obscured from view by the temporary galleries 


which had been erected for the accommodation of the Peers. 
Except a narrow passage for the witness, interpreter, and 
short-hand writer, the space below the bar was divided 
between the Law Officers of the King and Queen His 
Majesty's on the left, and Her Majesty's on the right 
fronting the throne. A gallery led from the Peers' 
chamber to the apartment allotted to the Queen a many- 
angled room looking upon the leads of the portico of the 
Peers' entrance. 

The Duke of Sussex having been excused from attend- 
ance, on the plea of his consanguinity to both parties 
in the suit, immediately set off for Tonbridge Wells. 
Thither I followed him in a few days ; but as His Eoyal 
Highness was naturally desirous of hearing how the trial 
was proceeding, he frequently sent me to London to bring 
him the earliest intelligence. Mr. Ellice, the Member for 
Coventry, always lent me his carriage to and from Seven- 
oaks ; the rest of the journey I performed on a fast-trotting 
horse belonging to the Duke. Thus I became an eye and 
ear witness of all the principal events in that celebrated 

[August 18th.] Denman, as Solicitor-General of the 
Queen, was addressing the House, on the morning of the 
18th, against the principle of the Pains and Penalties 
Bill, when a confused sound of drums, trumpets, and 
human voices announced the approach of the Queen. 
Beams a foot square had been thrown across the street 
between St. Margaret's Church and the Court of King's 
Bench; but this barrier Her Majesty's admirers dashed 
through with as much ease as if they had been formed of 
reeds, and accompanied Her Majesty to the entrance of 
the House. She was received at the threshold by Sir 
Thomas Tyrrwhitt, Usher of the Black Eod. The Queen 
had known him while she was living under her husband's 
roof. " Well, Sir Thomas," she is reported to have said, 


" what is your master trying me for ? Is it for inter- 
marrying with a man whose first wife I knew to be 
alive ? " 

The Peers rose as the Queen entered, and remained 
standing until she took her seat in a crimson and gilt 
chair, immediately in front of her counsel. Her appear- 
ance was anything but prepossessing. She wore a black 
dress with a high ruff, an unbecoming gipsy hat tied 
under the chin with a huge bow in front, the whole 
surmounted with a plume of ostrich-feathers. Nature had 
given her light hair, blue eyes, a fair complexion, and a 
good-humoured expression of countenance; but these 
characteristics were marred by painted eyebrows, and by 
a black wig with a profusion of curls which overshadowed 
her cheeks, and gave a bold, defiant air to her features. 

My post of Equerry to the Duke of Sussex procured 
me admission behind the throne, and occasionally to a seat 
among the Queen's law advisers. 

Brougham was fond of implying that he had ample 
materials for recriminating .on the King. " If," said he, 
" this necessity should be imposed upon me, I should act 
directly in the teeth of the instructions of this illustrious 
woman [here with a theatrical wave of the hand he 
pointed to the Queen, who sat immediately below him] ; I 
should disobey her solemn commands ; nor is it my 
purpose to resort to it, unless driven to it by an absolute 
and overruling compulsion." 

In the course of the trial, the cashier of Coutts' bank 
was called to attest Queen Caroline's signature. He 
was retiring when he was called back : " You say, Sir," 
said Brougham, "you know Her Majesty's handwriting. 
Perhaps you know His Majesty's also ? " He was answered 
in the affirmative, whereupon he brought out from the 
bottom of a bag a heap of letters which he arranged in his 
hand after the fashion of a conjuror showing a trisk on 



cards, and then asked the cashier, "Is this the King's 
handwriting? and this, and this, and this?" keeping 
his eyes all the while fixed on the Peers with a look of 
indescribable archness. 

The old Houses of Parliament were separated by a 
building which, with its inclosure, was called "Cotton 
Garden." The front faced the Abbey, the rear the Thames. 
It was the residence of the Italian witnesses against the 
Queen : I should rather say, their prison, for they would 
have been torn in pieces by the populace if they had 
ventured beyond its precincts. The land entrance was 
strongly barricaded. The side facing Westminster Bridge 
was shut out from the public by a wall run up for the 
express purpose at a right angle to the Parliament stairs. 
Thus the only access was by the river. Here was erected 
a causeway to low-water mark ; a flight of steps led to 
the interior of the inclosure. The street side was guarded 
by a strong military force, the water side by gun-boats. 
An ample supply of provisions was stealthily (for fear of 
the mob) introduced into the building; a bevy of royal 
.cooks were sent to see that the food was of good quality, 
.and to render it as palatable as their art could make it. 
About this building, in which the witnesses were immured 
from August till November, the London mob would hover 
like a cat round the cage of a canary. Such confinement 
would have been intolerable to the natives of any other 
country, but it was quite in unison with the feelings of 
Italians. To them, it realized their favourite " dolce far 
niente." Their only physical exertion appears to have 
been the indulgence in that description of dance that 
the Pi/erari have made familiar to the Londoner. When 
these fellows appeared at the bar of the House they 
looked as respectable as fine clothes and soap and water 
could make them. Those persons who saw them before 
they emerged from the chrysalis into the butterfly state, 


described them as swarthy, dirty-looking fellows, in scanty, 
ragged jackets, and greasy leather caps. 

There was something irresistibly comic in the manner in 
which Brougham with mock solemnity apologised for 
seeking to elude a Bill "supported by so respectable a 
body of witnesses " as those assembled in Cotton Garden. 
" Judging from their exterior," said Brougham, " they must 
be like those persons with whom your Lordships are in 
the habit of associating. They must doubtless be seized 
in fee-simple of those decent habiliments persons who 
would regale themselves at their own expense, live in 
separate apartments, have full powers of locomotion, and 
require no other escort than their attendant lacguais de 

[August 2lst.] I was present on the morning of the 
21st of August at the celebrated interview between Queen 
Caroline and Teodoro Majocchi, the prevaricating postilion 
of "Non mi ricordo" notoriety. The moment she saw 
him, she raised her hands above her head and, uttering a 
loud exclamation, bounced out of the House of Lords in 
a most unqueenlike manner. What that exclamation was 
intended to convey is still a mystery. Some said the word 
was "Teodoro," others "Traditore." To me it seemed to 
be simply the interjection " Oh ! " as expressive of disgust 
at seeing in her accuser one whom she had known as a 
dirty, discharged menial, but who was now transformed 
into a clean-looking gentleman, dressed in the height of 
the fashion. 

Since making the above note, I have become possessed 
of several of my father's letters, written during the trial. 
They are addressed to my sister Anne, afterwards 
Countess of Leicester. The Cokes and Keppels lived at 
this time as one family. My sisters Anne and Mary were 
guests at Holkharn during the constrained absence of 
their father from home. 

Q 2 



"LONDON, Sunday, August 20th, 1820. 

" I sat this morning half an hour with Lady Anson, 1 
and though I did not find her as I wished to see her, still 
I did find her much better than I expected from the report 
1 had heard better in looks, and better in spirits. One 
could not judge of her health by seeing her for - so short 
a time; but I am positive that I have seen her much 
worse, and hope that her illness will be of short duration. 

"We are now embarked in this trial. 

" To-morrow we begin with the witnesses, and as their 
evidence must pass through an interpreter, it will go on 

" I think, if we sit daily, only for six hours, from ten 
till four, some weeks must be wanting to get through it. 
I am going to-morrow till Thursday to Holland House ; 
we shall come into London every morning, but it will be 
pleasanter to dine and sleep in the country. Tell Miss 
Coke 2 I hope I have her pity in being obliged to breakfast 
every morning at half-past eight. This is worse than 
Dr. Eigby, and very disagreeable and unwholesome. 

"I do not think .it likely that I shall have any- 
thing new for Mr. Coke for some days, as the trial will 
go regularly on; but I shall leave this open till five 

1 Anne Margaret Coke, daughter of Mr. Coke of Holkham, wife 
of Thomas, Viscount Anson, and grandmother of the present Earl of 
Lichfield, died May 23, 1843. 

2 Elizabeth Wilhelmina Coke, youngest daughter of Mr. Coke 
married, in. 1822, John Spencer Stanhope of Cannon Hall, York- 
shire, Esq. 


to-morrow for the chance. I am anxious for an account 
of the Norwich meeting." 

" Half-past 5, Monday [August 21st]. 

" Just returned. When the first witness was called in, 
the Queen stood up close to him. She threw her veil 
completely back, held her body very backward, and placed 
both her arms in her sides. In this posture, she stared 
furiously at him for some seconds; there was a dead 
silence, and she screamed out Theodore, in the most frantic 
manner, and rushed violently out of the House. It 
appeared to be a paroxysm of madness. The witness was 
then examined, and there is left a strong case against her. 
I think she is insane, for her manner to-day chilled my 
blood. She appeared no more to-day, nor can we guess 
what she will do to-morrow. 

" I am ffoing to Holland House." 

While Brougham was cross-examining this same Teodoro 
Majocchi, he was interrupted by some Peer making a 
remark. Looking in the direction whence the sound 
proceeded, he fixed a withering glance on Lord Exmouth, 
who had been previously examining witnesses against the 
Queen with all the zeal of a counsel for the prosecution. 
The expression of Brougham's face at this moment is 
indescribable; his eyes flashed with real or pretended 
fury, while his nose, to which nature had given such an 
extraordinary motive power, seemed by its contortions to 
sympathise with the resentment of its owner. The noble 
and gallant Admiral claimed the protection of the House 
from the insulting gaze of the learned counsel; but he 
got no redress, and the cross-examination was resumed 
amid a suppressed titter at the expense of the captor of 

Throughout the trial it was the evident object of 


Brougham to express by word, look, and gesture the 
contempt he felt for the tribunal which was sitting in 
judgment upon his client. He even made the interpreter 
a medium for conveying the feeling. This man was a 
teacher of Italian by name Nicolas Dorien Marchese di 
Spineto. In all the examinations Brougham would insist 
upon addressing him as " Marquis," implying that he held 
him to be equal in social position with Peers bearing a 
like title. 

[Since the above paragraph appeared in print, I have 
learned that the name of the interpreter at the Queen's 
trial was not Dorien, but " Doria," that he was a member 
of that illustrious house, that he was highly respected at 
Cambridge, where he was a Professor of the Italian 
language, and that his daughter is wife of Dr. Philpott, 
Bishop of Worcester.] 


, 1 Sunday, September 3rd. 

"We are still in uncertainty; perhaps to-morrow 
may lead us to guess at the time of our release. I therefore 
shall keep this open till the day is over. In the mean- 
time, I think it likely the prosecution may finish about 
the middle of the week, and we may adjourn for two 
months. Let me know by return of post whether you 
left the imperial belonging to the chaise at Lexham. If 
you have, I can call for it on my way to Holkham, as it 

1 Frognall, Kent, the seat of my mother's brother-in-law, and my 
godfather, John Thomas, second Viscount Sydney. 


will be scarcely out of the way. The moment I am released 
I intend to go to Grey's * for one night, and then to Lex- 
ham, 2 and from thence the following morning to Holkham. 
I will just stop to tell my story, and then wish to hurry 
home to see the remainder of my harvest, for it will 
scarcely be over. Coulson 3 writes me word that he shall 
never have done carting barley ; there are two barns filled 
with wheat and twenty-two large wheat-stacks. The 
wheat on the new land turns out less injured than we 
expected. It was always right to get good out of evil 
if possible; and this good will result from my present 
attendance in the House of Lords, namely, that when 
this forced attendance is over I will never again attend 
voluntarily, at least whilst the present system prevails. 
Tell Mr. Coke it is certain the House will pass the Bill, 
but the Commons dare not" 

" Half-past 5. 

" Eeport says one or two days will finish the Prosecu- 
tion. I think it is going much in favour of the Queen." 

On Saturday, the 9th of September, the case for the 
prosecution closed, and at the request of the Queen's 
counsel the House adjourned to the 3rd of October. My 
father passed the interval in Norfolk, and I returned 
to the Duke of Sussex's, "Wellington House, Tonbridge 

On the morning of the 3rd of October the Duke's hack 
set me down at the House of Lords, in time to hear 
Brougham enter upon the Defence. 

1 Earl Grey, afterwards Prime Minister. 

3 Lexhani Hall, Norfolk, seat of Frederick Keppel, son. of the 
Honourable and Eight Reverend Dr. Frederick Keppel, Bishop 
of Exeter. 

3 Lord Albemarle's bailiff. 


The following day Lord Albemarle writes to Lady Anne 
Keppel : 

" Wednesday, October 4ih. 

" I am writing this in the House of Lords, where Mr. 
Brougham has just finished a very fine speech, and Mr. 
"Williams is beginning to open the case of the Queen, 
which will take up the remainder of the day ; the exami- 
nation of witnesses cannot begin before to-morrow, so our 
progress is not rapid. This will find you just arrived at 
Holkham ; as to saying anything of the time I am likely 
to be detained, it is useless to guess. I am going do-day 
to Holland House, where I shall stay till Sunday. I 
return then to dine at Paddington. 1 George 2 came to 
London yesterday to hear Brougham's speech, and is 
to-day gone back to the Duke of Sussex. Sophia 3 con- 
tinues still well." 

Private letters which have since found their way into 
print, bear record to the treatment which members of the 
Government experienced from the populace. Lord Chan- 
cellor Eldon, once the friend, now the bitter foe of Caroline 
of Brunswick, was greeted even at his own country seat 
with cries of " Queen for ever." When Castlereagh and 
Sidmouth walked arm-in-arm together to Westminster 
amidst the execrations of the mob, the former exclaimed, 
" Here go two of the most popular men in England." To 
this trio unpopularity was familiar, and they submitted to 

1 Dowager Lady de Clifford's villa at Westbourne Green, Pad- 

3 The writer of these Memoirs. 

3 My sister, wife of Mr. James Macdonald, M.P. for Calne, son of 
the Right Honourable Sir Archibald Macdonald, Chief Baron of the 
Exchequer, by Louisa, eldest daughter of the first Marquis of 


it with more or less philosophy. Not so Lord Liverpool, 
who had hitherto been treated with singular forbearance ; 
but he too, at last, was doomed to take his share of the 
popular odium. The effect it had upon him was visible 
to every beholder. When he rose to address the House, it 
was with all the timidity of a nervous young Peer making 
his maiden speech. Nor could he have given utterance 
to his words at all without the aid of large doses of ether, 
the odour of which reached the nostrils of us who were 
standing on the steps of the throne. 


" Sunday Night, October 15th. 

" I can begin my letter with the satisfactory news that 
Sophia has got a very fine boy, 1 and that they are both 
perfectly well. This event happened at half-past seven 
this evening. I have made use of my holiday, and have 
seen Lady Andover in- good health, and also Lady Anson 
looking in my opinion and to my infinite satisfaction 
remarkably well. I have this instant got a very kind 
note from her in return for one I wrote announcing 
Sophia's happy state. 

" I must wait till five to-morrow before I can say any- 
thing about the Queen. I have been so much occupied 
this day with matters which interested me so much more, 
that I have not once thought of the Queen, nor of Mr. 
Coke's friend His Majesty. 2 

1 The boy to whom my sister gave birth is the present Sir 
Archibald Keppel Macdonald, of Woolmer Park, Hants, Bart. 

2 Before George Prince of Wales became Regent, he was a frequent 
guest at Holkham. 


" To-morrow I must buckle to again. I went yesterday 
to dine with Wilbraham, 1 and had a pleasant day. 

" I feel very proud in being a grandfather, and your 
consequence is increased by becoming an aunt ; we shall 
have Uncle John and Aunt Caroline talked of at Christ- 
mas. George is come up for a day, but he is so fond of 
the Duke of Sussex that he returns to him to-morrow. 
Grandmamma De Clifford goes to-morrow to Bath, rather,. 
I hope, to prevent an illness, than on account of an actual 
one. She complains of feeling ill, but she looks better 
than I have seen her. 

" God bless you both. Ever, my dearest Anne, 

" Your affectionate father, 

" Five o'Clock, Monday, October 16th. 

"We have had a very dull day nothing material.. 
Sophia and child quite well." 


" Thursday, October 26th. 

" We can now guess when, but not how, our business* 
will end. In ten days it must be decided. 

" I think the second reading will be carried, and if it is,. 
I fear rioting is unavoidable in London. 

" Prince Leopold has just returned from calling at 
Brandenburg House. 

"Lady Fitzwilliam is going to the Queen as soon as* 
the Solicitor-General has finished. 

" Jf the Lords decide against the Queen, I shall go to 
pay my respects to her, being convinced of her innocence. 

1 Roger Wilbraham, Esq., of 11, Stratton Street, Piccadilly, of. 
whom I shall presently again have occasion to speak. 


If she is acquitted by the Lords, I shall not go, being 
determined to go to no Court. I have heard enough in 
forty-two days to be determined not to trouble myself 
about kings or queens." 

On the evening of the 6th of November the House 
divided on the second reading. Contents 123, non- 
contents, 95, majority 28. With the second reading of 
the Bill the judicial part of the proceedings was brought 
to a close, and the gentlemen of the long robe retired 
from the scene. To speak of the four principal per- 
formers in this drama, the palm of oratory would, I 
suppose, be awarded to Brougham; yet to my mind the 
eloquence of my honoured friend Thomas Demuan was 
scarcely less effective than that of his gifted leader. His 
noble cast of features, the honest expression of his coun- 
tenance, the deep-toned melody of his voice, the happy 
choice of his language, his dignified irony, his consistent 
political conduct, and his irreproachable private character, 
all these, together with the belief that he was firmly 
convinced of the innocence of his client, combined to 
produce a most favourable impression upon his hearers. 

It was greatly to the disadvantage of Sir Eobert Gilford, 
the King's Attorney-General, that he had to follow such a 
speaker, for he lacked the external graces which rendered 
the addresses of his professional adversary so attractive- 
Sir Eobert was a red-faced little man, wanting in dignity 
both in manner and appearance ; his language seemed ill- 
chosen, his voice was painfully shrill, and an incorrect ear 
caused him to place the accent mostly on the wrong word. 

Although a much better speaker than his principal, Sir 
John Singleton Copley, the Solicitor-General, could not 
bear a comparison with either Broughan or Denman. He 
had a disagreeable expression of countenance a sort of 
scowl, which, however, wore away as he advanced in years. 


His manner had not the naturalness of his opponents, it 
was too theatrical, and his style of speaking suggested to 
me the spouting manner which schoolboys acquire by 
reciting hexameter verses. 

A quarter of a century later it was my delight to listen 
to the finished orations of Lord Lyndhurst, but I could 
hardly persuade myself that the " Nestor of the House of 
Lords " was the same person whom I had heard plead at 
its bar for a verdict against Queen Caroline. 

Perhaps I may have been influenced by my political 
prejudices in forming so low an estimate of Copley's 
oratorical powers, but I shared with my party the feeling 
of dislike with which he was then regarded by them. He 
was a recent deserter from the Liberal camp. His conver- 
sion had been sudden. Before he became a Court lawyer 
he was what would be called a " Eadical " a word in- 
grafted upon the English language that same year; he 
was also a Bonapartist of the ultra type : his theory was 
that nations could not be happy unless all the then 
existing thrones were overturned. 

When the news reached London that Napoleon had 
escaped from Elba, Copley is said to have been walking 
in the streets, and to have thrown up his hat in the air 
exclaiming, " Now is Europe free ! " 

On Tuesday, the 7th of November, my father writes to 
my sister Anne : 

" I am afraid to reckon the day of my liberation : but 
it cannot be very distant. 

" The instant the attendance is over I shall set off for 
Holkham, where I am anxious enough to see you all again. 
Not one moment's voluntary attendance will I give for 
either of the persons engaged in this wretched squabble. 
And I look, though not with much confidence, to a release 
on Friday night or Saturday. It has just come into my 


head to ask whether you recollected to write to Miss 
Rawlins. 1 If you have not written, you should write now. 
I thought of the battue 2 yesterday ; and was glad the day 
was so fine. To-day and to-morrow we have holidays, 
and this relaxation is useful, for I am nearly done up. The 
want of air and exercise for such a length of time affects 
me a great deal, and particularly my spirits ; and I find 
upon comparing notes with others that they are also so 
affected. I never was engaged in any business so irksome, 
in which I felt so little interest, and which so fatigued 
and disgusted me." 

People used at this time to speculate how many 
sickly or elderly Peers would owe their death to the 
Pains and Penalties Bill. I remember hearing some 
verses which I attributed to Lord Erskine, but which I 
see, from an article in the World, are from the pen of 
Lord Holland : 

" In this terrible matter which brings us to town, 
"We shall all be knocked up if we are not knocked down ; 
None surely will gain by this " Call of the House," 
Save eldest sons, witnesses, lawyers, and grouse." 


" November 8th. 

"We drag on slowly, but the end cannot be far off. 
We have got through Committee to-day to-morrow will 
be the Eeport, and the Bill will pass on Friday. I shall 
therefore set off on Saturday morning ; but as the journey 

1 My sister's governess. 

2 The Holkham battues began the second week in November, and 
continued to the last day of the shooting season. 


at this time of the year is too long for a day, I can only 
promise to reach Holkham by dinner-time on Sunday. 

" Tell Mr. Coke the Opposition have this day played off 
a manoeuvre against the Bill which may possibly defeat it 
altogether. Eight or nine Bishops and two or three other 
Lords have declared that they could not vote for the Bill 
if the Divorce clause continued in. The Archbishop of 
York moved that it should be left out; those most in- 
veterate against the Queen were for retaining it. The 
Opposition in a body joined the latter party, and with 
their force have carried the Divorce clause, voting for it 
with a view to make the Bill as odious as possible. If 
there is honesty in a Bishop, ten or twelve who voted for 
the second reading with an implied promise from Lord 
Liverpool that the Divorce clause shall be left out, must 
now vote against the third reading, as the Divorce clause 
is retained ; and thus the majority will be reduced to five 
or six. But I have no faith in such honesty." 

The sequel showed that my father had not formed too 
harsh a judgment of the Episcopal bench. Although 
several Bishops had publicly declared that they had 
scruples, on religious grounds, in voting for the Divorce 
clause, yet, when the matter came to a division, ten out of 
thirteen of them voted for the third reading of the Bill 
Divorce clause included. 

Dr. Vernon, Archbishop of York, who had opposed the 
Bill in all its stages, could only obtain the support of two 
prelates, Dr. Eyder, Bishop of Gloucester, and Lord George 
Beresford, Archbishop of Dublin. 

The verdict thus given by the last-mentioned prelate 
was not forgotten by the royal plaintiff in the suit. Two 
years later, Lord Wellesley, the Viceroy of Ireland, 
recommended Lord George Beresford as successor to the 
then vacant archbishopric of Armagh. The nomination 


was approved by the Prime Minister, Lord Liverpool. In 

a " MOST SECRET AND CONFIDENTIAL " letter to that noble- 

man, George the Fourth sought to set aside the proposed 

appointment. " I am too far advanced in life," writes His 

Majesty, " not to give subjects of this description the most 

serious and attentive consideration. It is, alas, but too 

true, that policy is too often obliged to interfere with our 

best intentions ; but I do think, where the head of the 

Church is concerned, we ought alone to be influenced by 

religious duty. Do not be surprised at this scrupulous 

language, for I am quite sincere. I think you would do 

well to inquire of the Archbishop of Canterbury, if no 

English bishop on the bench can be found fitting and 

suitable for such an important trust, and if not, if no 

dignitary of the Church in this country can be selected 

for that purpose (for you will remember that Dr. Howley 

was most justly at once made Bishop of London). Let us 

have piety and learning if possible. Besides, I do not 

like, I cannot reconcile myself to have the Primacy of 

Ireland filled by an Irishman; for let us not forget the 

particular circumstances in which we are at present 

placed. I have no confidence in Lord Wellesley's opinion 

on this subject. I shall say no more, but I desire you to 

give this your deliberate consideration." l 

The Premier might perhaps have thought that he had 
incurred quite enough odium by his late compliance with 
the royal will without carrying his subserviency any 
further. Be that as it may, he gave no heed to His 
Majesty's pious remonstrance, and the only Irish prelate 
who had the courage to oppose the Government Bill of 
" Pains and Penalties " was translated to the Primacy of 

1 D. C. Yonge's Life of the Earl of Liverpool, vol. iii. pp. 9, 10. 


It is but fair to add that Canon Sumner, in his interesting 
memoir of his father, the Bishop, cites this same letter 
as evidence of George the Fourth's conscientiousness in 
the distribution of ecclesiastical patronage. I cannot 
attribute so laudable a motive to the royal writer, the 
more especially when I bear in mind his vindictive 
exclusion of Thomas Denman from the inner bar on 
account of his honest advocacy of Queen Caroline's 

Among the persons who acquired an unenviable 
notoriety for their share in the proceedings against the 
Queen was Sir John Leach, an equity lawyer of eminence, 
previously distinguished for his zealous advocacy of 
"Whig principles, but who had quitted the ranks of the 
Opposition to become a confidential adviser of the then 
Eegent. It was upon his suggestion that persons were 
sent to Italy to collect evidence criminatory of the 
Princess of Wales, with a view to procure a divorce for 
his royal master. While the second "delicate inves- 
tigation" was in progress Leach had the imprudence to 
visit the country in which it was being carried on ; and as 
he in the same year (1819) was appointed Vice-Chancellor, 
the public were impressed with the belief that he had 
personally suborned witnesses to give evidence against 
the Princess, and that he had received the judicial 
appointment as a reward for this special service. 

The resemblance of Leach's name to that of a certain 
animal used for medical purposes furnished a ready-made 
pun for the squib-makers, and there was scarcely a 
caricature relating to the trial in which was not to be seen 
the black worm with a human head in a lawyer's wig. 

Towards the close of the trial I went to Drury Lane 
to see Edmund Kean in Othello. It was his farewell 
performance prior to his departure for America, whither 
he was about to proceed to fulfil a theatrical engagement. 


Here was the first actor of Ms day, and in his masterpiece. 
But this evening the audience had neither eyes nor ears 
for their favourite. Their whole interest in the play was 
concentrated in those passages which bore or appeared to 
bear some analogy to the event which was absorbing the 
public mind. 

In the second scene of the fourth act Emilia informs 
lago of the opprobrious epithets which Othello has been 
heaping upon Desdemona. lago asks : 

How conies this trick on him ] 
DESDEMONA. Nay, heaven doth know. 
EMILIA. I will be hanged if some eternal villain, 

Some busy and insinuating rogue, 

Some cogging cozening slave, to get some office, 

Hath not devised this slander. 

Hereupon there arose in the gallery yellings and hootings, 
intermixed with cries of " Leach ! Leach ! " The uproar 
continued some minutes. When silence was in some 
degree restored, the actors resumed their parts. 

IAGO. Fye, there's no such man ! it is impossible. 

DESDEMONA. If any such there be, Heaven pardon him. 
EMILIA. A halter pardon him, and hell gnaw his bones. 

The Moor's abused by some most villainous knave, 
Some base notorious knave, some scurvy fellow. 
Oh heaven, that such companions thou'dst unfold, 
And put in every honest hand a whip 
To lash the rascal naked through the world, 
Even from the east to the west. 

These words were followed by tremendous applause, by 
the wavings of hats and handkerchiefs, and by other 
tokens of approval of the sentiment implied. After 
another long pause, the performance proceeded. 



DESDEMONA. (kneeling). Here I kneel. 

If e'er my will did trespass 'gainst his love, 
Either in discourse or actual deed ; 
Or that I do not yet, and ever did, 
And ever will tho' he do shake me off 
To beggarly divorcement love him dearly, 
Comfort forswear me. 

There are few educated men of the present day who do 
not feel how ill Desdemona's protestations of fidelity and 
affection would apply to the case of the Queen Consort ; 
but the gallery thought otherwise ; they could only see in 
Caroline of Brunswick the ill-treated but still innocent 
and loving wife consequently there were loud cheers for 
the Queen, and the applause was more vehement than 

In a Christmas pantomime of this year, one of the 
scenes described the Fives Court of the King's Bench 
Prison. Suddenly enters a barrister in a wig and gown, 
carrying a "green bag." 1 His appearance produces an 
immense excitement among the prisoners, who forthwith 
toss him in a blanket, green bag and all. The gallery 
viewed the spectacle with intense delight, and begged that 
the rascal might have another toss. 

On the 10th of November Lord Liverpool withdrew his 
Bill of Pains and Penalties. This virtual defeat of the 
Government was celebrated by illuminations and other 
tokens of popular rejoicing throughout the length and 
breadth of the land. 

The Duke of Sussex went from Tonbridge Wells to pay 
a visit of congratulation to the Queen at Brandenburg 
House. On his return I accompanied his Koyal Highness 
to a meeting at the "Wells." where such of the visitors 

1 The evidence of the Milan Commision was laid before both 
Houses of Parliament in a green bag. 


as disapproved of the Ministerial attempt to set aside the 
law of the land endeavoured to get up an Address to the 
Queen congratulating her upon her escape out of the 
hands of her enemies. The Duke took a prominent part 
in the proceedings, That same evening there was a ball 
at the Assembly Eooms ; but at midnight the local 
authorities, who were of the adverse faction, took away 
our fiddlers, and the Master of the Ceremonies withdrew 
his countenance from us by retiring. But we determined to 

" Confound their politics, 
And frustrate their knavish tricks ; " 

we elected Mr. Douglas Kinnaird our provisional Master 
of the Ceremonies, and under his tuition went through 
the figures of the quadrille without instrumental music, 
humming the tunes, as well as our laughter would enable 
us to do so. 

From Tonbridge Wells I went with the Duke of Sussex 
to Battle Abbey, on a visit to Sir Godfrey Webster. At 
the bottom of the hill on which the town of Battle is 
built the horses were taken out of the carriage, and we 
were dragged up to the Abbey by the populace amidst 
cries of "The Queen and Sussex for ever!" We were 
welcomed within the gates of the Abbey by a military 
band and by a salvo of artillery. Here a large party 
were assembled to meet the Duke, among whom were 
Sir Francis Burdett and Mr. Hobhouse, the then radical 
members for Westminster, and other advanced members 
of the Liberal party. 

Our next visit was to Newstead Abbey, which Colonel 
Wildman had a few years before purchased of his friend 
Lord Byron. 

From Newstead we paid a third visit to Holkham. In 
passing through Thetford I shook hands with my old 
friend Betty Radcliffe. She was a violent anti-Queenite, 


and desired rne to take a message to the Duke, condemning 
the part he had taken in the trial. As the expressions she 
used were of the homeliest description, I advised her to give 
the Duke a piece of her mind in person. This she did, 
without any circumlocution, much to his Eoyal Highness's 

. On our return to town I accompanied the Duke of 
Sussex to the "Beefsteak Club," of which "Sublime 
Society " he was a member. 

I was seated between Mr. Stephenson, secretary to the 
Duke, and afterwards my brother-in-law, and Alderman 
Wood ; the latter, one of the most prominent men of the 
day for the advocacy of the Queen's cause both in and out 
of Parliament. 

As I did not know Mr. Wood by sight, I asked Stephen- 
son the name of my next neighbour. Without answering 
me, he rose, and, with much seriousness of manner, declared 
it to be his painful duty to bring under the consideration 
of the Club the extraordinary conduct of " Brother Wood," 
which had brought discredit upon the Sublime Society. 
He then improvised some alleged disrespect to the Queen 
whom he designated as the beloved Consort of her dear 
lord, our highly popular and never-to-be-sufficiently- 
venerated Sovereign and ended by moving that the 
offending brother should be given in custody of the 
:Sergeant-at-arms to receive sentence from the Recorder. 
Anon appeared the cook, a solemn-looking man, dressed 
in the white cap, jacket, and apron peculiar to his calling, 
.and carrying, sword-fashion, a huge carving-knife. He 
approached the Alderman, who immediately became his 

The Recorder, named Richards, was solicitor to the 
Duke of Sussex and brother of a then popular chemist 
in St. James's Street. 

After dwelling some time on the heinousness of the 


offence, the Eecorder put on his head the cap in which 
Garrick used to play "Abel Drugger," and sentenced 
"Brother Wood" to pass two hours of the following day 

in the company of "Brother ," the most taciturn, 

and at this time of day there is no harm in saying the 
dullest man in the club. 

The Alderman heard his sentence with a deep groan, 
and declared that human malignity could not have devised 
a heavier punishment. 


Ordered out to India. Appointed Aide-de-camp to Lord Hastings. 
My tetes-d-tete with the Governor-General. Calcutta Theatricals. 
Jackal Hunting. An Indian Fever. A Cobra de Capello. 
General Hardwick's Snakery. A Suttee. Lord Hastings em- 
barks for Europe. I am appointed Aide-de-camp to the Governor- 
General ad interim. Set out on my Overland Journey. Arrival 
at Bombay. Captain Marryat. His Caricatures. My brother 
Tom in a gale of wind. My brother Harry in another. 
Marryat's prose improvisations. 

[1821.] I HAD been so long absent from duty that I had 
almost forgotten that I was a soldier. Towards the close 
of 1820, however, I was reminded of the fact by the 
receipt of a prosaic missive from the Horse Guards, in- 
timating that Lieutenant Keppel of the 24th Regiment 
was forthwith to proceed to Chatham, there to join a 
detachment of his regiment under orders to proceed to join 
the head-quarters stationed in Bengal. In obedience to this 
command, I, on the 14th of January, 1821, marched with 
the said detachment from Chatham to Northfleet, whence 
I embarked on board the Lowther Castle, East Indiaman. 
Half a century has not obliterated from my mind the 
feeling of depression with which I stepped on deck. The 
crew were getting in the live-stock. Such hallooing, bleat- 
ing, cackling, grunting, and quacking, such a villainous 
compound of bad smells ! All was noise, dirt, and 
confusion. I was sitting shivering on a hen-coop in silent 
despair when my friend Mr. Archibald Macdonald, who 
had come to take leave of me, hearing that the ship would 


not be ready for sea for a couple of days, took me back 
with him to town, to dine at the " Catch and Glee Club " 
my last London gaiety for some years. 

The next morning I took my place on the outside of one 
of the Greenwich stages, which were then running twice a 
day to and from London. The driver called my attention 
to a little steamboat wending its way down the Thames. 
It was the first I ever remember to have seen. There 
were, I believe, few of these boats plying "between the 
bridges," but it was thought a rash act for one of them to 
venture so near to the river's mouth. " There's the things," 
said my jehu, " that will ruin us coachmen." Some years 
later I travelled the same road, and I thought of the 
prophetic remark of coachee. Steamers were indeed 
running every hour during the day, but so also were 
Gravesend stage-coaches. 

As these "floating hotels," as Indiamen used to be' 
called, were thoroughly well victualled, they had no 
occasion to run into port for water or provisions ; conse- 
quently we passengers could not look forward to breaking 
the monotony of the voyage by an occasional trip on land. 
I was debating how I should dispose of my abundant 
spare time, when I stumbled on Sir William Jones's 
Persian Grammar, which placed the language of which 
it treats in so attractive a form that a knowledge of it 
seemed to me to be 'an easy attainment. Accordingly I 
devoted a part of each day to its study. In this manner 
I picked up more Persian in the four months on board 
the Lowiher Castle than I did Latin in the same number 
of years at Westminster School under the heavy ferule of 
Dr. Page. 

With the knowledge of the language thus acquired on 
shipboard I afterwards managed to make my way from 
the Persian Gulf to the mouths of the Volga, without 
experiencing the slightest inconvenience for the want of a 


medium of communication with the various Mohammedan 
nations through whose countries my road lay. 

I will not ask my readers to share with me the tedious- 
ness of a long sea- voyage ; suffice it to say, that exactly 
four calendar months (May 23) after the Lowther Castle 
weighed anchor in the Downs she dropped again in 
Saugor Eoads. 

The next day I landed at the City of Palaces, and 
shortly after had an audience of the Marquis of Hastings, 
Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of India, to 
whom I brought letters from his niece, Lady William 
Eussell, Mr. Coke of Holkham, Lord Lauderdale, and Lord 
Holland. These served me in good stead, for there 
happened to be a vacancy on his personal staff, to which 
I was immediately appointed. 

The following week I accompanied Lord Hastings to his 
country seat at Barrackpore to take my turn of aide-de- 
camp in waiting. We dined at four in the afternoon. 
After dinner two phaetons, each drawn by four white 
horses, came to the door. On one side were ranged seven 
elephants gaudily caparisoned, especially the one destined 
to carry the " Lord Sahib," which bore the title of Bahadur 
(General), and had " a livery more guarded than its 
fellows." On a word from the Mahout the Bahadur went 
on all-fours to receive its load. A ladder was placed 
against its side; Lord Hastings ascended, and bade me 
seat myself beside him. My first ride was not altogether 
agreeable. The equilateral movement of the animal in its 
walk too much resembled that of a ship in a heavy swell. 

I remember being struck with the beauty of an air-plant 
which formed a succession of festoons over our heads. 
The elephant was ordered to gather it for me. The 
delicate manner in which it separated the tender parasite 
from the tree with its trunk could not have been outdone- 
by the most delicate of human fingers. 


One evening, my attention was arrested by the behaviour 
of the elephant that was to carry the Governor-General. 
It would not stand still for a moment, but kept constantly 
shaking the little ornamental bells of its howdah-cloth. 
On inquiry, I found that the " Bahadur " being indisposed, 
this animal supplied its place, and that its contortions 
arose from the pleasure it felt at the gaudiness of its 
apparel. When I approached the conceited beast it "was 
making a noise with its trunk like the purring of a cat. 

I used greatly to enjoy these elephantine rides. It was 
gratifying to a youngster to be on terms of familiar 
intercourse with a man who, as soldier, orator, or states- 
man, had been before the world for nearly half a century. 
On public occasions Lord Hastings was the most stately of 
human beings ; you then saw only the haughty ruler over 
a hundred and odd millions of fellow-creatures ; but 
Ute-a-Ute in a howdah he was totally different, would talk 
freely on all subjects, and make no secret of his disputes 
with the East India Directors, who were everything in his 
eyes but his " much approved and esteemed good masters." 
But the subject that most interested me was his military 
career. He flushed his maiden sword in 1773 at Bunker's 
Hill, where as Francis Rawdon, a captain of Grenadiers, 
he had two bullets through his cap. Two of his younger 
brothers were also in the action. One of them, John, the 
maternal grandfather of the present Duke of Bedford, left 
a leg on the field of battle. Lord Hastings's last military 
achievement was in 1817, when by strategically concen- 
trating the armies of Bengal, Madras, and Bombay, on a 
given spot on a given day, he annihilated the Pindarrees 
and wholly subverted the power of the Mahrattas. 

There was one subject in which the General and his 
aide-de-camp took a common interest, we were both 
enthusiastic admirers of Shakespeare. As we were 
tolerably well up in our author, we used to recite to 


each other our favourite passages, and occasionally with 
such emphasis that I often wondered what the Mahout 
must have thought of our seeming altercations. 

Like Horace Walpole, Lord Hastings was a stout 
apologist for Eichard the Third, and differed from the 
view that his favourite bard has taken of his character. 
He contended that Eichard was to be judged by the moral 
standard of the age in which he lived, and not by ours ; 
that his humanity was on a par with that of Edward the 
Fourth, and that in his short reign of king he did much 
to mitigate the tyrannical measures of his elder brother. 
I was amused to hear him defend Eichard for cutting off 
the head of his ancestor the Lord Hastings of that day, 
he thought that self-preservation fully warranted the 

Private theatricals formed one of the principal amuse- 
ments in Calcutta in my day. I was not long in enlisting 
in the corps. Our theatre, the " Chowringhee," was about 
the size of the Haymarket. In point of scenery and 
decoration, of everything in short that in theatrical 
language goes by the name of "properties," it could vie 
with a London playhouse. As for our actors, some of 
them had grown grey and bald in the service, and would 
have done no discredit to any boards. 

I made my first appearance as Dick Dashall in Morton's 
comedy of " The Way to Get Married." The part of 
Tangent was in the hands of Mr. Alsop, a Calcutta 
stipendiary magistrate, a son-in-law of Mrs. Jordan the 
actress. He was our stage manager, and as much at home 
in that calling as if he had never followed any other. He 
was an excellent actor of all work, and wore with equal 
grace the sock and the buskin. 

Toby Allspice was personated by Horace Hayman 
"Wilson, the first Oriental scholar of his day, known in 
after times for his continuation of Mill's "History of 


India" and as Boden Professor of Sanscrit in the University 
at Oxford. In some characters he was without an equal. 

Our performance took place on a Friday, in order to 
secure the attendance of the Governor-General, who came 
from Barrackpore on that day of the week to attend Council. 
His Excellency always visited us in great state ; wore all 
his decorations, not omitting the diamond star of the Garter 
which the Prince Regent had taken off his own breast to 
place upon his. He was attended by his whole staff of 
aides-de-camp, secretaries, doctors, and interpreter, escorted 
by his own body-guard of cavalry and received by an 
infantry guard of honour at the theatre. At the door the 
managers were in attendance to conduct his Excellency to 
his box in the centre of the house, where chairs of state 
were placed for his and Lady Hastings's reception. 

On the Monday following a play-night the amateurs 
met at the theatre to agree upon the next representation. 
At my suggestion they formed themselves into the 
"Calcutta Theatrical Beefsteak Club." The institution 
was quite a success, and brought around us some of the 
most agreeable men of the Presidency, whether residents 
in the capital or birds of passage. We used to dine on 
the stage. The cast of our next play was the first business 
of the evening ; that disposed of, a pianoforte was placed 
at the foot of the dinner-table and presided over by a 
professional musician, and the rest of the evening was 
passed in speechifying and in singing catches and glees. 

In spite of the warnings of wiser and older heads, I 
could not resist the temptations of the hunting-field. 
The Calcutta Hunt was a thoroughly well-conducted 
establishment. I used to think we made a splendid 
appearance at the cover side. Two sons of Tippoo Sultan, 
state prisoners of " John Company," always formed part 
of our field. One of these " Mysore princes " I met a 
year or two ago in a London assembly. Our sport was 


uniformly good, and we never knew what it was to draw 
blank. The scent was burning and the pace sometimes 
killing. I prided myself on my stud. One of my 
hunters, a hard-mouthed, self-willed animal, always in- 
sisted upon being well up to the hounds, and acquired 
for its rider the name of the " Flying Dutchman." 

Few persons could indulge in this sport with impunity. 
Soon after following to the grave a brother sportsman, 
who landed at Calcutta the same day as I did, I was 
myself laid low with what was called the pucka fever. 
The staff-surgeon to whom I was consigned was nick- 
named " Joe Manton," after the famous gunmaker, from 
the supposed killing qualities of his prescriptions. By 
God's good providence, I survived the disease and the 
remedies, but for some time I was hovering between life 
and death. One morning Lord Hastings paid me a visit, 
which I rightly conjectured was intended as a last farewell. 
The disorder was then at its crisis. My doctor had ordered 
the external application of some strong acid, and Alsop, 
my brother actor, took off his coat and waistcoat to carry 
out the prescription. While so employed, a friend came to 
the door, but immediately closed it after him. The inter- 
val between death and interment in India is necessarily 
brief. On the evening of the day on which Lord Hastings 
paid me a visit a large party of my acquaintance met at 
the burial-ground. They had been informed by the friend 
who had peeped in at my door that " Keppel was dead, 
for he had seen the undertaker washing the body." 

One day that I was walking in the conservatory of the 
Barrackpore Government House, I nearly trod on a cobra de 
capello. It had wound itself into a circle so as to resemble 
a coil of rope, and was so like in colour to the stone pave- 
ment as not to be easily discernible. Attracted doubtless 
by the moisture, which a serpent so delights in, it occupied 
the damp spot from which a large flower-pot had lately 


been removed. As I had no weapon at hand wherewith 
to do it battle, I allowed it to escape. A few days after- 
wards (June 17) a cowboy who had been bitten by a cobra 
was brought to the Government House in the hope that 
Dr. Sawers, the Governor-General's physician in attendance, 
would cure him. The doctor gave him some Eau de Luce, 
but the poor lad was past recovery, and died in about half 
an hour. While living, his body was in a state of perfect 
repose, the hands open, the palms upwards. There can 
be no doubt that the asp which Cleopatra employed for 
her own destruction was the cobra, which she selected 
probably as the instrument most likely to procure an easy 
death. Shakespeare makes her call it 

" The pretty worm of Nilus, 
That kills and pains not." 

The clown who brings the serpent tells the queen that " his 
biting is immortal, and that those who die of it do seldom 
or never recover." 

But Sawers contradicted, not what the clown said, but 
what he intended to say. He, the doctor, once saved the 
life of a soldier who had been bitten by a cobra. His 
remedies were large doses of brandy, and keeping the 
patient, while supported by two men, constantly walking 
up and down the room, the poor fellow begging in vain to 
be allowed to lie down and die. 

The time when the cobra is most to be dreaded is in the 
rainy season. It is then that the reptile, washed out of 
its hole, wanders in search of a new home. A not in- 
frequent place of refuge is a bath-room, into which it 
effects an entrance by the aperture that is made for the 
escape of the refuse water. Not less than three cobras had 
been killed in the bath-room which I occupied. 

My palanquin-bearers warned me against killing a cobra. 
They told me that some of its relations would avenge its 


death. They were not aware that Pliny tells a somewhat 
similar story. 

It is probable that the belief which the Hindoos share 
with the Eoman naturalist respecting the revengeful spirit 
of the cobra has allowed these reptiles to make such head 
in India. It appears by a recent publication that in the 
Presidency of Bengal alone no less than 11,416 persons 
died of snake-bite in 1869. 

The general in command of the Barrackpore district in 
my time, an old gentleman of the name of Hard wick, was 
passionately fond of cobras, of which he had a large 
collection. His pets being of a truant disposition, would 
frequently escape into the adjoining compounds, to the 
no small annoyance and terror of his neighbours. I once 
paid a visit to his snakery. I saw him seize a cobra by the 
tail with his right hand, while he passed the body of the 
animal rapidly through his left till he reached the hood. 
He then forced open the serpent's mouth and showed the 
poison-bag at the base of the fangs. When he let the 
reptile go, so far from showing irritation at such rough 
usage, it seemed rather gratified at having been chosen to 
exhibit the idiosyncrasy of its species in its own person. 
I forget the name of the author, but I have seen a 
published account of General Hardwick's collection of 

I find, from a note which I made of the occurrence, that 
on the morning of the 14th of October, 1822, I witnessed 
at a distance, at a village called Howrah, on the right 
bank of the Ganges, the burning of a woman on the 
funeral pile of her husband. As I was on the left or 
Calcutta side of the river, I could hear nothing but the 
sound of human voices and tamtams, and could see little 
more than an assemblage of figures in white robes hovering 
round the flames. 

The pile was set on fire by the son of the widow, and 

XL] A SUTTEE. 255- 

she, in conformity with the practice prevalent in Bengal, 
was made fast to the faggots by two bamboos placed across 
her body. 

On my return to the Government House, I had a long 
conversation with Lord Hastings's Circar (native house- 
steward), a wealthy Brahmin of high caste. I quoted the 
opinions of Earn Mohun Eoy, who had written several 
pamphlets against the concremation of widows, as being 
contrary to the Vedas, or sacred writings of the Hindoos. 
The Circar stoutly defended the practice. A few months 
later he died. In his will he made ample provision for 
his widow, and left express directions that she should not 
ascend his funeral pile. 

Suttee was abolished in India about six years after I left 
the country, that is to say in 1829, under Lord William 
Bentinck's administration. It continued, however, in 
native states till 1847, when Lord Hardinge procured 
from Hindoo princes and chiefs its abolition. 

During the interval between 1829 and 1847 it was the 
duty of British officers located in foreign states to be 
present at any case of Suttee, so as to see that no 
coercion was used, and to prevail upon the widow, if 
possible, to forego her intention. My friend Sir Erskine 
Perry has given me the following details of a Suttee, 
communicated to him by Mr. Graver Lumsden, at which 
that gentleman presided, in one of the small native states 
of the Bombay Presidency : 

" The widow in this case was a young beauty of very 
good caste and means. The procession to the pyre was 
most solemn and picturesque. She, dressed in her best, 
and with all her jewels on, attended by servants carrying 
presents, walked slowly round the pile of faggots ; and 
with a heavenly smile on her countenance, and expressive 
of happiness that could not be gainsaid, distributed her 
gifts to all around. Then ascending the pile, and taking 


her husband's head in her lap, she set fire to the funeral 
pile, and expired without a groan, and with the self- 
satisfaction of the most devoted martyr." 

[1823.] On New Year's Day of this year Lord Hastings, 
dissatisfied with his treatment by the East India Company, 
threw up his high office, and embarked for Europe in 
H.M.S. Jupiter. In the interval between his departure 
and the arrival in India of his successor, the government 
devolved provisionally on Mr. John Adam, the senior 
member of Council, who kindly appointed me to the same 
post that I had occupied in Lord Hastings's family. 

Soon after the arrival of Lord Amherst, the Governor- 
General appointed from home, I set out on my long- 
projected Oriental journey. Commodore Grant was to 
have given me a berth on board the frigate in which his 
broad pennant was flying, but before I could avail myself 
of his kindness the cholera broke out on board. It may 
be worthy of remark that the disease confined its ravages 
to midships, leaving the fore and after part of the vessel 
wholly unassailed. 

Early in November I took a passage in a merchantman 
to Bombay. As the vessel came to an anchor in the 
harbour of that island, Captain Gillespie, aide-de-camp to 
the Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstone, the Governor, caine 
alongside, and, in obedience to the orders of his chief, 
carried me with him to Pareil, one of the Governor's 
country seats, which became my head-quarters during 
my stay. 

It was worth a trip to Bombay if only to make 
acquaintance with its Governor. I have the most pleasing 
reminiscences of that accomplished scholar and very 
agreeable companion. Mr. Elphinstone took a lively 
interest in my projected journey, strongly urged me to 
publish an account of my travels, and suggested several 
hints which proved of much service to the inchoate author. 


No person could have been better qualified to offer advice 
on such a subject, for his " Account of the Kingdom of 
Caubul" is, from the fidelity of its narrative and the 
gracefulness of its diction, a model to writers of travels 
through semi-barbarous countries. 

In Bombay harbour I first made acquaintance with 
Frederick Marryat, then in command of H.M.S. Lome. 
He had not at that time written any of his charming 
sea-novels, but he was not unknown to the public as a 
caricaturist. Two of his productions long held their 
place in the shop-windows. 

One of these represented was " a lee lurch on board an 
Indiaman." Some forty ladies and gentlemen are seated 
at the cuddy dinner-table, which suddenly describes an 
angle of 45 degrees ; the guests to leeward are frantically 
grasping the table-cloth. A negro boy with a tureen of 
boiling pea-soup is holding on by his heels ; you see at a 
glance what must happen next. 

The other is a very tolerable likeness of Marryat him- 
self. He is in full uniform at the Court of a sort of " King 
Coffee." His Majesty is sitting cross-legged, surrounded 
by a body guard, at the top of whose spears are bleeding 
heads. Three giggling negresses, grouped and attired as 
the Graces usually are, occupy the foreground : they are 
the three daughters of the cannibal king. The captain is 
to choose which of them he will make his wife ; he has 
his hand on his heart, and his look of embarrassment is 
truly admirable. 

The Lome at this time was more like a menagerie than 
a man-of-war, and its captain by no means a bad show- 
man. Of the manner in which he played this part I was 
strongly reminded, when a year or two later I read the 
account of Peter Simple among the wild beasts at Ports - 
down Fair. 

The sensational and graphic description of clawing off a 



lee shore in the " King's Own " is by no means an exag- 
gerated account of what actually happened to the Ariadne 
frigate off the Deserta Islands on the 23rd of November, 
1829, at which time Marryat was in command of her. My 
brother Tom, who was one of his lieutenants, told me that 
"all hands" had given themselves up for lost, that they 
kicked off their shoes and stockings and rushed into the 
rigging, there to await the expected catastrophe. 

A similar adventure befell my brother the Admiral. He 
was a midshipman on board the Tweed frigate at the time. 
Off the Azores, his ship found herself in a heavy gale, 
a dense fog, close hauled and with the island of Pico 
under her lee. Suddenly there was a cry from the look-out 
man of " Breakers ahead ! " In such a sea to tack was 
impossible. It became necessary to " wear." This process 
brought the Tweed in such fearful proximity to a ledge of 
rock that destruction seemed inevitable. Harry was 
stationed in the mizen-top. As did his younger brother in 
a like dilemma, he cast off shoes and stockings. He 
then " shinned up " to the topmast head. His idea was 
that if, as he expected, the ship should go to pieces, the 
higher he could mount aloft, the better would be his 
chance of being hurled over the reef into smooth water to 

Twenty-eight gun ships were called, from their lack 
of speed, " donkey frigates." The Tweed was a craft of this 
class ; but though a dull sailer she was the handiest of sea 
boats, and having been skilfully tackled, carried her crew 
into the open sea, where in comparative safety she success- 
fully rode out the remainder of the gale. 

The next time that Marryat and I met after parting 
company in the harbour of Bombay was the year following 
in the Duke of Sussex's apartments in Kensington Palace. 
In that short interval, although our routes lay in oppo- 
site directions, we had each had some novel glimpses of 


Oriental life : I in my Overland Journey, he in Birmah, in 
the war with which country he played a distinguished 
part. Among other curiosities which he brought from a 
spot then less known than the watersheds of the Nile now 
are, was a Birmese slave boy, whom he made a present of 
to the Duke of Sussex. His Eoyal Highness clothed the 
lad in a fantastic dress, and he remained many years a 
member of his establishment. 

Before Marryat's inventive genius found a vent in sea 
novels, it used to disport itself in the coinag eof wonderful 
adventures purporting to have happened to himself. These 
tales were within the verge of possibility, and that's all. 
It was amusing to observe the puzzled faces of the Duke's 
guests as they listened to these " voyages imaginaires," 
and the implicit credence which his Eoyal Highness, and 
the rest of us who were in the secret, appeared to give to 
them completed the mystification. 

I hardly know whether I ought to quote the following 
sample of the manner in which my friend occasionally 
let loose the reins of his fancy. He was member of a 
book-club in Kensington. At the annual sale the sub- 
scribers voted him their auctioneer. Among the works 
to be disposed of was a copy of my Overland Journey. 
Marryat told his audience that he was personally ac- 
quainted with its author, and then proceeded to improvise 
such an amusing account of its supposed contents, that it 
was knocked down to some bidder at three shillings above 
the cost price. 

In the election for the first Reformed Parliament 
Marryat was a candidate for the Tower Hamlets, in the 
Eadical interest. The party which he espoused were very 
keen for the abolition of corporal punishment in the two 
war professions. He was haranguing a numerous audi- 
ence, when a man in the crowd called out, " Now, Marryat ! 

how about flogging ? " 

s 2 


" I would abolish it in the army," was the reply. 

"But in the navy?" 

" Certainly not." 

"Then, Captain, I don't trust myself on board your 

" If you do, I shall turn the hands up and give you 
a round dozen ! " 

The rejoinder produced a laugh at the expense of the 
querist. How many votes to the candidate is quite 
another question. 


Preparations for my Overland Journey. My Fellow-Travellers. 
Embark on board H.M.S. Alligator. Yard-arm Smith. Land 
at Bussorah. Horse-racing in the Desert. Prepare for our Trip 
up the Tigris. Our Arab Guard. Take leave of our Shipmates 
Arab Black Mail. Our Voyage up the River. Koorna. Our 
first Interview with the Desert Arabs. Partridge Shooting in 
the. Desert. A Lion and Lioness. Arrive at Bagdad. Visit 
to the ruins of Babylon. The Pasha of Bagdad. A residence 
of Caliph Haroun al Raschid. Reflections thereupon. We 
leave Bagdad. Are Waylaid. Arrive at Kermanshah. A 
curious order of Knighthood. An Arab Outlaw. A Moolah. 
A Royal Funeral. We prevent a Duel. The Moolah's opinion 
of Duelling. An audience with the Prince Governor. 

[1824.] AT the beginning of each year, Bombay used to be 
the resort of travellers who wished, on returning to Europe, 
to avoid the long sea- voyage round the Cape. What was 
called the " Overland journey " comprised merely a two 
days' trip across the Isthmus of Suez. My peregrinations 
embraced a much wider field, and extended to countries 
then but little known, and a portion of them even now 
remaining untrodden by the traveller. 

It was in the month of January, 1824, that Mr. Ker 
Baillie Hamilton, Captain Hart of the 4th Light Dragoons, 
and Dr. Lamb arrived from different parts of India, in the 
island of Bombay, bent on a like expedition to my own. 
They became my fellow-travellers, and Captain Alexander, 
K.N., kindly helped us on our journey by giving us a 


passage to Bussorah in the Alligator frigate, of which he 
had the command. 

"On the 27th of January we weighed and sailed. 
Before sunset the town of Bombay had disappeared from 
view, and the high ghauts (mountains) which mark this 
coast were all we could discern of Indian land." 

Thus begins Keppel's " Overland Journey to England," 
in which the adventures of its author appear duly 

To return to the Alligator, Her first lieutenant bore 
the name of Smith not a very uncommon one, perhaps 
but he, like many others of its gallant bearers, was 
distinguished by a sobriquet which he had won in battle, 
and by which he w r as popularly known in the Navy. 
This prefix he obtained by his conduct in the famous 
action between the Chesapeake and the Shannon in 1813. 
The circumstances connected with that passage of arms 
were worthy of the days of chivalry. A short time 
previously Captain Broke wrote a very polite and even 
Mattering letter to Captain Lawrence of the Chesapeake, 
hoping that he would do him the honour to come out of 
harbour and try his strength with him. The challenge 
was promptly and courteously accepted, and the captain 
of the Chesapeake sailed out of Boston amidst the cheers 
of his countrymen, who prepared an entertainment in 
anticipation of his victory. As the two ships came to 
close quarters, Stevens, the boatswain of the Shannon, 
who had served under Rodney and Nelson, lashed them 
together. After some desperate fighting Broke succeeded 
in gaining the quarter-deck of the enemy with about 
sixty of his followers. At the same moment William 
Smith entered the Chesapeake by the fore -yard- arm. The 
Americans in the rigging fled at his approach on to the 
deck. One of them, however, he caught by the waistband 
of his trousers, and hove out of the top. The last who 


sought to make his escape was a hulking midshipman, 
with huge boots like those of an English trawler; the 
foretopmast back-stay had been shot away and trailed on 
the forecastle. By this rope he slid down, but before he 
could reach the deck Smith's feet were on his shoulders, 
and in this fashion they came down together by the run. 

The first use that Captain Broke made of his victory 
was to stay the impetuosity of his men. While so 
employed three American sailors attacked him from 
behind. "Broke parried the pike of his first assailant 
and wounded him in the face. Before he could recover 
his guard, the second foe struck him with a cutlass on the 
side of the head, and instantly on this the third American 
drove home his comrade's weapon until a large part of 
the skull was cloven entirely away, and the brain was laid 

At the moment that Broke sank bleeding on the deck 
Smith had reached the enemy's forecastle in the manner 
already described. He hastened to raise his captain, 
followed by the American midshipman, who expected 
every moment to fall a victim to the fury of the 
assailants ; and such would have been his fate if Broke, 
the moment before 'he lost all consciousness, had not 
touched his collar. So the life of the prisoner was saved, 
and his English captor promoted to a lieutenancy. 

I was not personally acquainted with Sir Philip Broke, 
but I \ised to see him frequently at the levees of William 
IV., where he was conspicuous for the black skull-cap 
which he wore to conceal the handiwork of the three 
Americans on his cranium. He fought the action in a 
chimney-pot hat, which is to be seen in its cloven state at 
Shrubland Park, the seat of his son, Admiral Sir George 
Broke Middleton, Bart. 

We had a most charming little Voyage up the Gulf, 
visiting on our way the Imaum of Muscat, a sovereign 


Arab prince, who very kindly lent us his stud to make an 
excursion into the interior. 

On the 21st of February we anchored off Bussorah, and 
arrived in the, nick of time to see the new Governor, a 
Pasha of two tails, make his triumphal entry into the 
town. Two days after, Captain Alexander, the officers of 
the frigate, and we travellers paid him a visit. We were 
regaled in the usual Eastern fashion on sweatmeats, coffee, 
pipes, sherbet, and rose-water. At last some chafing- 
dishes, containing incense, were brought for perfuming our 
beards a ceremony which was gravely performed by 
every downy- cheeked midshipman of the Alligator. 

"March 1st. We went this morning to a horse-race. 
The spot selected was the great desert which commences 
immediately outside the town. A circular furrow of two 
miles marked the course, the stakes consisting of a small 
subscription amongst our European party. Five candi- 
dates started for the prize. A coarse loose shirt comprised 
all the clothing of the Arab jockey, and the powerful 
bit of the country the only equipment of the horse he 
bestrode. Thus simply accoutred, at a signal given 
the half- naked competitors set off at full speed, each 
giving a shout to animate his steed. The prize was 
adjudged to an Ethiopian slave. We had neither gay 
equipages nor fair ladies to grace our sports, but what we 
lost in splendour and beauty we gained in novelty, and 
were indemnified for the absence of the bright smile of 
woman by the animated sight of turbaned Turks, who 
would gallop past us, jereed in hand, challenge each other 
to the contest, and, spurred on by their favourite amuse- 
ment, would, in the exhilarating air of the desert, lay 
aside the gravity of the divan. 

" Every youngster of the .Alligator had provided himself 
with a half-broke Arabian. One of them, zealous for the 
honour of his cloth, challenged me to ride a race with him. 


I accepted ; and, in his eagerness to get the weather-gauge 
of the ' soldier officer,' he ran foul of a comrade, whom he 
capsized as well as himself. The palm was consequently 
adjudged to me, though my competitor swore that he 
should certainly have won if 'the lubber had not come 
athwart his hawse.' " 

The next stage of our journey was to Bagdad. The 
ordinary mode of proceeding thither by water was to 
procure a passage in one of a fleet of boats which took 
their departure at this season of the year, whenever their 
numbers were sufficient to protect them from the attacks 
of the lawless tribes of wandering Arabs which infested 
the banks of the river. Our party, however, adopted an 
unusual, but more expeditious course. We started alone, 
and had a boat to ourselves. As a defence from the 
riparian robbers, we engaged a guard of twenty men 
belonging to the tribes through which we should have to 
pass. As the voyage was mainly performed by tracking 
up stream, and we wished to travel night and day, we 
hired a double set of boatmen. Our whole establishment 
was under the superintendence of Aboo Nazir, a good- 
humoured drunken Arab, whose gratitude for a life thrice 
spared by British influence we considered a sufficient 
guarantee for his fidelity. To Aboo Nazir we paid before- 
hand the amount of tribute which it was expected would 
be levied upon us. 

As soon as there was sufficient water in the canal our 
boat was moored alongside the British factory. When the 
gates opened it discovered to us our guard of Arabs, who, 
armed with swords, shields, and muskets, scrambled on 
board singing and dancing to the rude beating of the 
tamtam, and presenting as wild an appearance as their 
countrymen against whom they were to protect us. 

At ten o'clock on the night of the 6th of March, we 
quitted the frigate to go on board our boat. Our ship- 


mates accompanied us to the gangway, gave us a loud 
cheer, and bade us an affectionate farewell. We were 
setting out on a journey supposed to be beset with 
dangers, and one which had been undertaken by few 
Europeans. The manner of our messmates showed un- 
mistakably that they considered the parting might be a 
final one. So indeed it proved to be, but not in the 
manner anticipated. My fellow-travellers long survived 
the journey, but within two years of their leave-taking, 
Captain Alexander and five of his officers had fallen 
victims to the Indian climate. 

This trip up the Tigris was never attended by any 
real danger, provided the claim to black mail was duly 
satisfied. But inasmuch as every piastre that did not 
find its way into the pocket of the sheikh of a tribe 
remained in Aboo Nazir's, he let slip no opportunity of 
shirking the contribution, and we, for the fun and excite- 
ment sure to be caused by the pious fraud, winked at 
what we used to call his " bilking the turnpike." Thus, 
when an occasional slant of wind would enable us to 
dispense with the tow-rope, we defiantly sailed past the 
enemy, all hands mustered on deck for the occasion. We 
travellers and our servants appeared in the after-part of 
the boat, armed to the teeth, our guard on the forecastle 
performed the sword-dance with more than usual energy, 
while Aboo Nazir and our boatmen fired a volley of 
derisive Arabic upon the angry and bamboozled children 
of Ishmael. 

On the 4th of March we arrived off Koorna, situated at 
a narrow slip of land formed by the confluence of the 
Euphrates and Tigris. Two miles above the town the 
plantations of date-trees which had hitherto covered the 
banks ceased, and the country on both sides was overflowed. 
We landed in the afternoon on the west side to shoot. 
The ground was very wet, and the state of the vegetation 


indicated little fertility. This desolate country, now 
called II Jezeenah (the Island), has claims on our interest ' 
as the ancient Babylonia, and as the birthplace of Abraham. 
It is by some held to be the site of paradise. 

March 9th. Half an hour before sunset we arrived at a 
village of wandering Arabs. One of them, a wild-looking 
savage, ran towards us in a frantic manner, and, throwing 
down his turban, demanded Buxis (a present). He was 
made to replace his turban, but continued screaming as if 
distracted. His noise and our appearance soon collected 
a crowd of men, women, and children ; the greater number 
had evidently never seen a European before. 

When we reached the banks of the river we had to 
wait for our boat, which was tracking round a headland. 
As we were thus for a time in a state of durance, we stood 
with our backs to the water to prevent an attack from the 
rear. In the meantime crowds of the Nomads continued 
to press forward. As their numbers were greatly superior 
to ours, we tried by our manner to show as little distrust 
of them as possible. Not so our guards, who, from being 
of the same calling as these marauders, treated them with 
less ceremony, and stood by us the whole time with their 
guns loaded and cocked, their fingers on the triggers, and 
the muzzles presented towards the crowd. Some of the 
Arabs occasionally came forward to look at our fire-arms, 
especially our double-barrelled guns, but, whenever they 
attempted to touch them, they were repulsed by our guard, 
who kept them at a distance. In the midst of this curious 
interview, the sheikh, or chief of the village, a Venerable- 
looking old man with a long white beard, came accompanied 
by two others, who brought us a present of a sheep, for 
which, according to custom, we gave double its value in 
money. The sheikh's arrival, and our pecuniary acknow- 
ledgment of his present, seemed an earnest of amity, as 
the crowd, by his directions, retired to a small distajice 


and formed themselves into a semicircle himself and his 
two friends sitting about four yards in front. 

The scene to us was of the most lively interest. Around 
us, as far as the eye could reach, was a trackless desert, 
and immediately in the foreground were the primitive 
inhabitants, unchanged probably in dress, customs, or 
language since the time of the " wild man," Ishmael, 
their common ancestor. 

"March l()th. We went out shooting in the desert and 
had excellent sport. Hares, black partridges, and snipes 
were in the greatest abundance. For my own share of 
the game I laid claim to a brace of partridges, not a little 
proud that nearly the first birds that ever fell to my gun 
should have been killed in the Garden of Eden." 

One of my newspaper critics who quoted this passage 
of my narrative asked whether instead of partridges the 
gallant Captain did not mean " birds of Paradise." 

" At 2 P.M. we passed the residence of Sheikh Abdallah 
Bin Ali, an Arab chief. As we were wending our way 
over the desert tract, unmarked by human habitation, we 
approached a boy tending cattle, who ran with all his 
might to a small mound, so gradually elevated as to be 
scarcely perceptible to us. In an instant, like the dragons' 
teeth which Cadmus sowed, a large body of men armed 
with spears appeared on the brow of the eminence, and 
seemed to have grown out from the till then unpeopled 
spot. The men set up a loud shout, in which they were 
joined by women and children, who now made their 
appearance. All with one accord rushed towards us 
demanding the nature of our intentions, but once assured 
of our peaceful disposition, their clamour ceased, and in 
two minutes we were on the most friendly terms. 

"At four o'clock we stopped at a patch of brushwood 
jungle, where our boatmen and guard went on shore to 
cut wood for fuel. In the midst of this employment, one 


of them disturbed a lion that was sleeping under a bush. 
The fellow was greatly frightened, and communicated his 
terror to his comrades, who hastened on board. The lion 
stole away, and the trackers continued their work without 
making any objection. Game of every description is 
abundant throughout in this ancient kingdom of Nimrod, 
that ' mighty hunter before the Lord.' The spot we were 
now passing was quite living with animals flesh or fowl. 
At every step the boatmen put up pelicans, swans, geese, 
ducks, teal, and snipes; wild boars were seen galloping 
about in all directions. A lioness strolled towards our 
boat and stood staring at us for two or three seconds. 
Mr. Hamilton and I both fired at her, but as we were 
only loaded with small shot we did her no injury. The 
noise of our guns made her turn quietly round, and she 
trotted away as leisurely as she came." 

On the 21st of March we landed at Bagdad, and became 
the guests of Aga Sarkees, the British agent. 

On the 24th of March we set out on our visit to the 
ruins of Babylon. I do not here repeat the results of 
that expedition, inasmuch as they are fully detailed in my 
published narrative, and the substance of them is also 
embodied in Keith's " Spirit of Prophecy," a work which 
its venerable author has lived to see reach its fortieth 

On our return from Babylon, we travellers paid our 
respects to the Pasha of Bagdad, and went through the 
same ceremonial of sweetmeats, pipes, and coffee, as had 
been observed in our visit to his brother, the Governor of 

An extract from my " Overland Journey " will show the 
stamp of man to whom, under Ottoman rule, despotic 
power was delegated in the first quarter of this century. 

"Davoud (David) Pasha is a Georgian by birth, and 
was formerly a slave to the then Pasha of Bagdad. At 


an early age he abjured Christianity, and assumed the 
character of a Mohammedan devotee. Seating himself at 
the Palace gate, he acquired so large a sum by begging 
that he became a candidate for the Pashalic. His proposals 
to the Grand Signior were accepted and answered in the 
usual manner an order for the execution of the ruling 
Pasha. This being carried into immediate effect, the 
mendicant slave passed quietly into the place of his old 
master. He was not long in throwing off the mask of 
ascetic. Convinced that a situation gained by blood ' by 
blood must be maintained' he has been as ruthless as 
any of those who had gone before him in the office. No 
less than fifteen hundred persons had fallen victims to 
his rapacity or ambition. He is a good-humoured-looking 
man, apparently between forty and fifty years of age, and 
of very prepossessing manners. During the interview, I 
tried to discover in his fine countenance any lines of 
remorse, for such a load of crime. I looked in vain and 
remembering Byron's descriptive lines of the famous Ali 
Pasha of Jannina, found it no less difficult 

. ..." 'to trace 
The deeds which lurk beneath and stamp him with disgrace.' " 

During our stay in Bagdad, we were very anxious to 
see anything that could remind us of Haroun al Raschid 
of "Arabian Nights'" celebrity; but our researches were 
far from satisfactory. A tumble-down house was shown 
us as having once been the residence of the renowned 
Caliph: there is nothing in its actual appearance worthy 
of notice, except the judicious situation in which it is 
built. The Tigris washes its wall, and from its lattices is 
a fine view of the surrounding scenery. 

On returning from this excursion, I made the following 
entry in my Journal : 

" Here it may not be irrelevant to offer a few remarks 


on that disposition so observable in Eastern nations to 
allow the works of antiquity to fade to decay. The Turk, 
careless and indolent, dozes through his existence un- 
mindful of the future. With us the actions of our 
forefathers are associated with our own. One of the 
motives which stimulates us to present exertions is the 
recollection of our predecessors, and the hope of handing 
down our own name to posterity. The Turk, from the 
insecurity of property, and the frail hold by which he 
clings to life, regards merely the present moment. To- 
morrow, he may be dead, or he may be a beggar. To-day 
is his existence. He knows that, like the mighty Davoud, 
the slave may become the three-tailed bashaw, but he 
also knows that the same sum which purchased the head 
of his predecessor may be given for his own. He exercises 
power while he may in extortion and oppression. Prodigal 
of the life of others, careless of his own, he yields when 
his turn comes with the indifference of a predestinarian, 
and respectfully submits his neck to the bow-string 
whenever the vicar of the Holy Prophet dooms him to 

Fifty-two years ago, when I penned the foregoing 
paragraph, it was with a strong presentiment that the 
Eastern potentate with whom I had lately been sipping 
coffee would illustrate in his own person the appositeness 
of my reflections. So it turned out in the sequel. Soon 
after the narrative of this journey had passed through the 
press, I heard that Davoud Pasha had died the same 
death as that to which he had subjected his predecessor 
in office. 

We left Bagdad on the 8th of April en route to 
Kermanshah, the capital of Coordistan. Two days later 
we crossed from the Turkish into the Persian dominions. 
This was by far the most dangerous part of our journey. 
Armed with a firman or Persian passport, the English 


traveller was almost as safe as in his own country, but 
lacking it, he was virtually an outlaw, and could claim no 
immunity from any attack that might be made upon him. 

Although no actual harm befell our party, we were 
several times waylaid on our journey to Kermanshah. 
On one occasion, shoctly before daybreak, three men on 
horseback the apparent leader of whom rode a black 
horse came suddenly into the narrow mountain-pass 
through which we were riding, and seemed to be watching 
us. We thought their conduct somewhat suspicious in 
this land of robbers, for they preceded us for several 
miles, but at last they struck into the mountains and 
disappeared. We heard of them afterwards from a young 
Arab chieftain at Kermanshah, who informed us that 
twenty Coords of the Calor tribe (one of the most 
powerful of Coordistan) had followed us from Khanaki 
for the express purpose of plundering our party; that 
their gang consisted of twelve men on horseback and 
eight on foot, armed with matchlocks. Their chief, who, he 
told us, rode a black horse, exactly coincided in description 
with the person whom we had seen. It seems that they 
had received intelligence of our party being supposed to 
consist of an ambassador and his suite travelling with 
a large treasure. They, however, found us always so 
much on our guard that they abandoned their purpose 
of plunder as soon as we got near the mountain-pass of 
Paee Takht (foot of the throne), where a military force 
was stationed. It was near this place that Sir Robert 
Ker Porter was attacked on his journey to Bagdad. 

A day or two afterwards, our little camp was attacked 
at Kisra Shereen. We had just made fast our tent doors 
at night, and were going to sleep, when we heard several 
shots fired in quick succession. Some robbers had descended 
the hill, and had commenced unloosing the cords by which 
our horses had been picketed to the ground, but being 


fired upon, had fled. Shortly after, another gang, for the 
same could hardly have got round in the time, came to 
the opposite side and made a like attempt, but they also 
were repulsed in like manner. We saw no more of the 
fellows, though, as we afterwards heard, they formed part 
of the Calor banditti. 

On the 22nd of April, being the fourteenth day since 
our departure from Bagdad, we arrived at Kermanshah, 
the capital of Kurdistan. As we were descending a hill 
three miles from the town, we saw, marshalled at a short 
distance, a gaily caparisoned cavalcade, habited in the 
Persian dress. It was easy to perceive that they had 
assembled in compliment to us. We were speculating 
who they could be for we looked in vain for the European 
costume when one of the company with a long beard 
saluted us in military fashion, and in the French language 
welcomed us to Kermanshah. They turned out to be 
European residents in the city, attended by their united 
trains of servants and followers. Of these were Messrs. 
Court and De Yeaux, two French officers to whom we had 
letters, two Italians, and a Spaniard of the name of Oms. 
Hassan Khan, one of the principal officers of the Prince- 
Governor, came to tell us on the part of his Highness that 
a house had been prepared for our reception. We yielded, 
however, to the pressing invitation of Messrs. Court and 
De Veaux and became their guests during their stay. 

" These gentlemen and the Spanish officer, Senor Oms, 
are all Khans (Lords) of Persia, and Knights of the Lion 
and Sun, as well as of another order, the decoration of 
which is a star, with the curious device of two lions 
fighting for the Persian crown. 

" Some years since the present King, Futteh Ali Shah, 
in conformity with one of the most ancient laws of Persia, 
assembled his sons for the purpose of nominating his suc- 
cessor to the throne. Abbas Meerza, the King's second 



son, was promised this high dignity. All the Princes 
present bowed in token of obedience to the royal will, 
with the exception of Mohammed Ali Meerza, the King's 
eldest son, then Prince- Governor of Kermanshah. He 
alone stood erect. Unawed by the presence of his father 
and sovereign, he refused to acknowledge the decree. 
' May God/ said he, ' preserve the King of Kings ; but if 
my brother and myself should have the misfortune to 
survive your Majesty ' (and he half unsheathed his sword 
as he spoke) ' this shall decide the succession to the throne.' 
On the return of the French officers from some successful 
expedition against the Turks, they asked the Prince to 
institute some order of knighthood as a reward for their 
services. Mohammed Ali, bearing in his mind his oath of 
enmity against his brother, founded the order with the 
device of the fighting lions." 

Happily for the cause of humanity and civilization the 
King, Futteh Ali, outlived both his warlike sons, and con- 
sequently this fratricidal war did not take place. In 1834, 
the Shah's grandson, Mohammed, the son of Abbas Meerza, 
succeeded to the throne, and at his death in 1848 his son 
Nazr-ul-deen, the present Shah, our late illustrious visitor. 

One day during our stay we found Messrs. Court and 
De Veaux seated in the garden, in company with two 
Arabs who had lately fled for protection from the Pasha 
of Bagdad. 

One of these was the young Arab chief to whom we 
were indebted for our information respecting the Calor 
banditti. A few months back this young man's father, 
with only forty men, defended a fortress against Davoud 
Pasha, but had ultimately been induced to surrender on a 
solemn assurance of protection. In the interview that 
followed the capitulation, the Pasha caused his prisoner's 
head to be struck off and packed up in a parcel to adorn 
one of the gates of Constantinople. 

xn.] MOOLAH ALL 275 

The other guest was one Moolah All, an Arab though 
he wore the Persian dress, a man to whom murder and 
every other crime had long been familiar. This man's 
features bore none of the marks which romance readers 
usually ascribe to those of a murderer. On the contrary, 
his mild eye beamed with intelligence, and when he spoke, 
his mouth lighted up with so pleasing a smile that the 
diabolical matter of his speech was forgotten in the 
attractive manner of his delivery. He was a man whose 
conscience never troubled him with " air-drawn daggers : " 
he had a substantial one in his girdle, ready for use as 
inclination prompted. 

" Not many weeks before we saw this Moolah, he was 
one of the principal persons of Mendali, a Turkish town 
near the frontier. In those days, he was the bosom friend 
of Davoud Pasha and ' his best of cut-throats.' It waa 
during this intimacy that he invited sixteen persons to 
a feast, and placing a confidential agent between each 
guest, caused every one of them to be put to death, him- 
self giving the signal by plunging a dagger into the breast 
of the person beside him. Such feats as these we may 
find in the histories of savage countries. Among all bar- 
barians, the virtue of hospitality, so vaunted, has rarely 
withstood the excitement of avarice or revenge." 

The friendship between the Moolah and the Pasha was 
not of long duration. Each of these brethren in iniquity, 
unable to take personal vengeance on the other, have been 
exercising their spite on the kindred of their respective 
foes. Seventy of the Moolah's relations have fallen victims 
to the vindictiveness of the Pasha. In the meanwhile, 
the Moolah has not been slow in retaliation. Leaving the 
town of Mendali, attended by several of his tribe, he 
sallied forth into the desert, and, to use his own expres- 
sion, struck off. at every opportunity the head of every 
wearer of a turban. 

T 2 


We one day asked the Moolah how he generally deprived 
his enemies of life. " That," replied he, " is as I can 
catch them. Some I have killed in battle, others I have 
stabbed sleeping." Another time we had the curiosity to 
examine his pistols, which were studded with red nails. 
On inquiring the reason, he told us " that each nail was 
to commemorate the death of some victim who had fallen 
by that weapon." 

April 27 'th. For two days guns had been fired at in- 
tervals, preparatory to the removal of the body of the late 
Prince-Governor of Kermanshah for interment at Meshed 
Ali. On the morning appointed for the setting out of the 
cortege, we put crape on our left arms and sword hilts, and 
mounting our horses set out at an early hour to witness 
the ceremony. 

As our eagerness to be in time brought us out much 
sooner than was necessary, we whiled away a couple of 
hours in observing the various chatting parties, all dressed 
in black : their merry faces somewhat oddly contrasted 
with their mournful garb. 

Anon there appeared a blind horseman attended by 
a train of servants, one of whom held his horse's rein 
by name, Hassan Khan to which was added the epithet 
of Khoord (the blind). 

In the brief interval of anarchy that had followed the 
death of the late King, 1 this Khan became a competitor 
for the crown, but being worsted, his eyes were put out by 
his more successful rival 

A sudden discharge of artillery, followed by loud shrieks, 
announced to us that the Prince-Governor had left the 
palace with the body of his father. We now took up our 
station near the gates of the town, ready to fall in with the 

1 Aga Mohammed Shah, assassinated in 1797. 


Near this place, mounted on a handsome charger, was 
the Prince-Governor's son Nasir Ali Meerza a pretty 
boy, about five years old. His little Highness was attended 
by a train of courtiers of his own age and size, who seemed 
to be as well versed in the art of rendering homage as 
their pigmy Lord was in receiving it. He appeared to 
be quite indifferent to the noise and bustle around him, 
and returned our salute with the easy air of one long 
accustomed to receive a like mark of respect. 

The procession moved slowly out of the town, led by 
the artisans ; each craft having with it a black banner. 
After them came two hundred Coordish soldiers who were 
to escort the corpse to Meshed Ali. The escort was 
preceded by a band of drums and fifes playing a variety 
of airs principally English " Eule Britannia " among 
others; and there were also several country-dance tunes. 
After the military came the representatives of the Church; 
a body of mounted Moolahs headed by their chief (Bashee), 
a jolly, drunken-looking fellow, who with a voice amount- 
ing to a scream recited verses from the Koran, in which 
his followers joined, making the air resound with their 
vociferous lamentations. Behind them was the corpse of 
Mohammed Ali Meerza, borne by two mules in that sort 
of covered litter called a tuchte rewaun. 

At intervals, the cavalcade stopped, and each person 
baring his breast, struck it so violently with his hand 
that the flesh bore visible marks of the severity of the 
discipline. At these times the shouts were redoubled, 
and tears flowed copiously from every eye ; large groups of 
women, veiled from head to foot, and huddled together 
almost into shapeless heaps, were seated on each side of 
the road, and were by no means the most silent of the 

We fell in with the French officers in rear of the troops ; 
two or three chiefs were in the same line with us. 


After proceeding almost a mile, we quitted the proces- 
sion, and, halting on one side, waited till the Prince gave 
us the marukhus, or permission to depart. His eyes were 
red with weeping. The funeral procession arrived at 
Mahideeht near sunset, when His Highness ordered the 
caravanserai to be cleared of its inmates, and taking with 
him several boon companions, among others the Moolah 
Bashee, he passed the night in drinking and smoking, deter- 
mined apparently to keep his father's wake in true Irish 
fashion. The following morning, the merry mourners 
remounted their horses, and reached Kermanshah without 
accident; though the Prince was so intoxicated that on 
arriving at the palace gate he fell off his horse into the 
arms of his attendants, and was by them conveyed to his 
own apartment in a state of insensibility. 

Our departure from Kermanshah was delayed by a 
quarrel between our hosts, who determined to settle their 
differences by a duel. We, however, undertook the office 
of mediators, and after much difficulty succeeding in 
bringing about a reconciliation. 

The whole proceeding greatly puzzled our friend Moolah 
Ali. " How foolish," said he, " it is for a man who wishes 
to kill his enemy to expose his own life, when he can 
accomplish his purpose with so much greater safety by 
shooting at him from behind a rock." 

Senor Oms, the Spaniard, having behaved very ill and 
treacherously during this affair, our hosts determined to 
represent his conduct to the Prince, and requested us 
to accompany them as witnesses. When we were at first 
admitted into the garden of the palace our attention was 
arrested by hearing some one scream a song with all the 
power of his lungs. In spite of the tipsy hiccough which 
occasionally interrupted the harmony, we had no difficulty 
in recognising the voice of the Moolah Bashee, who with 
his royal patron and pupil was thus passing the rigid 


Mohammedan fast of the Kamazan. The sudden silence 
of the singer proved that our arrival had been announced. 

The Prince, half drunk, and standing with his back 
against a tree, and supported by a stick, was trying to 
conceal the effect that the wine had made on his brain. 
Among those present was Hassan Khan Khoord, the 
blind Councillor whom we had seen at the funeral. 
Messrs. Court and De Veaux having related all the 
circumstances of the case, Senor Oms, who had been 
sent for, attempted a justification, but was interrupted 
by Hassan Khan Khoord, who used the expression Khoor 
khoordeed, a Persian term of reproach for which the 
propriety of our language has no synonym. We were 
frequently appealed to to confirm the statements of the 
French officers, and having in my capacity of interpreter 
delivered my testimony, I was somewhat startled at the 
Prince asking me, " Een Jceh gofteh 'eed deroogh neest ? " (Is 
not that which you have been telling me a lie ?) a harsh 
sound to an English ear, but in this land of falsehood a 
mere idiomatical phrase of inquiry. 

Our conference ended with Senor Oms being sent to 
prison, and the Prince resuming those enjoyments which 
our presence had so unseasonably interrupted. 


Arrive at Teheran. Are presented to Futteh All Shah. Interview 
with another Shah. Tabreez. My Valet ad interim becomes 
a Khan. Resume my Journey. " The Proud Araxes." Enter 
the Russian Territory. Sheesha. Baku. Steppe Travelling. 
Smatreetels. Astrakhan. A Sturgeon Fishery. Fair of Nish- 
ney Novogorod. Horsemanship. A Russian Dance. Moscow. 
Dine with the Governor-General. A Russian State Prisoner. 
First sight of a Macadamized Road. St. Petersburg. An 
Imperial Aide-de-camp. We are under secret Surveillance. 
Departure from St. Petersburg. General Jomini. General and 
Madame de Zabloukoff. Emperor Alexander His Death fore- 
told. Military Colonies. Russian Corve'e. Sir Robert Ker 
Porter. We are overtaken by a Storm. Run into a small 
Harbour in Finland. Arrive at England. 

FROM Kermanshah we proceeded to Teheran, where on the 
26th of May we were presented to the Shah of Persia. 
At the appointed hour, Meerza Abool Hassan Khan, 
formerly ambassador to the Court of St. James's, and 
Major (afterwards Sir Henry) Willock, the British Minister, 
Mr. Ker Baillie Hamilton, and I, set out for our interview. 
The Persian was in his court dress ; we were in full 
uniform ; and we all wore green slippers and long boots of 
red cloth, without which none can approach the King. 

His Majesty received us in a small palace in the middle 
of a garden, called the Grulistan "Garden of Roses." 
"When we arrived at the top of the avenue leading to the 
hall of audience, we imitated the motions of the Meerza, 
and bowed several times, our hands touching our knees at 


each reverence. We had at this time a good side view 
of the King, who, apparently from established etiquette, 
seemed unconscious of our presence. We repeated our 
bows at intervals. When within twenty yards of the 
palace, we left our slippers behind us, and the King 
turning towards us for the first time, said Beeau bald, 
" Ascend." A narrow flight of steps brought us to the 
presence-chamber, an apartment open at the two opposite 
sides, where the roof is supported by spiral pillars painted 
white and red ; a large carpet is spread on the floor ; the 
walls and ceiling are completely covered with looking- 
glasses. One or two European clocks, probably presents, 
stand in different parts of the room, but the accumulation 
of dust upon them shows that they are considered useless 
lumber. On entering the chamber we sidled to the 
remotest corner from that which the King occupied. After 
the usual compliments of welcome, His Majesty asked 
several questions respecting our journey, and surprised us 
not a little by his geographical knowledge. The audience 
lasted twenty minutes. The King was in high good 
humour, and conversed with unaffected ease on a variety 
of subjects. He was seated on his heels upon some 
doubled nummuds; the Persians priding themselves on 
this posture in contradistinction to their enemies the 
Turks, whom they charge with effeminacy for their use of 

The King had a variety of toys which gave employment 
to his hands. One was a Chinese ivory hand at the end 
of a thin stick, called in India a scratch-back, a name 
which faithfully denotes its office ; another was a crutch, 
three feet long, the shaft of ebony and the head of crystal. 
I should have known the King from his strong resemblance 
to the prints I have seen of him in London. I think, 
however, they hardly do justice to that beard, by which 
his subjects are in the habit of swearing. It is so large 


that it conceals all the face but the forehead and eyes, and 
extends to the girdle. The King was very plainly dressed, 
wearing a cotton gown of a dark colour and the common 
sheepskin cap. In his girdle was a dagger studded with 
jewels of an extraordinary size. 

" A few minutes before we were presented we observed 
two men carrying a long pole and a bundle of cudgels 
towards the audience-chamber. We asked the Meerza the 
meaning : ' That machine,' said he, laughing, ' is the 
bastinado. It is for you if you misbehave; the King 
never grants an audience without having it by him.' The 
pole was about eight feet long. When the punishment is 
inflicted the culprit is thrown on his back, his feet are 
secured by cords bound round the ankles and made fast to 
the pole with the soles uppermost ; the pole is held by a 
man at each end, and two other men, one on each side, 
armed with these sticks, strike with such force that the 
toe-nails frequently drop off. This punishment is inflicted 
by order of the King upon men of the highest rank, 
generally for the purpose of extorting money." If Persia 
were not so fond of applying this emblem of power to a 
practical use,' I do not see why she would not have as 
much right to her bastinado as Great Britain has to her 
white staves and " Black Rod." 

In withdrawing from the presence of His Majesty, how 
little did I anticipate that half a century later I should 
have the honour of being admitted to an audience with 
another Persian Shah, in the person of Futteh Ali Shah's 
great-grandson, and that I should be received, not in the 
Garden of Eoses at Teheran, but in the garden of Bucking- 
ham Palace, where His Majesty was the guest of my own 
sovereign ! 

From May 28th to June 14th we were travelling to 
Tabreez, the residence of Abbas Meerza, the Prince- Royal 
of Persia. I here became the guest of Major (afterwards 

.Xiii.] MY TABREEZ VALET. 283 

General) Monteith, an officer of British Engineers, em- 
ployed in the survey of part of the country lying to the 
south of the Caucasus. Monteith consigned me to the 
care of his servant, an Armenian who spoke English 
perfectly, a man of prepossessing manners and gentle- 
manly demeanour. 

The following year (1825) I attended the Duke of 
Sussex to a dinner at Fishmonger's Hall. I was told 
that a Persian of distinction, charged with some secret 
mission, had been invited to meet His Eoyal Highness. 
Going to the dining-room to ascertain my place at dinner, 
I found the name of Monteith's servant with the prefix of 
' His Excellency," in the place of honour next to that of 
the Duke. On my return to the reception-room I saw 
the man himself, to whom I went through the form of a 
personal introduction, and, pretending not to recognise 
him, talked of my travels in the East as if I were 
addressing a stranger. He seemed pleased at my for- 
bearance, and we afterwards became great friends. 

In Persia, the Christian population meet with such 
cruel treatment from their Mohammedan fellow-country- 
men, that Armenians of property gladly accept employment, 
however humble, under European residents, on account 
of the protection which such service ensures. Monteith's 
servant was, I believe, a person of this description. 

Shortly after I left Tabreez, Abbas Meerza, desirous of 
procuring arms from England, asked the British officers to 
recommend him a person properly qualified for such a 
commission. They unanimously suggested Monteith's 
Armenian, who performed his task with such satisfaction to 
the Prince, that on his return he was made a Khan (lord). 

Beards were at that time as rare in England as they are 
common now. The Armenian had one of such enormous 
length that he was almost mobbed in the streets of 
Sheffield on account of it. One day turning suddenly 


round on his pursuers, and taking his beard in his hand, 
he said, " My good people of Sheffield, why do you persecute 
me so ? Is it because I will not use your razors ? " 

At Tabreez, I parted company with Mr. Ker Baillie 
Hamilton, who returned home by Poland and Germany. 
Left free to choose my own route, I projected a line of 
march through the Eussian dominions. For this journey, 
which lay much out of the usual track, I asked the assis- 
tance of Colonel Mazerovitch, the Eussian ckargS d'affaires. 
His answer was not encouraging. He knew nothing of 
the country I intended to visit. He had neither authority 
to stop me nor to allow me to proceed : upon myself, 
therefore, must rest the consequences of the undertaking. 
He could not give me a passport, but had no objection to 
sign the written document Major Willock had intended 
should do duty for one. 

My arrangements for the new expedition were soon 
made. In lieu of my old servant, a Turk, I substituted a 
native of Ghilaun, who could speak Persian and Turkish. 
I engaged five horses for my baggage and servant, and 
obtained from the Prince Eoyal a Mehmandaur and the 
usual rukum or permission to travel. 

June 18th. On the evening of the 18th, our party, of 
which I was the only Christian, set forth on our journey. 
Having now no will to consult but my own, I fixed my 
resting-place for the night when and where inclination 
prompted. I once took up my quarters in a Tartar hut, 
but bugs, fleas, and other nameless vermin soon taught me 
to give the preference to bivouac in the open plain. If I 
passed the night at a village, it was not in the inside but 
on the roof of a house. 

The fifth day's march brought me to the Arras, the 
Araxes of Plutarch. With a motive akin to that which 
led Byron to cross the Hellespont, I attempted to swim over 
" The proud Araxes, whom no bridge could bind." 


But I was not so successful as the noble poet. The current 
would have carried me away, if it had not brought me in 
contact with some friendly boulders, which inflicted no 
other penalty upon me for my rashness than a few bruises. 
On my return to my people, I found them and a party of 
Illyants busied in placing my baggage in a tree, which had 
been scooped out and fashioned like a child's toy-boat, the 
fibres of the trunk serving as the painter by which it was 
made fast to the bank. In this primitive bark we crossed 
in safety, at the same time that our horses had been made 
to swim over, though one was nearly carried away by the 
violence of the stream. 

As I had now arrived in Eussian territory, my Meh- 
mandaur delivered me over formally to the chief of the 
encampment, from whom he took a written receipt for the 
safe consignment of my person. 

On the 26th of June I arrived at Sheesha, a Tartar 
town on one of the affluents of the Arras. Here I was 
supplied by the Commandant with an order for five horses 
on all Cossack stations. This order also entitled me to an 
escort of one or more Cossacks, as occasion might require. 

Instead of following the usual route to Europe, and 
crossing the Caucasus at Tiflis, I struck off in an easterly 
direction, and, after a journey of eight days, arrived at 
Baku, a town on the western coast of the Caspian Sea. 
I remained there two days to visit the temple of the fire- 
worshippers, and then resumed my journey. After a 
fortnight's hard riding on one occasion I was two-and- 
twenty hours in the saddle I reached Kizliar, the last 
Cossack station. 

At Kizliar my journey on horseback ended, and that 
on wheels began. The change was by no means for the 
better. For whatever relief I gained by a diminution of 
physical fatigue was more than outweighed by mental 


If anyone would wish to put his powers of endurance to 
the test, let him cross a Eussian steppe in a kibitka. The 
only relief to the jaded eye from the view of a barren 
waste is a succession of painted verst-posts, which, being 
placed at equal distances from each other, rather in- 
crease than relieve the monotony of the scene. The post- 
houses are constructed on one and the same model. In a 
room in every post-house, and in exactly the same part 
of the room, stands the only provision for the traveller's 
creature comforts, the semawar a brass urn with boiling 
water. The srnatreetels too, the postmasters, dressed in 
the same uniform, and with features cast in the same 
Tartar mould, are almost as undistinguishable from each 
other as the verst-posts. So after several days' and nights' 
travelling, you may almost fancy that you are received by 
the same officials from whom you parted company several 
days before. 

On the subject of smatreetels is the following entry in 
my Journal : 

Smatreetels. " I know but one more mode of insuring 
the good offices of the smatreetel, which I shall illustrate 
in an anecdote of a French nobleman : This personage, an 
attache to the embassy of his Court, being on his journey 
from St. Petersburg to Moscow, had been, as usual, 
delayed on the road for want of horses ; the smatreetel 
telling him there were none in the stable. He had one 
day been deploring his hard fate full an hour, when a 
Cossack officer with despatches arrived at the post-house. 
To dismount from his arba, to unsling his whip from his 
own shoulder, to lay it across that of the smatreetel, to 
have fresh horses attached to his vehicle and to be again 
on his journey was but the work of a moment. The hint 
was not thrown away on the Frenchman : he immediately 
unlocked his portmanteau, took out his Parisian cane, and 
imitated the action of the Cossack. The effect was equally 


instantaneous. The little cane, like the wand of Cinder- 
ella's fairy godmother, was no sooner waved than a coach 
and horses appeared and carried off the French magician, 
who, by repeating this secret of his newly-acquired art, 
reached Moscow a day sooner than he had any reason to 

On the 23rd of July I arrived at Astrakhan. Here I 
made a week's halt. During my stay I visited some stur- 
geon fisheries at one of the mouths of the Wolga. As I 
can find no mention in any other work than my own of 
this mode of fishing, I give the following extract from my 
Journal : 

" The distance was thirty versts, but ten active Kalmuks 
soon rowed us down. The name of the fishery is Karma- 
ziack. One hundred boats are employed ; two persons are 
in each boat ; one, generally a female, rows ; the other 
hands in the fish. The instruments used are a mallet, and 
a stick with a large unbarbed hook at the end. Every 
fisherman has a certain number of lines : one line contains 
fifty hooks ; these are placed at regular distances from each 
other ; they are without barbs, sunk about a foot under 
water, and are kept in motion by small pieces of wood 
attached to them. The sturgeon generally swims in a 
shoal near the surface. Upon being caught with one 
hook, he generally gets entangled with others in his 
struggle to escape. Immediately on our arrival, the boats 
simultaneously shoved off from the shore ; each fisherman 
proceeded to take up his lines ; on coming to a fish, he 
drew it with his hooked stick to the side of the boat, 
stunned it by a violent blow with his mallet, and, 
after disengaging it from the other hooks, hauled it into 
the boat. This part of the process was excellent sport. 
On every side the tremendous splashing of the water 
announced the capture of some monster of the deep." 

We next went into a large wooden house on the banks 


of the river, where a clerk was seated to take an account 
of the number caught. The "take" of the morning 
comprised four beloogas, one hundred and ten sturgeons, 
nine chevreegas, and several sterlets, a small kind of 
sturgeon which though most delicious are never counted : 
they are almost peculiar to the Wolga, though occasionally 
a few of them are caught in the Don. The Eussians make 
a soup of them, which is as much esteemed by them as 
turtle is by us. The belooga is a large fish ; one of those 
caught to-day weighed four pood one hundred and forty- 
four pounds. The chevreega is like a pike, having a very 
large head. There was also a large black fish called a " Som." 
It is very voracious, and will attack a man in the water. 
The head is not sold, as nobody but the Kalmuks will eat 
it, and they will eat anything. It was given to our boat- 
men, who went off in high glee to make a meal of it. 

In this house men with hooked instruments draw the 
fish from the boats, land them in a row and split their 
heads in two. The roe or caviar, and the isinglass, which 
consists of the tendinous muscle on each side of the back- 
bone, were then taken out and separately disposed; the 
bodies were cut in half and washed in a reservoir of water ; 
they were then removed to a large warehouse, between the 
walls of which is placed a quantity of ice ; a few shovels 
of salt were thrown over them, and by this short process 
they became ready salted for exportation. The isinglass 
was taken into a room, where children were employed 
either in rolling it up in the same form in which it is 
exposed for sale, or laying it out on flat boards ; the former 
as applied to the external tendinous muscle constitutes the 
look, as the latter does the sheet isinglass. In the meantime 
the caviar was collected in pails, and placed on a frame of 
network over a large tub ; by being passed to and fro, the 
fat fibres were separated from it, and afterwards converted 
into oil. This done, there was thrown upon it a certain 


quantity of salt and water, which after being worked with 
paddles was drained off by a sieve, and the caviar was put 
into mat bags; these were squeezed well between two 
boards, and there the process ended. In the short space 
of three hours I saw the fish caught, killed, and salted, the 
isinglass prepared for sale, and the caviar ready packed for 

Mr. Tsaposhemkoff hires these fisheries of Prince 
Korackchin at an annual rent of four hundred and fifty 
thousand roubles. Besides this fishery of Karmaziack, he 
has twenty others. 

After this exhibition, we retired to a summer-house on the 
banks of the Wolga. Here a sumptuous entertainment 
awaited us, consisting among other luxuries of a delicious ster- 
let and some London bottled porter, which had arrived in this 
remote and inland quarter in a state of perfect preservation. 

As I was stepping into the boat to return to Astrakhan, 
the superintendent of the fisheries made me a present of 
some book isinglass, and a bag of caviar taken from the 
fish which I had seen alive four hours before. 

My next halt was at Nishney (Lower) Novogorod, which 
I reached on the 8th of August. I arrived at the time of 
the great annual fair; albeit that fair had none of the 
characteristics with which Englishmen associate the name 
no wild beasts, no booths, no swings, no merry-go-rounds, 
no fun. All was noiseless, orderly, and dull. Business, 
not pleasure, was the object of the merchants who had 
assembled from all parts of the world. I was probably 
the only person who had been attracted thither solely by 
curiosity or amusement. 

In the afternoon I dined with General Groukoff, the 
Governor, and in the evening met at his house the Prince 
of Georgia and other Eussian noblemen. 

August llth. The next day the Director of the fair 
kindly acted as my cicerone to the sights among others 



to some equestrian feats. The principal performer, a 
Frenchman, danced skilfully enough on the bare back of 
a horse. " Look ! look ! " said the Director, pointing to 
him ; but my attention was directed to a more interesting 
sight. The spectators assembled round the ring were 
natives of nearly every nation in Asia, who, dressed after 
the manner of their respective countries, exhibited features 
as varied as their garb. I was amused at the wonder 
expressed by some Tartar horse-catchers at witnessing a 
style of riding not dreamed of in their philosophy. 

From the Circus we went to the Theatre. The per- 
formance was Kotzebue's play of "Pizarro," or "The 
Death of Eolla," as it is here called. It appeared to 
differ but little from Sheridan's translation. Eolla was 
in the hands of a young man who gave full effect to 
the declamation in favour of freedom. He and the rest 
of the troop were the " slaves " of a neighbouring prince, 
who had let them out at so much a head to a strolling 

The amusements closed with the national Russian dance. 
It described the usual process of a courtship a proper 
degree of importunity on the one hand, of resistance and 
ultimate consent on the other. The female dancer here, 
a pretty lively coquette, suddenly attracted by my scarlet 
coat, transferred her attention from her partner on the 
stage to me in the pit, to the no small amusement of the 
spectators myself not excepted. 

August 12th. Left Nishney Novogorod on the 12th, 
and, after three days' and three nights' travelling, arrived 
at Moscow. 

August 15th. During our stay in this city we received 
every possible attention from its aimable and agreeable 
Governor- General, Prince Demetrio Galitzin. 

We left Moscow on the 28th of August, having engaged 
a diligence to convey us to St. Petersburg. 


One morning as we were changing horses, a carriage 
containing a state prisoner, guarded and heavily manacled, 
drove up to the inn door. He looked pale and dispirited ; 
no one appeared to be acquainted with the nature of his 
accusation. He had been suddenly torn from his family 
at Vladimir, had been travelling night and day, and was 
not to be allowed to stop till he had reached St. Petersburg. 
It was with a shudder I heard that he was in all probability 
doomed to die under the dreadful lash of the knout. 

From (Upper) Novogorod to St. Petersburg, the last 
forty versts of the journey, we travelled over a macadamized 
road the first any of our party had ever seen. We arrived 
at the Eussian capital on the 31st of August, just too late 
to have a glimpse of the Emperor Alexander, who had to 
set out the day before on a tour of inspection, in the south 
of Eussia. 

Calling at the British Embassy, we were allowed to 
take away with us to our hotel some of the later issues of 
the Times newspaper a most acceptable loan, for we had 
not heard from home for a whole year. We were soon so 
absorbed in the search among the births, marriages, and 
deaths, as to be scarcely aware of the entrance into our 
salon of one of the Emperor's aides-de-camp, Prince 
Nicolas Galitzin, who apologised in perfect English for 
his intrusion, saying that he had mistaken our room for 
that of Mr. Wilson. The Prince took a hasty leave, after 
having first elicited from us that the newspapers belonged 
to the British Embassy. The next day we were informed 
by a British resident in St. Petersburg that the Prince 
was one of the Emperor's spies, that English travellers 
were under his special supervision, and that we were 
evidently indebted for the honour of his visit to the 
information he had received from our hotel-keeper; for 
Mr. Ward, the British charge^ d'affaires, had forgotten to 
inform us that the Times was a proscribed periodical in 

u 2 


Russia, save to the British Embassy. Our informant further 
told us that we were likely to be subject to the strictest 
surveillance, and warned us to be very careful about our 
words and actions, as a report of both was sure to find its 
way to the police authorities. He added, that my journey 
through a country of which the Russians were only then 
partially in occupation, would render me a special object 
of suspicion ; for migratory as Englishmen were known to 
be, the authorities would hardly believe that a British 
officer should have selected such a route for mere personal 

The Englishman whom Prince Nicolas had professed his 
intention to visit at the hotel was Mr. Rae Wilson, author of 
" Travels in Egypt and the Holy Land." He occupied the 
next room to ours. The identity of his surname and the 
initial of his Christian name with those of Sir Robert 
Wilson, whose writings were most obnoxious to the 
Imperial police authorities, led them to the conclusion 
that the namesakes must needs be relations. Sir Robert, 
as all the world knows, was an advanced Liberal ; on the 
other hand, Mr. Rae Wilson, an arridre Tory, had an 
abstract love of monarchs and monarchical institutions, 
and came to the Russian capital prepared to write a warm 
eulogium upon the Emperor; but the numberless petty 
vexations to which he was exposed by the meddling of an 
over-zealous police somewhat altered his views, and when 
I took leave of him at our hotel I found him disposed to 
dip his pen " in gall instead of honey." 

The consciousness of the surveillance to which we were 
subject greatly marred the enjoyment of our visit to the 
Russian metropolis. If we could have indulged our own 
inclinations, we should have rushed on board the first 
vessel ready for sea ; but this we were not allowed to do. 
By the municipal regulations we were compelled to advertise 
our intended departure in the Government gazette for 


three weeks consecutively. At the expiration of that 
period we went to the " Lieutenant du Quartier " in whose 
jurisdiction our hotel was situated, and applied, each of us, 
for permission to quit the Eussian dominions. As there 
were divers signings and countersignings to be obtained 
from other offices, we took this functionary with us in our 
carriage, and he amused us on the way by giving so 
minute an account of the manner in which we had passed 
our time, as to prove to us how faithfully he and his 
myrmidons had performed their functions. 

Armed with our " tickets of leave," we took the steamer 
to Cronstadt, where lay at anchor the ship in which we 
had taken our passage to England. Soon after us there 
came on board the boat a sickly-looking general officer, so 
covered with orders and decorations that one could hardly 
discover the colour of his coat. It was General Jomini, 
the celebrated strategist, the man who had so materially 
assisted Napoleon in his rise, and who, when driven by 
jealousy and ingratitude to seek other service, had not a 
little contributed to his fall. 

Jomini, at the time I saw him, was military instructor 
to the Grand Duke, afterwards Emperor Nicholas, and was 
on his way to join his Imperial pupil at Tzarskeselo. The 
General did me the honour to keep me in conversation 
during our trip down the Neva. He asked me many 
questions respecting the constitution of our Sepoy army ; 
and was especially inquisitive about the Burmese War. I 
answered truly that the first I had heard of that war was 
from Kussian officers, and that if I had thought hostilities 
were even probable I should not have left India. 1 I look 
back with pleasure to my interview with this distinguished 
Swiss, whose memory deserves to be held in remembrance 

1 In March 1823, three months after I left India, Lord Amherst 
the Governor-General writes to Lord Colchester, " I have to tell you 
that I most unexpectedly find myself engaged in a war with the 
King of Ava." (Diary, Lord Colchester.) 


for having been one of the few officers of high rank who 
had the courage to plead for the life of Marshal Ney, his 
former commander. 

The time that my vessel was preparing for sea was 
passed very pleasantly in the society of General and 
Madame de Zabloukoff, then residing at Cronstadt. 

Lady Charlotte Bury, speaking of a dinner at the 
Princess of Wales's (August 23rd, 1813), says, "The 
only person I have seen at Kensington for a long time is 
Madame Zabloukoff, the wife of a General Zabloukoff, a 
very pretty, agreeable person. Her husband appears clever 
and sincere." 

The General, whom in after years I met frequently in 
London society, was Captain on Guard at the Imperial 
Palace of St. Petersburg the night that the Emperor Paul 
was murdered (March 23rd, 1801). It is hardly necessary 
to add that suspicion never for one moment attached to 
him or to his brother officers on duty, as having been 
accessories to the crime : the Emperor's foes were " they of 
his own household." 

Madame de Zabloukoff was a sister of a near neighbour 
of my father in the country, Mr. John Angerstein, of 
Weeting Hall, Norfolk. When I had the pleasure of 
making this lady's acquaintance she had lost none of the 
agreeableness that my friend Lady Charlotte assigned to 
her. She spoke to me of the state of public affairs in St. 
Petersburg with a freedom of expression that came oddly 
from the lips of a person bearing a Eussian name. The 
mention of some of the revelations which she then made me 
will explain why I did not think it right to give them a 
place in my published narrative. The Emperor Alexander, 
who had left St. Petersburg the day before my arrival 
there, was, according to her account, among the most 
miserable men in his dominions, and in momentary dread 
of assassination. 


It was chiefly against the persons in daily attendance 
upon him that his suspicions were directed. Frequently, 
he would turn suddenly round upon one or other of them 
and accuse him of being a " Carbonaro." So haunted was 
he with the idea of assassination, that he would not sleep 
two nights consecutively in the same room, nor would he 
retire to rest until some one had first lain down on his 
bed a hard mattress to prove that it did not contain 
some instrument of destruction. 

These apprehensions, I was informed, were not altogether 
groundless. A feeling of disaffection towards the person 
of the Emperor pervaded all classes of his subjects. 
Madame de Zabloukoff mentioned it as a matter of public 
notoriety that Alexander was doomed never to return alive 
to his capital, and that no one was more conscious of such 
a, decree having gone forth than the unhappy subject of it 
himself. She told me that satisfactory evidence would be 
offered to the public to show that the death of his Majesty 
had arisen from natural causes, and that his death would 
be the signal for a general rising, as a great body of Eussians 
were determined to refuse allegiance to the Archduke 
Constantine, the heir presumptive to the Crown. 

Madame de Zabloukoff attributed this disaffection to the 
establishment of military colonies. The scheme was first 
suggested to the Emperor by a Count Aratchief, who was 
afterwards murdered by his domestics. 

The measure, as stupid in conception as it was barbarous 
in the mode of its enactment, proved a miserable failure, 
and is a blot upon a reign otherwise characterised by 
humanity and useful reforms. 

The idea was to engraft military service upon the agri- 
cultural pursuits of a peasantry, and it was hoped thereby 
to furnish the army with men and provisions. By the 
Russian corvee, the lord was entitled to exact three days' 
labour in each week from his serfs. These three days the 


Crown serfs were forced to employ in acquiring a know- 
ledge of the duties of a soldier. 

They were now compelled to substitute a military uniform 
for the warm sheepskin which had heretofore protected 
them from the rigours of a Eussian winter. Their huts were 
required to be in the same regular order as a barrack-room. 
Arms and accoutrements, articles of furniture, implements 
of husbandry, each had their appointed place. The dwell- 
ings of the colonists were subjected to a rigid military 
inspection, and every deviation from the prescribed 
regulations was punished with great severity. 

The Crown colonists, who had heretofore enjoyed as 
large a share of freedom as was compatible with a des- 
potism like that of Eussia, were impatient of the military 
restraint to which they now became subject. In many 
places they offered a strenuous, though passive resistance 
to the imperial decrees. Their contumacy was punished 
with extreme harshness. Many of them expired under 
the lash of the knout, and the survivors of the torture 
were condemned to pass the remainder of their days in 
forced labour in the mines. 

Of all the regulations imposed upon the Crown 
serfs by the new order of things that to which they 
showed the greatest repugnance was the depriving 
them of their beards. My informant told me that in 
one village, where an attempt was made to reduce the- 
inhabitants to submission by force of arms, the mutineers 
threw the bodies of their relatives who had fallen by the 
bullets, to their assailants, exclaiming, "Shave them if 
you like, it is only with life that we will part with our 

As the Empress-mother was about to enter one of the 
Crown villages, she found the inhabitants lying on then- 
faces across the road. It was intimated to her that they 
would not rise from that posture until they had extorted 


from her a promise that she would intercede with her son- 
the Emperor for a reversal of the hateful ukase. 

On one occasion that the Emperor was at Moscow, the 
Crown serfs assembled in great multitudes round his palace, 
and implored him to restore them to their former condition. 
Upon his refusal, voices were heard calling out that their 
Emperor was a German, and no Eussian, and that he had 
not a drop of Romanoff blood in his veins. 

We considered ourselves fortunate in having for a 
fellow-passenger to England, Sir Eobert Ker Porter, for a 
most agreeable companion he proved to be. He had been 
historical painter to the Emperor Alexander, and has left 
behind him at St. Petersburg many samples of his skill. 
His taste for the fine arts was first called into action by 
the celebrated Flora Macdonald, who saw, in some of his 
childish performances, promises of future proficiency. She 
used to show him drawings of actions in the " '45," in 
which her pseudo waiting-maid, Prince Charlie, had borne 
a part. These delineations led him in his after- career to 
give a preference to representations of battle-fields, for 
although he painted several well-known altar-pieces, he 
was principally distinguished for his panoramic pictures of 
the " Battle of Agincourt," the " Siege of Acre," and the 
" Storming of Seringapatam." 

Sir Eobert, himself a man of letters, was the brother of 
Anna Maria and Jane Porter, whose historical novels were 
the delight of the lovers of works of fiction in my young 
days. The sisters remained in undisputed possession of 
this field of literature till Sir Walter Scott appeared as a 
competitor, and ever since " Don Sebastian," " Thaddeua 
of Warsaw," and the " Scottish Chiefs," have been com- 
pelled to yield the palm to " Waverley," " Eob Eoy," and 
" Old Mortality." 

We sailed out of Cronstadt harbour at the same time 
with a merchantman and a Eussian man-of-war. We had 


not been many days at sea before we were overtaken by 
a violent storm. What became of our companions we 
never knew. Our belief was that they went to the bottom. 
For ourselves, we were so fortunate as to run into a small 
harbour in the Gulf of Finland. 

The only other incident of our voyage was a stay of a 
few hours at Copenhagen. 

" At the dawn of a dull, misty, but to me delightful 
morning of November, we made the Suffolk coast : nearly 
at the same moment we hailed a herring smack, which 
landed me at Lowestoft, and I had the gratification of 
dining with my family the same evening." l 

1 Journal. 


Duke of Sussex to Lord Albemarle. Roger Wilbraham. I am pro- 
moted to a Company. Wells Theatricals. Join my Kegiment. 
Torrens's " Field Exercises." Colonel Gauntlett. Appointed 
Aide-de-camp to the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. Crampton, 
the Surgeon-General. The two Wellesleys. Richard Colley, 
Earl of Mornington. His early Promise. Arthur "VVellesley 
His slow Development His Demeanour as Aide-de-camp of the 
Viceroy. The Wellesleys in India. Lord Wellesley's Contin- 
gent to the Army in Egypt. A question to Wellington His 
answer. Wellington's first Visit to his last Battle-field. Death 
of the Emperor Alexander. A tour of waiting on the Duke of 
Sussex. An Illustrious Young Lady. A Brother Equerry. 
Deville the Phrenologist. A Visit to Holkham. Joe Hibbert. 
- -Polly Fishbourne. I appear in Print. Miss Lydia White. 
My admission into Literary Circles. A Dinner at General 
Phipps's. Colman and Lady Cork. Three Agreeable Acquaint- 
ances. Interview with the Duke of Wellington Its Result. 

THE following letter, to which I have only lately had 
access, reminds me that I resided two whole months under 
the paternal roof the longest sojourn I made there since 
the time that I first left home for " Parleys," in 1806. 


" DEAR ALBEMARLE, Jan. u, 1825. 

" Many thanks for your kind recollection of me, as 
well as the Countess's l present of one of the finest turkeys 
I ever beheld ; and many many hearty good wishes for your 
:and the happiness of all those who are dear to you. Our 
friend Wilbraham has had an accident which, at his age, 
1 My father married secondly in 1822, Charlotte Susanna, daughter 
of the late Sir Henry Hunloke, Bart., and niece of Mr. Coke of 


might have been serious. I have the pleasure to assure 
you that it is of very little inconvenience to him, and he 
was as hearty, cheerful, and communicative as if nothing 
had happened to him. On Saturday, he got upon some 
steps to take down a book, and being a heavy and cor- 
pulent man, his feet could not support him, and he fell, 
by which means he dislocated his right shoulder. Brodie 
was sent for immediately, and in less than half an hour it 
was put in again. He said he was a good deal bruised ;, 
but yesterday was the third day after the accident. I can 
assure you Roger was quite himself again, and very cheer- 
ful. He told me he could write and move his fingers with 
perfect ease. I heard of the accident upon calling upon 
the Bishop of Norwich, who, excepting a slight cold, is 
perfectly well ; and he mentioned the circumstance, when I 
immediately posted off to see your old friend, and I was 
delighted to find him so hearty, that I might be enabled 
to relieve you from all uneasiness. 

" What is to be done with Ireland ? I think those wha 
are charged with the concerns of that unfortunate island 
either cannot know, or do not do their duty, either of 
which points are equally to be lamented. The arrest of 
O'Connell is very foolish. It can do no good ; it will not 
intimidate ; they can know nothing of the business, while 
the attempt will tend only to irritate. I hope George is 
well and busy. 1 The parson, of course, is looking after his 
flock ; 2 and Tom 3 is, no doubt, amusing himself as well as 
he can during the holidays. I hope he will come up and 
stay with me a couple of days before he goes down to 
Portsmouth. Last night I saw in the newspaper how 
every officer is to be dressed. If it is a specimen of Mr. 

1 The writer of these reminiscences was at this time " busy " in 
preparing his " Overland Journey " for the press. 

2 My brother Edward, the "parson" here alluded to, had been 
lately inducted to the family living of Quidenham. 

3 My brother Tom, then a cadet at the Naval College, Portsmouth.. 


broker's tayloring, I wish him joy of it ; but we have been 
victorious all over the world without this nonsense ; and as 
for attempting to make dandies of our sailors, that is quite 
out of the question, but it will tend to disgust and distress 
many to whom it is a serious consideration. Eequesting 
to be kindly remembered to the Countess, and the ladies 
Mary and Georgiana, and little Lady Caroline, 

" Believe me, dear Albemarle, 
" Most sincerely and affectionately yours, 

The Eoger Wilbraham of the preceding letter was an 
unnual guest at Quidenham and Holkham a well-read 
and well-bred agreeable old gentleman. Notwithstanding 
his enormous size, for he represented in his own person 
upwards of twenty stone, his great delight was in 
shooting, and he liked the sport none the less if it were 
on forbidden ground. Well I remember seeing him set 
out of a morning armed for the chase, in his broad-brimmed 
white beaver hat, his capacious velvet shooting-jacket, 
and mounted on his stout white cob. 

There must be some inhabitants of Norfolk still alive 
who remember a retired physician of the name of Baillie, 
living in or near the town of Swaffham, of like obesity 
and of like poaching propensities as my friend. Aware 
that Mr. Wilbraham was considered almost a "licensed 
libertine" in a turnip-field, this disciple of ^Esculapius 
provided himself with a facsimile hat, jacket, and cob 
as my fat friend. Thus it occasionally fell out, that Mr. 
Wilbraham had the credit of trespassing, at one and the 
same time, at the opposite ends of the county. 

Sallying forth one morning from Holkham, Mr. Coke 
called out to him, " Eoger, you may go where you like 

except to plantation," a covert lying near the salt 

marshes, and accessible only by a single plank. As a 


matter of course, the prohibition led him to bend his 
steps in that direction. He was half over the plank when 
it gave way with him, and plunged him up to the neck iu 
mud. When he made his appearance at dinner-time, his 
fellow guests put their handkerchiefs to their noses, as if" 
to protect them from the effluvia of some foul ditch. 

I wonder whether Eoger ever discovered that his host,, 
suspecting his inability to resist temptation, had caused 
the plank to be sawn half through. 

At the beginning of the year 1825, I found myself still 
a subaltern, but. in the month of February I was gazetted 
to a captaincy in the 62nd Eegiment, at that time in 
Newfoundland, but under orders for home. As I was not 
required to join till its return, I had some months' 
additional holidays. 

In the summer I accompanied the Duke of Sussex on a 
visit to Holkham. His Koyal Highness and I were the 
only guests. During our stay a theatrical company was- 
performing at Wells- on-the-Sea. I was " stage struck " in 
those days, so I fraternised with the actors and attended 
their rehearsals. One evening the Duke honoured their 
performances with his presence. Between the play and 

the farce, a 'song was announced by a Mr. in the 

bills. Keeping my chief in conversation for some time, I 
managed to slip away unperceived, to reappear on the 

stage as " Mr. " in the character of a country lad, and 

to sing the song. So complete was my disguise that I got 
through two or three verses before I heard the Duke's 
shrill falsetto, " Why, that's Master George." The inter- 
ruption threw me off my equilibrium, and I had nothing 
left for it but to scrape a rustic bow to the Eoyal box, and 
to make an abrupt exit at the wing. As for the song, 
it was like the Hudibrastic 

" Story of the bear and fiddle ; 
'Gun, but broke off in the middle," 


My regiment on its arrival in Europe was sent to 
Ireland. Thither in due time I set out to take charge 
of my company, with a full resolve to make up, by a 
strict application to regimental duties, for the time I had 
wasted in the luxurious and lazy post of a Governor's 
aide-de-camp. I joined my corps in the south of Ireland. 
In the course of the summer we were ordered to Dublin, 
there to undergo a severe course of drill. For this there 
was a more than usual necessity: a radical reform had 
just been introduced into the British tactics. Dundas's. 
" Eighteen Manoeuvres," which for thirty-three years had 
prevailed in the army, had given place to Torrens's " Field 
Exercises." It was decided by the authorities that the 
new system should be studied from its very rudiments. 
Accordingly, officers of all ranks, many of them not very 
firm on their legs, were ordered to re-practise the "goose 
step." Drill-sergeants followed them everywhere, to prove 
by the pace-stick whether they had accomplished the 
regulation number of inches at each stride, while plummets 
were vibrating to show them the exact number of steps in 
a minute they ought respectively to take in slow, quick, 
double, or wheeling time. One consequence perhaps an 
intentional one of resolving the system into its elements, 
was to drive many of the old hands on half-pay. 

I had the advantage over my superiors of having very 
little to unlearn. To me Torrens's " Field Exercises " 
were a pleasing novelty ; and not the least agreeable days 
that I spent at this period of my military career were 
then passed in the " Fifteen Acres," as our soldiers used 
to call the drill-ground in the Phcenix Park. 

As soon as the regiment was pronounced to be in an 
efficient state by Sir Colquhoun Grant, the Major-General 
commanding it received its route for Enniskillen. 

My commanding officer at this time was Colonel George 
Gauntlett. He had been actively employed against the 


Maroons in the West Indies, and had served the campaign 
in Egypt. He was one of the smallest men I almost ever 
saw, out of a show. To him would have applied the story 
of another little Colonel, who was scolding an Irish recruit 
for hanging down his head. "Heads up, sir higher 
higher still." " Och then ! " cried Pat, " good bye, Colonel, 
for I shall never see your sweet face again." 

With Gauntlett I always lived on the best of terms, but 
he obtained leave of absence, and soon after retired from 
the service; he was succeeded in the command by an 
-officer who made my regimental duties so exceedingly 
irksome that all my fine resolutions gave way, and I 
sought and found refuge from my persecutor in the per- 
sonal staff of the Marquis Wellesley, then Lord-Lieutenant 
of Ireland. 

Lord Wellesley was the prince of dinner givers. In the 
first place, his cuisine was faultless. Then he had the art 
of inducing each guest to contribute his quota to the 
general entertainment. He thus produced a most agree- 
able amalgam. 

Sydney Smith once spoke of this sort of host as a con- 
versational cook, who says to his ^company, " I'll make 
a good pudding of you ; no matter what you came into 
the bowl, you must come out of it a pudding." 

At one of the first of Lord Wellesley's dinners at which 
I was present I met Moore the poet's friend, Mr. (after- 
wards Sir Philip) Crampton, the Surgeon-General, a most 
agreeable man. He was that evening in high force. 
Even if I could remember any of his good things, I could 
not transmit to paper the fun of his arch look, or the 
-melody of his rich brogue. As one of his countrymen 
said of him, " Sure ! he was a great conversationer." 

Some time before my arrival in Dublin, the Dowager 
Duchess of Eichmond paid a visit to that capital. Her 
husband, when Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, was famous 


for the excellence of his dinners and the staunchness of 
his " Protestant Ascendency " politics. On the arrival of 
his widow in the Irish metropolis, the admirers of his 
principles and the grateful recipients of his good cheer 
agreed together to present her an address. 

This proceeding inspired the satiric muse of Lady 
Morgan's sister, Lady Clarke, who in a song which created 
a great sensation at the time, but of which, I believe, no 
copy exists, she hit off the characteristics of the members 
of the 

" Great Deputation, 
The pride of the nation." 

The stanza on my friend the Surgeon-General ran some- 
what thus : 

" Then Crarnpton the dandy, 

So nate and so handy, 
With his airs and his graces and arch smiling face, 

He came not the physician 

But a la, parisien, 
Delighted to pay his respects to her Grace." 

I arrived in Dublin just as my new chief was about to 
be married to the beautiful Mrs. Paterson, the grand- 
daughter of Carroll of Carrollton, the last surviving 
signatory of the Declaration of American independence : 
and I was the aide-de-camp in waiting at the wedding, 
which took place on the 25th of October of this year. 

The post which I now held brought me into frequent 
contact with persons who had been acquainted both 

" The Wellesley of Mysore, and the Wellesley of Assaye." 

The elder brother, as is well-known, after carrying away 
all the honours of school and university, entered Parlia- 
ment at an early age, and soon established a character 
for himself as an orator and statesman. The abilities 
of Arthur, the younger brother, were of much slower 



development. The late Earl of Leitrim, who was with him 
at a small private school in the town of Portarlington, used 
to speak of him to me as a singularly dull, backward boy. 
Gleig, late Chaplain-General, in his interesting " Life " of 
the Great Captain, says that his mother, believing him to 
be the dunce of the family, not only treated him with 
indifference, but in some degree neglected his education. 
At Eton, his intellect was rated at a very low standard ; 
his idleness in school-hours not being redeemed in the 
eyes of his fellows by any proficiency in the play-ground. 
He was a " dab " at no game, could neither handle a bat 
nor an oar. As soon as he passed into the remove it was 
determined to place him in the " fool's profession," as the 
army in those days was irreverently called. At the Mili- 
tary College at Angers he seemed to have a little more 
aptitude for studying the art of war than he had shown 
for the " Humanities," but he was still a shy, awkward lad. 
When he became aide-de-camp to Lord Westmoreland, the 
Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, his acquaintance with the 
usages of society was as limited as could well be possessed 
by any lad who had passed through the ordeal of a public 
school. Moore, the poet, who visited Dublin shortly before 
me, and who lived in much the same society as myself, 
alludes in his journal to the character for frivolity which 
young Wellesley had acquired while a member of the 
Viceregal staff. The late Lady Aldborough, one of his 
contemporaries, told me that when any of the Dublin 
belles received an invitation to a picnic they stipulated as 
a condition of its acceptance that " that mischievous boy, 
Arthur Wellesley, should not be of the party." Lord 
Leitrim mentioned to me one of his pranks. It was the 
fashion of the period for gentlemen to wear, instead of 
a neckcloth, a piece of rich lace, which was passed through 
a loop in the shirt collar. To twitch the lace out of its 
loop was a favourite pastime of the inchoate "Iron Duke." 


The disastrous campaign of the Duke of York appears to 
have had a sobering effect upon his character. From that 
time forth he put away childish things, and betook himself 
in good earnest to the active duties of his profession. 

In the first edition of these Memoirs, I stated that the 
Duke of "Wellington in early youth had been refused an 
appointment in the Inland Kevenue. I was in error 
respecting the date of the application for such employ- 
ment, but I have reason to believe that it was actually 

Now it is on record that the Duke of Marlborough, when 
a young man, was an unsuccessful applicant for a command 
in the army of Louis the Fourteenth. 

What effect on the destinies of the world would have 
been produced, if either of these great captains had 
obtained the object of his wishes ? 

It has often been asserted that if Lord Wellesley had not 
had the co-operation of so able an officer as his brother, 
his administration as Governor-General would have been 
attended with less brilliant results ; but I have been taught 
to believe that the benefits which the brothers derived 
from each other were tolerably reciprocal. If, on the one 
hand, the victories of the Sepoy general over the Mahrattas 
reflected lustre on the Governor-General who appointed 
him to the command ; on the other hand, the instruction 
which that Governor- General imparted to his younger 
brother proved of infinite service to him in his future 
career. Two military qualities for which the Duke of 
Wellington became afterwards so distinguished Lord 
W T ellesley possessed in an eminent degree the faculty 
of arranging the transport and the victualling of troops. 
There is one enterprise of Lord Wellesley's to which I 
think his biographers have hardly done justice I mean 
the expedition which he despatched from India to aid a 
European army in driving the French out of Egypt. 

x 2 


This project emanated entirely from himself. He had it 
in contemplation from the moment he learned that 
Buonaparte had effected a landing in that country. A 
year before he received the official sanction for sending 
this force to the assistance of Sir Ralph Abercrombie he 
had matured all the necessary provisions. To despatch an 
army seven thousand strong across an arid desert was of 
itself no slight achievement. But fully to appreciate the 
sagacity of Lord Wellesley's arrangements, it should 
be borne in mind that half that force was composed of 
Sepoys, whose prejudices of caste, with respect to food 
and removal from their own country, had to be considered 
and provided for. 

To show the importance which the Great Captain attached 
to the provisioning of troops I here give an anecdote which 
I believe to be authentic. 

At an early period of the Peninsular war a body of 
general officers were assembled round the dinner-table of 
Lord Wellington. Military matters were discussed with 
much freedom. An officer present ventured to ask the 
Commauder-in-Chief, upon whom, in the event of anything 
happening to his Lordship, the command, in his opinion, 
ought to fall. No answer was given, and the unlucky 
general thought that, in modern parlance, " he had put 
his foot in it." Later in the evening Wellington delivered 
his verdict in favour of Beresford. An expression of 
surprise pervaded the countenances of the guests, as the 
reputation of that marshal did not stand high among them 
as a " strategist." " I see," said Wellington, " what you 
mean by your looks. If it were a question of handling 
troops, some of you fellows might do as well, perhaps 
better than he ; but what we now want is some one to 
feed our men : and I know of no one fitter for that purpose 
than Beresford." 

Lady Wellesley (then Mrs. Paterson) and her sisters, 


Lady Hervey the late Duchess of Leeds, and Miss Catoii 
the late Lady Stafford, were at Brussels in the summer of 
1816. The illustrious Prince of Waterloo was also there 
at the time. After much entreaty, the sisters obtained his 
reluctant consent to accompany them to his last battle- 
field. He had not been there since the day of the action. 
The ladies dined with him on their return from Waterloo. 
During the whole evening he scarcely uttered a word, and 
by his deep-drawn sighs showed how sad a picture was 
brought to his mind by revisiting the scene of his greatest 

Lady Wellesley frequently told me that, desirous as she 
had been to visit so famed a spot under such auspices, she 
would not have made the request she did if she could have 
foreseen the mental anguish which the compliance with 
her wish would cause. 

In the December of this year, intelligence was received 
in England that Alexander, Emperor of Russia, had ex- 
pired at Taganrog on the 19th of the preceding month. 
The account of the circumstances attending his decease 
coincided so exactly with that which, fourteen months 
before, Madame de Zabloukoff had taught me to expect 
would be given, that it could not fail to produce on my 
mind the belief that the death of the Czar had not pro- 
ceeded from natural causes, and my father, the only person 
to whom I had communicated the substance of that lady's 
conversation, fully shared the impression. I have since 
been convinced that we judged erroneously. That there 
were others who came to the same conclusion with our- 
selves, without the same strong grounds for suspicion, may 
be inferred from a published letter of the late Miss Frances 
Williams Wynne : 

" FLORENCE, Dec. 24th, 1825. 

" We are full of speculations upon the subject of the 
death of Alexander, which this day's post has announced 


Many are inclined to believe that his death has been 
occasioned by the hereditary complaint which proved fatal 
to his three predecessors. It is now universally believed 
that Catherine was strangled." 1 

[1826.] A grand ball, given by the Lord-Lieutenant, 
on the evening of St. Patrick's Day, terminated the festivi- 
ties of the Dublin season. Lord Wellesley retired to the 
Viceregal Lodge in the Phoenix Park, and, as the services 
of only one aide-de-camp were required, I shifted my 
quarters from Dublin Castle to Kensington Palace, and 
entered upon a tour of waiting upon the Duke of Sussex. 

My chief was the essence of punctuality. We break^ 
fasted precisely at nine. As the palace clock struck that 
hour, its tones were responded to by a host of other loud- 
sounding timepieces, to be found in every nook and corner 
of the Duke's suite of apartments. Some of them played 
martial tunes, others the national anthem. This bell-metal 
chorus was half drowned by the yapping of a pack of little 
dogs, which came scampering as avant couriers down the 
stairs. At the same moment would appear the Duke's 
page, Mr. Blackman a black man by name and colour 
whose diminutive form set off to advantage the truly im- 
posing appearance of the royal master whom he preceded. 

One of my occupations of a morning, while waiting for 
the Duke, was to watch from the window the movements 
of a bright, pretty little girl, seven years of age. She was 
in the habit of watering the plants immediately under the 
window. It was amusing to see how impartially she 
divided the contents of the watering-pot between the 
flowers and her own little feet. Her simple but becoming 
dress contrasted favourably with the gorgeous apparel now 
worn by the little damsels of the rising generation a large 

1 "Memoirs of a Lady" of Quality." Edited by A. Hayvvard, 
Esq., Q.C. 


straw hat, and a suit of white cotton ; a coloured fichu 
round the neck was the only ornament she wore. The 
young lady I am describing was the Princess Victoria, 
now our gracious Sovereign, whom may God long pre- 
serve ! 

Among my grandfather's papers I find the following 
letter addressed to him, while Commander-in-Chief of the 
Havanna Expedition. I will presently give my reasons 
for inserting it here, rather than in the place to which its 
v.. ite would seem properly to assign it. 


" MATANZAS, Nov. 29th, 1762. 

" The only thing extraordinary that has happened since 
I have been here was the murder of Joseph Barnes, a 
soldier in the Eegiment of Artillery, and in Captain 
Anderson's Company, by Marcus Yincentz, a soldier in 
the Eegiment of Havanna, who also robbed him of his 
money and his buckles, on the 19th, at night, in a cruel, 
treacherous manner, not the least offence being given by 
the deceased. 

" I was informed of the murder the next morning and 
sent to the magistrate, and desired he might do all in his 
power to find out the criminal. I also sent out parties all 
round the town ; and one of them, commanded by Ensign 
McGrath, a brave and active young officer, took him about 
four miles from this place, and brought him into town 
about twelve of the clock. The deceased's buckles and 
some of his money were found in his pocket. I ordered 
him immediately to be hanged, first showing the buckles 
and the money to the magistrate and the priest, in order 
to convince them that I would not execute him without 


the strongest conviction. They begged that the priest 
might confess him, and that his body, after execution, 
might be returned to them, both of which I granted. A 
little before he was hanged he begged, as he was a soldier, 
that he might be shot; but I refused him, and told him he 
did not deserve so much honour. He was executed with- 
out the least disturbance. The people in general seemed 
very well satisfied. 

" I am, with the greatest respect, 

" Your Lordship's most obedient, 
humble servant, 


I reproduce this letter here, not from any interest in 
Marcus Vincentz, who doubtless deserved h'is fate, but 
in his captor, the " brave and active young officer," with 
whom, at a latter period of his life, I became per- 
sonally acquainted. 

Perkins Magra (not McGrath, as stated in the letter,) 
was an Ensign in the 17th Foot at the reduction of the 
Havanna. In a London Gazette of 1762, his name appears 
among the wounded during the siege. He remained in the 
regiment till he reached the rank of Major, when he went 
on half-pay. He was afterwards appointed an Equerry to 
the Duke of Sussex, and thus he and I were members of 
the same household. He lived to be upwards of ninety. 
Although old in dress and appearance, he was youthful in 
mind, and proved a most agreeable companion. While I 
was in India, he was seized with a paralytic stroke. I 
have not the Duke of Sussex's letter by me, which an- 
nounced the event, but it contained a message somewhat 
to this effect: "Magra bids me tell George Keppel that 
half of his old friend is gone, and the other half is ready 
to follow at a moment's notice." He was alive when I 
returned, and though very infirm, as cheerful as usual. I 


paid him frequent visits at his lodgings in Quebec Street. 
One evening, as I was sitting with him at his usual dinner- 
hour, he told me to call the next day before twelve ; but 
he added : " You shall be admitted at whatever hour you 

Some engagement prevented me from going there till 
two. On the Major's servant opening the door to me, he 
told me that his master desired I should be shown to his 
bedroom. I there beheld the lifeless form of my old friend, 
not in the bed, but on it, and the limbs straightened by 
the undertaker, preparatory to its being placed in the coffin . 

The right thing to do in the spring of 1826 was to 
submit your head to the manipulations of Mr. Deville of 
the Strand, lampseller and amateur phrenologist. Saunter- 
ing one morning into Deville's back parlour I found some 
eight on ten persons assembled. Seated in the middle of 
the room was a young lady of about nineteen, whom 
Deville, from an examination of her head, pronounced to 
be not only a good musician, but if she liked might be a 
composer of music a judgment that was at once confirmed 
by an elderly lady standing near her, evidently her mother. 
I suspected at the time that both ladies were in league 
with the lecturer ; but I discovered afterwards they were 
the wife and daughter of Mr. Eichards, the Duke of 
Sussex's solicitor, and, like myself, then saw Deville for 
the first time. My turn came next. He spoke of my 
powers of memory, and of the facility I must have of 
acquiring languages. He told me how I was in the habit 
of conducting an argument. He said, if I ever turned my 
attention to mathematics I should probably find that my 
task would be easy enough so long as I proved my 
proposition by means of lines, but that, from the defective 
state of the organ of numbers, I should have great 
difficulty in demonstrating by the arithmetical process. 
The truth of this observation I ascertained two years 


afterwards when I became a student at the Senior Depart- 
ment of the Eoyal Military College. To illustrate tho 
scanty allowance of order in my cerebral structure, Deville 
made a very shrewd guess of the untidy condition of my 
room as I had left it in the morning. Asmodeus could 
scarcely have given Don Cleopas a better view of the 
interior of a dwelling than did Deville of the state of 
my lodgings on the second floor of No. 28, Bury Street, 
St. James's. 

Deville told us that, a few days before, the Duke of 
Wellington came to him, accompanied by one or two 
other gentlemen. He had never seen his Grace before, 
but knew him at once from his likeness to the prints of 
him in the shop-windows. After examining his head, 
Deville said, " If I did not know in whose presence I 
have the honour of standing, I should have said that 
according to phrenological science the organ of cautious- 
ness was so strongly developed in your Grace's head as to 
make it difficult to account for that firmness of purpose 
of which your brilliant achievements have formed so irre- 
fragable a proof." The Duke answered, " If you mean that 
I was nervous in going into action, you are perfectly right: 
but I never found that this feeling ever interfered in the 
slightest degree with a proper discharge of my duties." 

I was much inclined to treat this statement of Deville's 
as apocryphal, until I stumbled upon the following passage 
in Moore the poet's journal, under date of April 22nd, 
1826 : " Immediately after breakfast, Colonel Napier 
arrived to look at Bromham House ; an able man ; is 
employed in writing an account of the campaigns in the 
Peninsula. In talking of phrenology, said that the Duke 
of Wellington has not the organ of courage, but has that 
of fortitude or resolution very strongly. The Duke owned 
himself that this corresponded to his character." 1 
1 Russell's " Life of Moore," vol. v. p. 57. 


Early in November I accompanied the Duke of Sussex 
to Holkham. For three successive months Mr. Coke kept 
open house for his friends. Among his annual guests 
were Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, afterwards King of 
the Belgians, and the Duke of Gloucester. These Princes 
desired to be considered as private friends, and dispensed 
with the attentions that etiquette usually assigns to persons 
in their station of life. The battues began the first 
Wednesday in November, and continued twice a week 
for the rest of the season. The quantity of game killed 
in the three months was probably not much more than it 
is now the fashion to slaughter in as many days ; but the 
flint-and-steel guns were always fully employed, and every- 
body was satisfied with his day's sport. The non-battue 
days were passed, either in the turnip-fields among the 
partridges, or in the salt marshes in pursuit of snipes and 
wild-fowl. In a shooting establishment like Holkham, 
gamekeepers are persons of importance. Several of these 
were characters in their way. There was old Joe Hibbert, 
who had been a prizefighter in his youth. On one occasion, 
Sir John Shelley, who was celebrated for his neat sparring, 
challenged Hibbert to a set-to with the gloves, and some 
of the young men mischievously promised Joe a good tip 
if he would administer a little punishment to Sir John. 
Joe put on the gloves, but soon drew them off again ; and, 
turning round upon his backers, exclaimed, " Not for twice 
the money would I strike a gentleman ! " 

One of Joe's colleagues, but of a different sex, was Polly 
Fishbourne, keeper of the Church Lodge, who, when I last 
heard of her, was still alive. She must be about my own 
age. She had large, black eyes, red cheeks and white 
teeth ; her hair was cropped like a man's, and she wore a 
man's hat. The rest of her attire was feminine. She was 
irreproachable in character, and, indeed, somewhat of a 
prude. Polly was the terror of poachers, with whom she 


had frequent encounters, and would give and take hard 
knocks; but generally succeeded in capturing her opponents 
and making them answer for their misdeeds at Petty 

A Norfolk game-preserver once offered Polly a shilling 
a piece for a hundred pheasants' eggs. She nodded her 
head. Soon after she brought Mr. Coke a five-pound 
note. "There, Squire," said she, "is the price of one 
hundred of your guinea-fowl eggs." Of course the Squire 
made Polly keep the five-pound note. 

One time that I was staying at Holkham, a bull killed 
a labouring man in the salt marshes. The savage brute 
was standing over his victim, and a crowd was assembled 
at the gate, when Polly appeared at the opposite side. 
There was a cry, " Get out of the way, Polly, or the bull 
will kill you." " Not he," was the reply ; " he knows 
better." She was right. The moment he saw her he 
backed astern to the remotest corner of the inclosure. 
It turned out that the animal had once attempted to 
run at her, but she lodged a charge of small shot in 
his muzzle. 

Two young gentlemen once paid a visit to Holkham in 
the summer time. The dinner hour was half-past three, 
but the guests were not forthcoming. It was eight in the 
evening before they put in an appearance, and then looked 
uncommonly sheepish. At day-break they decamped 
without beat of drum. It transpired that they had 
expressed a wish to see the Church, and applied to Polly, 
the keeper of the Church Lodge. On their way thither 
one of them attempted to rob the said keeper of a kiss. 
Luckily for them they were guests at the hall, or she 
would have treated them as she used to treat the poachers. 
She resorted to a milder punishment ; while they were in 
the belfry admiring the surrounding scenery, Polly turned 
the Church key upon them. 

xiv.] MISS LYDIA WHITE. 317 

[1827.] On the 10th of January the Duke of Sussex 
attended the Duke of York's funeral at Windsor. I was 
prevented by a severe cold from attending His Eoyal 
Highness, but I well remember the precise date, because 
on that day my " Overland Journey from India " first saw 
the light. It had a success which a work of ten times its 
merit could not hope to achieve in these days of universal 
authorship. The press spoke of it with great indulgence, 
and their favourable notices caused it to pass through 
several editions ; indeed, the first impression went off so 
rapidly that in a very few weeks my publisher asked me 
for a revise. 

One of the first fruits of my authorship was admission 
to the literary coteries of Miss Lydia White, an elderly lady 
who lived in a very small house in Park Lane. Upon 
entering her drawing-room, I found her reclining on a sofa, 
and surrounded by many of the leading men of letters of 
the day. Although she was then, as she and her visitors 
alike knew, suffering from a disorder which in all proba- 
bility would end fatally, suddenly, and almost immediately, 
she cheerfully and agreeably discharged the duties of hostess. 
I was to have dined with her the day on which she died. 
To this projected dinner Sir Walter Scott thus alludes 
in his "Diary:" "January 28th, 1827 : Hear of Miss 
White's death. Poor Lydia! she gave a dinner the Friday 
before, and had written with her own hand invitations for 
another party. Twenty years ago she used to tease me 
with her youthful affectations her dressing like the queen 
of chimney-sweeps on May-day morning, &c., and some- 
times letting her wit run mad ; but she was a woman of 
wit, and had a kind, feeling heart." 

The " Overland Journey" opened to me other houses 
not usually accessible to young men about town. At Sir 
George Phillips's, in Mount Street, I made the acquaint- 
ance of Sydney Smith, Sir James Mackintosh, Hallam, and 


Macaulay. In "Conversation Sharp's" little dining-room 
in Upper Grosvenor Street I met men who could boast 
of personal acquaintance with members of " the Club," e.g., 
such, for instance, as Burke, Johnson, and Eeynolds. Lord 
Essex used to give very pleasant dinners of eight covers to 
persons of all callings. At Mr. Edmund Byng's I used to 
have for fellow-guests the leading actors of the day- 
Matthews, Liston, Dowton, Fawcett, Harley, Yates. I met 
poets at Samuel Eogers's breakfasts, and punsters at General 
Phipps's at the house of this last named officer I remember 
meeting George Colrnan, the author of" Broad Grins," James 
Smith, one of the authors of the "Rejected Addresses," 
and Jekyll, nonpareil of the punsters. The only lady of 
the company was the Dowager Lady Cork. Puns were of 
course the staple of the entertainment. I record one by 
way of a sample : " Mr. Colman," said Lady Cork, " you are 
so agreeable that you shall drink a glass of champagne 
with me." " Your Ladyship's wishes are laws to me/' 
answered Colman, " but really champagne does not agree 
with me." Upon which Jekyll called out, "Faith, Colman, 
you seem more attached to the Cork than the bottle." 

I at this time made the acquaintance of three agreeable 
young men, who used to meet at each other's lodgings. 
They were then unknown to fame, but their abilities were 
such that they could not always remain in obscurity 
Henry Lytton Bulwer, the late Lord Dalling, his brother 
Edward, the late Lord Lytton, and Alexander Cockburn, 
now Lord Chief-Justice of England, then a student of 
Middle Temple, but not called to the bar. 

. Lord Wellesley's term of office was drawing to a close. 
The surrender of his post involved that of mine, and 
opened upon me the unpleasant prospect of having soon 
to return to regimental duty under a disagreeable com- 
manding officer. Promotion seemed the best mode of 
avoiding the contingency. A friend who had unsuccess- 


fully pleaded my cause with the Duke of Wellington, the 
lately-appointed Commander-in- Chief, advised me to make 
a personal application to his Grace. I did so. The " Iron 
Duke " thoroughly looked the character. " Sir," said he, 
in his most chilling accents, " you will be pleased to send 
in a memorial of your claims to promotion, and you will 
receive an answer through the usual channel." Nothing 
was left me but to obey. In the memorial I made the 
most of my scanty services, and threw in the " Overland 
Journey " by way of a make- weight. Anon came a letter 
" OD His Majesty's Service," from the Horse Guards. It 
was "the answer through the usual channel." Judge 
of my surprise and joy when I found that it announced 
my promotion to an unattached Majority. The friend who 
applied to the Field-Marshal in my favour thanked him 
for his prompt compliance with his request. " You have 
nothing to thank me for," was the answer ; " it was the 
young fellow's book that got him his step." 


The Hoo. Lady Dacre. Hoo Theatricals. Cosy. Charles Young 
the Tragedian. Join the Hatfield House Company. Our Corps 
Dramatique. The Marchioness of Clanricarde. Theodore Hook. 
Our Audience. The Ghost of Queen Elizabeth. A dis- 
tinguished Brother Actor. Harrington House Theatre. 
Travellers' and Raleigh Clubs. James Holman, the Blind 
Traveller. Return to Ireland. Lord Plunket's definition of 
the Word " Personal." A Vice-Regal Dinner. Lady Morgan 
and Lady Clark. A Masquerade Group. A poetical Sketch of 
Dublin Society. Lady Morgan and her Sister "Livy.'' Pass 
Christmas holidays at Bowood. Make a new acquaintance. 
Moore and his Melodies. Sloperton Cottage. Extracts from 
Moore's " Journal." The Bowood Servants' Ball. A Day with 
Poet Moore. My Lodgings in Bury Street. Enter the Military 
College. Bagshot Park. Death of Lady de Clifford. Meet 
the Duke of Orleans at Cobham. Lady Elizabeth Brownlow's 
Account of the Visit. A Soiree at Mrs. Norton's. Theodore 
Hook. Lord Castlereagh and Mrs. Norton. The two Chin- 

I PASSED much of the summer of 1827 at The Hoo, Lord 
Dacre's seat in Hertfordshire. It was my home whenever 
I chose to make it so. 

Lady Dacre, recognised by artists as the best modeller 
in wax in Europe, was known also in the literary world 
for some volumes of poems. Besides several dramas they 
contained some admirable translations of Petrarch. One 
of her plays was acted at Drury Lane. I remember, as a 
Westminster boy, being one of its claqueurs on its first 

en. xv.] YOUNG THE TRAGEDIAN. 321 


representation ; but the piece, though full of exquisite 
poetry, had not a sufficiency of stirring incident to fit it for 
the stage, and it was unsuccessful. When -I first became 
acquainted with Lady Dacre, she was engaged in writing a 
comedy, in which she assigned me a principal part. Having 
failed in her endeavour to please the public, she deter- 
mined that she would not again solicit their " sweet voices." 
In the new piece, actors and audience were to consist of 
personal friends. Even the scenery was the work of 
unprofessional artists, being that of Lady Dacre's neigh- 
bours, the Miss Blakes of Danesbury. The comedy was 
called " Pomps and Vanities." Lady Dacre was Mrs. 
Hushem, a privileged nurse in the family of a certain 
Lord Pompsbury a character to which she gave full 
effect in a broad Hampshire dialect. My part was Cosy, 
a superannuated valet of Lord Pompsbury, and as proud 
of his master's ancestry as the old Lord himself. Hushem 
and Cosy were always at daggers drawn. 

Accounts of our performances found their way into the 
newspapers, and " Pomps and Vanities " created quite a 
sensation in the West-end of London. 

February 18th, 1828, Moore, the poet, says in his Diary 
" Met Lady Dacre, talked about her private theatricals : 
said I should be very happy to join in them next year, 
which seemed to give her great delight." 

A constant guest at the Hoo was Charles Mayne Young, 
the celebrated tragedian. We had many a walk together. 
Such of my readers as are acquainted with his biography 
by his son will understand that I had a very agreeable 
companion in my rambles. 

Young was the undisputed head of his profession when 
Edmund Kean entered the theatrical arena. The town 
was for some time in doubt to which of the competitors 
the palm should be awarded. An epigram of the day is 
expressive of the feeling, 



" TV hence is this great difference sprung, 
'Twixt Young and Kean, and Kean and Young ? 
The difference may at once be seen 
Kean is young, and Young is keen." 

I think I must have seen Young in almost every character 
that he played. As Hotspur, he was without a rival. In 
one of our walks, I told him that " I could never dissociate 
that arch rebel from his personator Charles Young." He 
laughed, and, patting his heavy under-jaw the only 
defective feature of a very handsome face exclaimed, 
'* Fancy Harry Percy with rny pudding chops ! " 

The success of Lady Dacre's play revived a long dormant 
taste. Private theatricals became all the rage. Hatfield 
House was the first to follow the lead set by the Hoo, and 
I accepted an engagement in the new company. Among 
my fellow-comedians were Lady Salisbury, our hostess ; 
Lord and Lady Francis Leveson Gower, afterwards Lord 
and Lady Ellesmere ; Lord Morpeth, afterwards Lord 
Carlisle ; Mrs. Robert Ellison, a sister of Lord Rokeby; Mrs. 
Robert Ellice ; Sir George Chad ; and Lord Normanby's 
brother, Colonel, afterwards Sir Charles, Phipps. 

The pieces performed were French vaudevilles adapted 
to the Hatfield stage by Theodore Hook, and they suffered 
no deterioration by passing through the hands of the 
author of " Killing no Murder." 

The survivors of this corps are Lady Clanricarde and 
Mr. James Stuart Wortley. Since I made the above note, 
the lady I here speak of has passed away from us. In 
Hook's adaptation of " Les Premieres Amours " Lady 
Clanricarde played the part of the soubrette, and I that of 
the serving-man. A letter of Macaulay to his sister 
reminds me of her personal appearance, and of a salient 
trait in her character, which, differing from the great 
historian, I used to think greatly became her. 

" The Marchioness of Clanricarde is, you know, Canning's 


daughter. She is very beautiful, and very like her father, 
with eyes full of fire, and great expression in all her features ; 
she showed much cleverness, and I thought a little more 
of political animosity than is quite becoming in a pretty 

" The daughter of a statesman who was a martyr to the 
rage of faction may be pardoned for speaking sharply of 
the enemies of her parent, and she did speak sharply. 
With knitted brows and flashing eyes, and a look of 
feminine vengeance about her beautiful mouth, she gave 
me such a character of Peel as he would certainly have no 
pleasure in hearing." 

Charles Phipps was to act the part of a King of Sweden, 
but having no star, a despatch was sent to the Duke of 
"Wellington to borrow his. The messenger returned with 
His Grace's insignia of a Knight Grand Cross of the Order 
of the Sword. It is worthy of remark that the box which 
contained the order had evidently never been opened before, 

On one grand occasion, the Duke of Wellington, then 
Prime Minister, almost every member of the cabinet, and 
nearly the whole of the Corps Diplomatique came from 
London to witness our performances. 

The Hatfield epilogues were usually assigned to me. 
On this special evening I had to recite a very clever one 
by Lord Francis Leveson in the character of the Ghost of 
Queen Elizabeth. I am disturbed in my grave by the 
goings on in a house that had served me as prison and 
palace. My wrath is roused by finding that such mum- 
meries have the sanction of the descendant of my sage 
minister, Lord Burleigh. In retiring I stumble accidentally 
into the Green Eoom, and my feelings as a " Virgin Queen " 
are shocked at seeing "a man without his coat." I swoon ; 
the curtain drops. 

But our solemnities did not stop here. An illustrious 
actor had his part yet to play. While the audience was 

Y 2 


designedly detained some minutes in the theatre, our 
corps had hurried into "King James's Room." On an 
ottoman at one end was placed a gilt chair, and in it in 
royal state sat Queen Elizabeth. On each side were ranged 
the dramatis personw. The Duke of Wellington was then 
asked in his capacity of Prime Minister to make his 
obeisances to the sovereign. With a loud hearty laugh, 
such as many must still remember, he showed that he 
fully entered into the fun, and at once accepted the rdle 
assigned him. Surrounded by the members of his cabinet, 
and by the representatives of the crowned heads of Europe, 
he approached the throne in mock solemnity, and did 
homage to my Majesty. 

The festivities closed by a sumptuous banquet. Theo- 
dore Hook, in unusually high force, astonished the com- 
pany by his wonderful improvisations. One only toast 
was drunk, " Long life to the Ghost of Queen Elizabeth." 
To this loyal effusion the Regal phantom was graciously 
pleased to answer in Norman parliamentary French, " La 
Reyne remercie ses loyaulx sujets, et ainsi le veult." 

After " starring it " some time in the provinces, Charles 
Phipps and I made our first appearance on London boards. 
Our new theatre was " Harrington House." It was first 
set on foot by the late Duchesses of Bedford and Leinster, 
and Lady Caroline Sandford, daughters of Lord Harrington, 
for the amusement of their father, whose age and infirmities 
prevented him from stirring abroad. Among our most 
efficient performers were the Duchess of Leinster and 
Lady Caroline, Mrs. Leicester Stanhope, now Elizabeth, 
Countess-Dowager of Harrington, and the Honourable 
Georgina Elphinstone, now Lady William Godolphin 

My "Overland Journey" obtained for me a ready 
admission into the "Travellers'." The Club, which was 
yet in its infancy, occupied a shabby, low-roomed house on 


the north side of Pall Mall. But what we lost in good 
accommodation we gained in good company. We never 
enjoyed each other's society so much after we shifted our 
quarters to the big house on the other side of the way. 

Another Travellers' Club, of which I was an original 
member, was called the " Ealeigh." It consisted of men 
who had visited the least known portions of the globe. 
We dined once or twice a month together at the " Thatched 
House," in St. James's Street. The Arctic region was 
represented by Captains Parry, Back, and Franklin ; and 
the South Pole by another captain of the Navy whose 
name I forget. I was sole member for Babylon. Another 
of our number was James Holman, a lieutenant in the 
Navy. He had been struck by blindness in a storm at 
sea. In this helpless state he had travelled over the 
greater part of the North of Europe, and of each journey 
published an account. Prior to leaving St. Petersburg for 
Siberia, Holman caused Sir Andrew Wylie, the Emperor's 
physician, to examine his eyes, in order that that gentleman 
might satisfy his Imperial master that no danger could 
accrue to the state by allowing a sightless man to proceed 
on his journey. So morbidly suspicious, however, was 
Alexander at this time that he took it into his head that 
Holman was a dangerous spy, and caused him to be arrested 
on the confines of Siberia, and conveyed by force beyond 
the Russian frontier. 

In Holman's published account he takes for his motto 
the words of Joseph's brethren to their father Jacob : 
" The man, who is the lord of the land, spake roughly to 
us, and took us for spies of the country." 1 

At the close of the London season, I took up my abode 
at the Viceregal Lodge in Phoenix Park. Since I had 
last seen Lord Wellesley I had become an author, and was 

1 Gen. xlii. 30. 


not a little proud of bringing him a copy of a third and 
revised edition of my work. As I fully expected, he 
received my present with some good-humoured banter. 
Before he glanced at the contents, he opened the book 
at the title-page. To my name were attached the initials 
of a Fellow of the Antiquarian Society. "F.A.S." he 
exclaimed; "Do you know that those letters mean a 
fellow abominably stupid? and you have only to add 
F.E.S. to your next edition, and you will be a fellow 
remarkably stupid into the bargain." A thorough purist 
in language, Lord Wellesley next fell foul of the words- 
"Personal Narrative," the title which my publisher had 
substituted for " Overland Journey," and he, the publisher, 
had borrowed it from Humboldt's " Personal Narrative of 
Travels in South America." The same evening Lord 
Plunket, recently appointed Chief-Justice of the Common 
Pleas, dined at the Lodge. The Viceroy renewed the 
attack on my " malaprop " adjective. " One of my aides- 
de-camp," said he, "has written a personal narrative of 
his travels pray, Chief- Justice, what is your definition of 
'personal?'" "My lord," replied Plunket, "we lawyers 
always consider personal as opposed to real" The only 
persons present when this witticism was uttered were 
Lord Wellesley and myself, but it has several times found 
its way into print. The last who quotes it is Charles 
Greville, and he had it from George Villiers, afterwards 
Lord Clarendon, who had it from me. 

If my memory serves me, this was a dinner given by 
the Lord-Lieutenant to the members of the legal profes- 
sion ; and a very pleasant one it proved to be. The mere 
enumeration of some of the names will show, to those who- 
remember Lord Wellesley 's first Irish administration, what 
materials there were for an intellectual feast. William 
Lamb, the Irish Secretary, afterwards Lord Melbourne; 
Chief-Baron O'Grady, afterwards created Viscount Guilla- 


more; Chief- Justice Bushe, and Mr. Doherty, then a King's 
Counsel, afterwards Lord Chief-Justice of the Common 
Pleas. I was not lucky enough to be at the same end of 
the table as the Chief-Baron, for he it was who kept those 
within earshot of him in a roar ; and as I cannot record 
any of the good things he said on that . occasion, I will 
give an anecdote in which his name occurs. 

A cause of much celebrity was tried at some county 
assizes. Chief-Baron O'Grady was the presiding Judge. 
Bushe, then a King's Counsel, who held a brief for the 
defence, was pleading the cause of his client with much 
eloquence, when a donkey in the court set up a loud bray. 
" One at a time, brother Bushe ! " called out his Lordship. 
Peals of laughter filled the Court. The Counsel bore the 
interruption as he best could. The Judge was proceeding 
to sum up with his usual ability of speech : the donkey 
again began to bray. " I beg your Lordship's pardon," said 
Bushe, putting his hand to his ear.; "but there is such 
an echo in the Court that I can't hear a word you say." 

A number of pleasant people used to assemble of an 
evening in what has been called "Lady Morgan's snug 
little nutshell in Kildare Street." The lady of the house 
was then at the height of her popularity, for the admirable 
scenes she was depicting of Irish life. Since her day 
Eeform and Steam have effected such a change in the 
aspect of society in the sister kingdom, as to prevent the 
present generation from testing the fidelity of the cha- 
racters which she drew. For myself, who was, as it were, 
behind the scenes, her dramatis personce had a peculiar 
fascination. I could almost fancy that I had met at mess 
the " cut-mutton jig Major," who would never dance with 
a daughter unless he had first dined with her father, and 
that I had served on the same staff with the dandy aide- 
de-camp of the Lord Lieutenant, whose neckcloth was so 
stiffly starched that he could not turn his head towards 


the young lady with whom he drank wine, but was 
obliged to appeal to the valet behind his chair with the 
qucere " Wilkie ! does she bow ? " When I first made the 
acquaintance of Lady Morgan she was preparing for the 
press her " O'Briens and OTlahertys," by no means the 
least amusing of her novels. I am there, as she told me, 
the original of the Count (I forget his name) who made a 
trip to Jerusalem for the sole object of eating artichokes 
in their native country. 

The chief attraction in the Kildare Street " At homes " 
was Lady Morgan's sister, Olivia, wife of Sir - - Clark. 
Her conversational powers were so greatly superior to 
those of her novel-writing sister, that I cannot help sus- 
pecting that the work which went in the name of one was 
a joint production. 

I once joined a group at a masquerade in which both 
sisters figured. Lady Morgan was a Marquise of the 
Court of Louis XV., a character which, from her habit of 
interlarding her conversation with French epithets, became 
quite natural to her. Lady Clark enacted the part of an 
Irish lady of the last century upon whom the Pope had 
bestowed the title of Countess of the Holy Koman Empire. 
She wore a high-crowned hat, and that description of 
riding-habit called a " Joseph." It was of a bright snuff- 
colour, and had metal buttons as large as crown-pieces 
down the front. I personated a Macaroni of the same 
period, fresh from Italy ; but I did not do justice to my 
part from the desire I had to catch some of the pleasantries 
which the Irish Countess was dealing out to all around. 

Lady Clark used to sing some charming Irish songs. 
They were for the most part squibs on the Dublin society 
of the day. I fear, from inquiries I have made, that not 
a copy of any of them is to be found. A verse of one of 
them, giving a sketch of the Irish metropolis of my day, 
runs somewhat thus : 

xv.] VISIT TO BOWOOD. 329 

" We're swarming alive, 

Like bees in a hive, 
With talent and janious and beautiful ladies ; 

We've a duke in Kildare, 

And a Donnybrook fair, 
And if that wouldn't plaze yez, why nothing would plaze yez ; 

We've poets in plenty, 

But not one in twenty 
Will stay in ould Ireland to keep her from sinking ; 

They say they can't live 

Where there's nothing to give. 
Och ! what business have poets with ating and dhririking ! " 

The authoress of the " Wild Irish Girl," justly proud 
of her gifted sister Olivia, was in the habit of addressing 
every new comer with '' I must make you acquainted with 
my Livy." She once used this form of words to a gentle- 
man who had just been worsted in a fierce encounter of 
wits with the lady in question. " Yes, ma'am," was the 
reply ; " I happen to know her, and I would to heaven 
your Livy was Tacitus." 

I passed the Christmas holidays of this year at Bowood, 
Lord Lansdowne's country seat. A Bath coach dropped 
me at the park gate. As soon as I was dressed I went 
down into the drawing-room. Although] it wanted twenty 
minutes to dinner, I found the hearth-rug already occupied 
by a bright, intelligent-looking little man, with a turned- 
up nose. To my remark, that we were before our time, 
my new acquaintance answered that he was a near neigh- 
bour, and had come over on foot. Being fresh from town, 
I thought I would give the country gentleman the latest 
news ; but was rather surprised to find that he was more 
au courant of what was going 'on in the great world than 
I was ; and I was still more puzzled when he sat down to 
dinner ; for every time I attempted to say a good thing, 
my little friend capped me. At last I whisperingly asked 
Lady Lansdowne the name of her very agreeable neighbour- 


" Oh ! " was the reply, " I thought you were acquainted. 
Mr. Moore, let me introduce you to Major Keppel." Thus 
began my intimacy with the modern Anacreon, which 
death only brought to a close. 

The next morning Moore sang most of his charming 
melodies. Among others, " The Slave," a song expressive 
of the sympathy of the writer with the abortive insurrection 
for which his friend and college-chum, Eobert Emmett, 
paid the forfeit of his life. I wish I could convey to 
my reader an idea of the spirit which the poet threw into 
the words 

" We tread the land that bore us, 
Her green flag glitters o'er us ; 
The friends we've tried are by our side, 
And the foe we hate before us." 

Moore's own Diary shows that it was by the merest 
chance that he had not ranged himself under that same 
green flag and shared the fate of its ill-starred leader. 

After luncheon I walked with Moore to his home, 
" Sloperton Cottage," about two miles distant from Bowood, 
a humble thatched house, with a well-stored library of 
presentation copies. Having escorted the poet to Sloperton, 
he returned with me to Bowood. On the way, he told me 
that much of his poetry was composed in his walks between 
the two houses. I remember to have read that some one 
asked to be shown to the study of Coleridge, the poet. 
" This, sir," said the maid-servant, " is master's dining- 
room ; but he studies in the fields." 

Moore was amused with a story that I told him I had 
heard of himself. 

A French lady, a stranger to him, throwing herself into 
his arms, exclaimed, " Oh, le cher Lord Byron ! " 

" Pardonnez-moi, Madame, je m'appelle Moore." 

" Mais Moore le poete, n'est ce pas ? " 


" Oui, Madame." 

"Alors c'est le mdme chose," and then followed a 
second accolade. 

That same day I met at dinner, at Bowood, Colonel 
William Napier, whose first volume of his "History of 
the Peninsular War " had just made its appearance. 

Under date of December 26th Moore writes in his 
Diary: "Walked into Devizes. Found when I returned 
that Lord John Eussell, Kerry, and Keppel had been while 
I was out." 

This evening there was a servants' ball at Bowood, 
Lord Lansdowne being among the most energetic of the 

In his Diary for the 28th, Moore writes : " Lord John 
Eussell and Keppel walked home with me, and sat some 
time with Bessy." 

The same Autobiography reminds me of a very pleasant 
day I spent with the writer. 

[1828.] " February 19, 1828. Called upon Eogers after 
breakfast. Keppel with him. Came away together. I 
introduced him to Murray. Went afterwards to Colburn, 
where he made me a present of his book. From thence 
to his grandmother, Lady de Clifford, a fine old woman." 

Moore was then collecting materials for his "Life of 
Byron." At his desire, I introduced him to Lord Sligo, 
who was an early friend of the noble poet. After giving 
a faithful account in his Journal of the conversation that 
followed, Moore writes : 

"Went with Keppel to his lodgings, 28, Bury Street, 
St. James's, for the purpose of seeing the rooms where he 
lives (second floor), which were my abode off and on for 
twelve years. The sight brought back old times. It was 
there I wrote my ' Odes and Epistles from America ; ' and 
in the parlour Strangford wrote most of his ' Camoens ' 


In that second floor I had an illness of eight weeks, of 
which I was near dying ; and in that shabby second floor, 
when I was slowly recovering, the beautiful Duchess of 
St. Albans (Miss Mellon), to my surprise, one day paid me 
a visit." 

On the retirement of Lord Wellesley from the Viceroy- 
ship of Ireland, I entered the Senior Department of the 
Royal Military College at Sandhurst. 

While a student at Sandhurst I was frequently the 
guest of the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester, of whose 
kindness to me, at various periods of my life, I have a 
pleasing recollection. Bagshot Park, then occupied by 
their Eoyal Highnesses, is Crown property. George II. 
made a grant of it to my grandfather and his brothers, 
Augustus and William, for their respective lives. In the 
panels, which are wainscoted, are several portraits of the 
family. At the death of my grandfather, in 1772, Bagshot 
came into the occupation of Admiral Keppel, but he, 
wishing to make over the residence to George IIl.'s 
brother, Henry Frederick, Duke of Cumberland, applied 
to his Majesty for a renewal of the grant. The request 
was peremptorily refused. According to family tradition, 
the King was so rejoiced at thus defeating the wishes of 
two persons so obnoxious to him as his brother and my 
uncle, that he burst into a paroxysm of laughter, which 
lasted so long as to constitute the first symptoms of that 
mental malady of which the unhappy monarch soon after 
gave such unmistakable proofs. 

In the autumn of this year I was called away from my 
studies by the alarming illness of the friend I loved most 
upon earth my kind, good grandmother, Lady de Clifford. 
I was seldom absent from her sick chamber. A few hours 
before her death I took a chair by her bed-side, which had 
lately been occupied by my sister Mary, and grasped her 
hand. Sight, hearing, and speech had left her, and she 


was pronounced by the doctors to be insensible ; but she 
no sooner felt the texture of my cloth coat than she 
showed her consciousness of my presence by pressing my 
hand to her lips. 

By her will I was declared her residuary legatee, and 
the possessor of her estate in Ireland. 

Early in June, Lord Darnley, who had known me from 
my childhood, asked me to help him to do the honours to 
the Duke of Orleans, afterwards King of the French, who 
had signified his intention of honouring him with a visit 
at Cobham Hall, his beautiful seat in Kent. For the 
following account of the proceedings on that occasion 
I am indebted to my noble host's grandson, the present 
Lord Darnley, who at my request applied for information 
to his aunt, Lady Elizabeth Brownlow, at the time I speak 
of unmarried and living under her father's roof. 1 She 
writes in answer : 

" I well remember the event respecting which my old 
friend, Lord Albemarle, requires information, and I believe 
I am the only member of the family now living who could 
tell him what he desires to know. I remember the time, 
for although kept waiting until four o'clock in the morning, 
it was one of the pleasantest evenings among the many 
happy ones spent at Cobham, because all exerted them- 
selves to make the time pass agreeably ; indeed I do not 
know when I laughed more, all were so good-humoured 
and jolly. The visit was quite an impromptu, arising 
from a wish expressed by the Duke of Orleans to visit 
Cobham and the new docks at Sheerness. My father, 
mother, and I went to Cobham for the occasion. S.A.R 
was expected at about midnight, and he was engaged to 

1 Lady Elizabeth Bligh, daughter of John, fourth Earl of Darnley, 
married in 1 833 her cousin, the Kev. John Brownlow, son of the Rev.. 
Francis Brownlow by Lady Catherine Brabazon, and died 13th 
November, 1872. 


dine at Lansdowne House. Men on horseback with flam- 
beaus were sent to light him through the woods of the 
London approach, but before he arrived it was broad 
daylight. The company had their patience put to the 
proof by looking at the supper laid out under the 
chandelier in the ' Gilt Hall.' There were, besides Lord 
and Lady Darnley and myself, my brother-in-law Charles 
Brownlow, 1 Lord Brabazon, 2 Colonel Gascoigne, 3 and an 
esteemed member of a much esteemed family Major 
Keppel, and we found his and Lord B.'s fun and good 
humour a great boon during the otherwise dreary hours. 
Well ! after the royal party at last arrived, and we had 
gone to bed for two or three hours, we assembled for 
breakfast in the Picture Gallery. After breakfast the 
whole party set out for Strood, where they were to embark. 
My mother and I accompanied the Duke in an open 
carriage through the woods, and my father drove the 
Due de Chartres in a curricle, and others followed to 
the place of embarkation. I should have liked the sail, 
&c., in my father's yacht, but felt shy at being the only 
lady present, and returned with my mother." 

The trip up and down the Medway occupied several 
hours. The narrow precincts of the quarter-deck of a 
yacht brought us Englishmen into close contact with the 
illustrious foreigner. His Koyal Highness was very affable 
and communicative, talked freely of the good and evil 
that had marked his chequered career, not perhaps antici- 
pating the still greater vicissitudes that yet awaited him. 
He seemed to take pleasure in reverting to that early 
period of his life when, under the feigned name of Cha- 
baud, he earned a livelihood as a teacher of mathematics. 

In our trip to Sheerness we fell in with Lord Anglesea, 

1 The Eight Hon. Charles Brownlow, afterwards Lord Lurgan, 
married, in 1822, Lady Mary Bligh. 2 The present Earl of Meath. 
3 General Ernest Frederick Gascoigne, 59th Foot ; died 1876. 

jxy.J NELLY AND COSY." 335 

who was sailing in the Medway in his yacht. We hailed 
him, and he came on board to pay his respects to our 
Eoyal shipmate. The noble veteran was accompanied 
by his two handsome sons, Lords Alfred and George 
Paget, then boys at Westminster, now General officers. 

In going over the Dockyard we fell in with a petty 
officer who had been a sailor on board a man-of-war at 
anchor in the bay of Palermo on the day on which the Due 
de Chartres was born. 1 " My Lord," said the old salt to 
the young prince, "I knew you when you was but a 

After inspecting the Docks we returned to Cobham to 
an early dinner, and the royal party crossed over to France 
that same evening. 

Wit and beauty have seldom been crowded into so 
small a space as occasionally found admittance into Mrs. 
Norton's tiny drawing-room at Storey's Gate, Westminster. 
One evening, during the discussion in the House of Com- 
mons on a Beer Bill, I was present at one of these agree- 
able reunions. Theodore Hook formed one of the party. 
I was on a sofa, talking and laughing with Mrs. Norton's 
sister, Mrs. Blackwood afterwards . Lady Dufferin, or 
"Nelly," as she was called by her sisters. "Now, Mr. 
Hook," said our hostess, " tell us something about Nelly 
and 'Cosy,'" the name of the character which I played 
in Lady Dacre's comedy, and the sobriquet by which I was 
known to the ladies of the Sheridan family. Hook im- 
mediately went to the piano, and to a tune of his own 
composing, sang a string of verses which began somewhat 

" If any one here is stupid or prosy, 
He should just take a lesson from Nelly and ' Cosy ' ;" 

1 The Due de Chartres was born at Palmero on the 3rd of 
September 1810. 


and some fifty or sixty verses to the same air and the 
same rhyme. His supply of ludicrous associations seemed 
inexhaustible. There is no knowing when he would have 
come to an end, if Lord Castlereagh had not come in 
thirsty from the House of Commons, from a debate upon 
the Beer Bill, and helped himself to some brandy and 
water. The impromptu battery was now turned from 
Mrs. Blackwood and me, and pointed to the new-comer. 
Suddenly changing his tune, the improvisatore now 

" Hallo ! ray Lord ' Gas,' what do you do here 1 
With your brandy and water instead of your beer 1 " 

and so on, till some new incident furnished fresh fuel to 
the fire of his muse. 

Lord Castlereagh and Mrs. Norton were cousins by the 
mother's side. At a dinner at Lady Farquhar's both of 
them happened to arrive late. Hook was asked to sing : 
he assented, upon condition that Mrs. Norton should 
stand by him and light four candles. The beautiful bride 
obeyed, and Hook strung together some thirty stanzas 
assigning the most ludicrous reasons for the tardy appear- 
ance of the cousins. Bowing most profoundly to Lord 
Castlereagh as he rose from the piano, he concluded 

" He smiles and he talks he rides and he sings, 

And thinks he is certain to win her ; 
And that is the reason my Lord Castlereagh 
Was a little too late for his dinner." 

The town was at this time running after a foreigner 
who played, or pretended to play, tunes on his chin. 
How he produced these sounds I do not pretend to ex- 
plain. All I know is that his execution was wonderful. 
I remember listening a whole afternoon to his variations 

xv.j THE TWO CHIN-MEN. - 337 

on " The Last Eose of Summer." The then Chairman of 
"Ways and Means" in the House of Commons was Mr. 
Grant, who, to distinguish him from two other members 
of the same surname, and from a remarkable protuber- 
ance of his lower jaw, was popularly called " Chin 

I was present one evening when, in some most amusing 
verses, Theodore Hook descanted upon what he called 
the Swiss and Scotch chin-men. Both, he said, had one 
object in view the " Ways and Means ; " but they dif- 
fered in the attainment of their end. The foreigner 
depended solely on the chin the Scotchman on the eyes 
and nose (Ayes and Noes). 


Aspect of the " Eastern Question " in 1829. Public Opinion on the 
Turkish Military Organization. On the Campaign of 1828. 
Dr. Walsh's Account of the Balcan. " History repeats itself. "- 
Set out for Turkey. Zante. " Campbell's direction post." 
Egina. Visit to Athens. Boatswain of H.M.S. Wasp. Join 
the British Squadron. Land at the Entrance of Dardanelles. 
Constantinople. Visit to the Ambassador. My fellow-guests. 
Captain Lyons and his Two Sons. Execution of Three Greeks. 
En route to Adrianople. Field-Marshal Diebitsch. A 
Question of Identity. Departure from Adrianople. The 
Selimno Pass of the Balcan. Shumla. Our Wretched 
Quarters. An Execution. Visit to the Grand Vizier. Our 
Dialogue. Departure from Shumla. The Pravadi Pass. Our 
First Night's Quarters. Carnabat. Our Adventures by Flood 
and Field. Louleh Bourgaz. Chorli. Eeturn to Constantinople. 
Ball at the French Embassy. The French Ambassador and 
Ambassadress. Journey into Asia Minor. Return to England. 

[1829.] I HAD now been for three years leading an idle, 
desultory life, and in spite of pleasant visits to country 
houses like Cobham, time hung heavily on my hands. 
I made several unsuccessful applications to the Horse 
Guards to be placed on full pay, and began to languish 
for some active occupation. Just at this time public 
attention was directed to Turkey England's special 
protegee. Some improvement in the internal adminis- 
tration of her affairs had procured for her sovereign, 
Mahmoud the Second, the reputation of a Reformer. 
Under his auspices, it was hoped that she would shortly 
take her place among the civilised nations of the world. 

But it was mainly to the military organization of Turkey 
that attention was now directed. So long as the Janizaries 

CH. xvi.] THE " EASTERN QUESTION " IN 1829. 339 

had an existence, all attempts at amelioration of any kind, 
everyone felt, would have been futile. But now that this 
lawless soldiery had been exterminated and replaced by 
an army formed on a European model, high expectations 
were formed of the new levies, and the events of the 
preceding year (1828) seemed to favour the idea. 

" Look," said the believers in Turkish regeneration, 
"look to the behaviour of this young army, confronted 
for the first time with one of the most warlike powers 
of Europe. See how they forced Kussia to raise the siege 
of Silistria, to abandon her strong position on the heights 
of Shumla, and to remain for a whole winter on the north 
side of the Balcan." 

This mountain chain was supposed to be of great height 
to present, as it were, a sort of Alpine barrier which the 
genius of a Napoleon alone could surmount. 

The theory derived strength from the publication of " A 
Journey from Constantinople to England," by the Eev. 
Dr. Walsh, Chaplain of the British Embassy at the Porte. 
This work, which went rapidly through three editions, 
adopted the popular hypothesis of the impregnable nature 
of the Balcan range. 

"A previous intercourse with the Turks had given me 
a more than usual interest in the question : I determined 
to visit the country myself, and to bring home a faithful 
record of all that I saw, heard, or felt, which should serve 
as data to ascertain how far these conjectures were founded 
in fact. 

" My first intention had been to hover on the rear of 
the Turkish army, in order to observe their operations and 
mode of warfare. Had the campaign lasted, I feel confi- 
dent that I should have had no difficulty in putting my 
project in execution ; but the Eates ordered it otherwise. 
The Eussians spared me the trouble by beating the Turks 
before I could get up to them." 

z 2 


The two preceding paragraphs are from the published 
narrative of " The Journey across the Balcan " which I 
made in 1829. At the moment of selecting these extracts, 
the Russians and Turks are once more ranged in battle 
array. Thus "history repeats itself," and I find the 
present generation of my countrymen as anxiously watch- 
ing the issue of the internecine conflict, as did their 
fathers and grandfathers when, nearly half a century ago, 
I was setting out for the seat of war. 

I took my departure from London on my thirtieth 
birthday, the thirteenth of June. 

My first point was Ancona, where I arrived too late to 
catch the steamer. I then went to Naples, and being 
again disappointed I proceeded to Otranto. From this 
" heel of the boot " I took shipping for Corfu, where I 
landed on the first of July, arrived at Zante on the 25th, 
and the following day dined with an old friend in the per- 
son of Lord Charles Fitz Roy, British Resident in the island. 

Overlooking the town is a precipitous cone-shaped hill. 
On its summit stood a high gibbet with three arms. When 
I was quartered at Zante there were suspended from these 
arms the bodies of three men executed by order of General 
Campbell, and the gibbet was called by our men " Camp- 
bell's direction -post." Riding under the fatal tree in the 
afternoon, I pointed upwards, and observed to an old 
Zantiote acquaintance " What ! my old friends there 
still ? " " Oh, no ! " was the reply. " Your friends have 
been removed long ago ; but fresh crimes have required 
fresh examples, and the bodies you now see are those of a 
brand-new set of murderers." 

Two days later, after dining with Sir Frederick Adam, 
the Lord High Commissioner, I accompanied Captain 
Finucane, an old brtoher officer, charged with despatches 
for Mr. Dawkins, the British Resident in the Archipelago, 
on board H.M.S. Eattlesnake. On the 30th of July we 

xvi.] VISIT TO ATHENS. 341 

landed in the Gulf of Corinth. Crossing the Isthmus to 
Calamachi, we hired an open fishing smack, which landed 
us at ^Egina the following morning. 

At Mr. Dawkins', the British Eesident's breakfast-table 
I met Captain Edward Hoste, E.N., whose ship, the Wasp, 
lay at anchor in the harbour. Hearing me express a wish 
to see Athens, Hoste sent orders to sling a cot for me in 
his cabin, and to make ready for sea. By the time break- 
fast was over the Wasp corvette was lying with her sail 
set and her cable up and down. The moment we stepped 
on board, she tripped her anchor, and filled. In a couple 
of hours we were sailing into the ancient harbour of the 
Piraeus. The next morning (August 2nd) we landed, a 
party of nineteen, to visit the ruins of Athens. The Bey 
for the city was in possession of the Turks not only 
sent us an escort, but placed his whole stud at our disposal. 
Some of us had a horse to himself; others " rode arid tied." 
Behind each Turkish horseman was a little British mid- 
shipman, en croupe. In this fashion we saw all the 
antiquities of the 

" Eye of Greece, mother of arts 
And eloquence." 

Before we left Athens we called upon the Bey to thank 
him for his civilities, and left behind us that which made 
us welcome visitors in his eyes a hamper containing six 
bottles of rum. 

In the courtyard of the Bey's house we saw the head of 
a Greek fixed by its long hair to a nail on a board, in the 
same manner as represented in the photograph of .the 
heads of the murderers of Messrs. Herbert and Vyner. 

I passed nine very pleasant days with Edward Hoste ; 
and then, at the invitation of Captain (now Admiral Sir 
William) Martin, G.C.B., I shifted my berth from the Wasp 
corvette to the Samarang frigate. In taking leave of my 


Wasp shipmates, I must say a word of my friend the 
boatswain a man whose form combined the strength of a 
Hercules with the symmetry of an Antinous. He obtained 
his rating two years before as a warrant-officer for his 
conduct at the battle of Navarino. The ship in which he 
served had just run alongside a Turkish man-of-war. 
Holding his cutlass between his teeth, he swung himself 
on to the gangway of the enemy. Then, taking his weapon 
out of his mouth, he called out to the astonished Osmanlis, 
" Make a lane, you lubbers ! I'm a-coming ; " and showed 
them the meaning of his words by hacking his way through 
them and cutting down their captain. 

We fell in with the squadron on the 16th of August, 
and I remained with them till the 2nd of September, 
when the captain of a Dutch brig of war gave me a pas- 
sage as far as the Castles, at the entrance to the 
Dardanelles. Here I disembarked, and made the rest of 
the journey to Constantinople on horseback. On my way 
thither I fell in with large parties of Turkish troops. 
They were half-grown lads, of a slouching gait, and pre- 
senting a most unmilitary appearance. Yet it was just 
this description of soldiers that kept a Russian army in 
check a whole campaign. These fellows allowed me to 
pass unmolested through their ranks, and to reach Con- 
stantinople in safety. Three days' sight- seeing in the 
Turkish metropolis laid me low with a fever. When well 
enough to leave the house, I accepted Sir Robert Gordon, 
our Ambassador's, invitation to recruit my strength at 
Therapia, his charming country residence on the banks of 
the Bosporus. I here met a large party of my countrymen, 
among others, Lord Yarmouth (the late Lord Hertford), 
Mr. Edward Villiers, a brother of the late Lord Clarendon ; 
Mr. Robert Grosvenor, now Lord Ebury ; and Lord Dunlo, 
afterwards Lord Clancarty. 1 

1 William, Earl of Clancarty, died April 26th, 1872. 


At anchor in the Bosporus, and almost opposite the 
Ambassador's house, lay H.M.S. Blonde, commanded by 
Captain (afterwards Admiral Lord) Lyons. With him were 
his sons, two little midshipmen, of the respective ages of 
twelve and ten great favourites with everybody, whether 
afloat or ashore. Eichard, the eldest, is the present Lord 
Lyons, our Ambassador in France. The younger, Edmund, 
but universally known by the name of Jack, was killed 
in the night attack on Sebastopol under the immediate 
command of his father, the Admiral. 

Within a week of the death of his son, poor Lyons had 
to bewail the loss of his dear friend and coadjutor, Lord 
Eaglan. From the double bereavement he never rallied in 
either health or spirits. The last time I saw him was a 
year after these two sad events. [1856.] We met in the 
House of Lords, of which assembly he had lately become 
a member. In his shattered frame and careworn coun- 
tenance, I could scarcely recognise the active and light- 
hearted captain of the Blonde. He survived his losses 
three years, and died soon after escorting the Queen on a- 
visit to the late Emperor of the French, on the occasion 
of the opening of the Cherbourg docks. 

In referring to my published Journal, I find that during 
my stay at Therapia Lyons and I were almost inseparable. 
In the mornings we used to wander together among 
the evergreen and vine-clad hills which overlook the 
Ambassador's house. In the evenings I was always a 
passenger in his launch on the Bosporus, in his sailing- 
matches with the boats of the Turkish men-of-war. 
Lyons's boat was cutter-rigged. Passing one afternoon 
under the stern of the Turkish flagship, we were 
recognised by the Capidan Bey (Captain of the Fleet), a 
fine, handsome-looking man, with a black beard, dressed 
in a scarlet uniform, and wearing superb diamond stars 
and crescents on each breast. At sight of us the Bey 


jumped into his own barge, which was rigged with two 
lateen sails, and, taking the helm himself, challenged us 
to race. The truth of an historian compels me to add 
that the Turk was the winner. 

Lounging one day along the sea-shore with Lyons, 
Grosvenor, and Villiers, we came to a village where three 
Greek murderers had just been hanged. " Each man was 
suspended from a separate gallows. The implement of 
execution was of the most primitive description. Three 
posts of unequal size, as if they had been found by 
chance on the spot, had been placed, not in but on the 
ground, and, meeting at the top, formed a triangle, not 
unlike that from which scales are suspended in England. 
The rope by which each culprit was hanging was rove 
through a ring at the top of the triangle, and twisted in 
a slovenly manner round one of the posts. The perpen- 
dicular of the triangle was seven feet high; and the 
malefactors were hanging so low that their feet were 
within a few inches of the ground." 

While under the depressing influence of illness, I had 
but the one thought of returning home by the first ship ; 
but the healthful breezes of the Bosporus wrought such a 
change in my way of thinking, that, after a week's stay at 
Therapia, I found myself setting out on a tour through 
European Turkey. In this expedition I had Lord Dunlo 
for a fellow-traveller. 

We reached Adrianople, the head-quarters of the 
Eussian army, after a somewhat fatiguing journey of 
four days, and became the guests of Mr. Duveluz, the 
British Consul. 

As in duty bound, we called upon Field-Marshal Count 
Diebitsch, the Commander-in-Chief of the Eussian army, 
but he neither received us nor returned our visit. Indeed 
he totally ignored our existence. I have had much inter- 
course in my time with Eussian officers, and Diebitsch is 


the only one of rank of whose lack of courtesy I have 
ever had reason to complain. It was probably with some 
irritation at his treatment of us that I made the following 
entries in my Journal : 

" Field-Marshal Count Diebitsch is a little, fat, plethoric- 
looking man, scarcely five feet high, with a large head, 
long black hair, a complexion of the deepest scarlet, and a 
countenance expressive of a certain irritability of temper, 
which has elicited from the troops, in addition to his proud 
title of Zabalcansky (the Trans-Balcanian), that -of the 
Semawar (the tea-kettle). 

" Diebitsch was the second son of a Prussian officer on 
the staff of Frederick the Great. At an early age he 
obtained a company in the Eussian Imperial Guard. At 
this time the King of Prussia paid a visit to the Emperor 
Alexander. It was Diebitsch's duty to mount guard on 
the royal visitor. The Emperor foreseeing the ridiculous 
figure the little Captain would cut at the head of the tall 
grenadiers, desired a friend delicately to hint to him that 
he had better resign the post for the day to another officer. 
The friend delivers his message, but adds, " L'Empereur dit 
et il faut convenir que vous ayez 1'ext^rieur terrible." So 
irritated was the future hero of the Balcan at this delicate 
hint that he threatened to quit the Eussian service, and 
was only pacified by obtaining superior rank in a regiment 
of the line." 

Another extract from this Journal, published six-and- 
forty years ago, may probably call to mind a certain 
question of identity which was raised in a late celebrated 

" An officer of Uhlan cavalry, well known to our 
Consul, was walking along the streets of Adrianople when 
a Bulgarian woman rushed towards him, exclaiming, ' My 
dear boy, what ! now you are in a fine dress are you 
ashamed of your poor mother ? ' Soon after an older 


woman claimed him for her grandson, and the younger 
branches of the family hailed him as a brother. He made 
his escape for the time, but in passing again was upbraided 
for his unnatural conduct in disowning his relations. 
Thus assailed, he applied to the Field-Marshal for pro- 
tection. An inquiry was established by the Bulgarian 
archbishop. The parties were confronted. The supposed 
mother said her son had a scar on his left forehead ; the 
officer's cap was removed, the scar was on the identical 
spot. -The woman exclaimed, ' He had that scar ever 
since he was eight years old.' Here several Eussian 
officers interposed and said that the officer left St. 
Petersburg without the scar, and received it in an affair 
with the enemy before Shumla. Thus ended this ' Comedy 
of Errors/" 

We left Adrianople on the 1st of November, en route to 
Shumla, the head-quarters of the Turkish army. For three 
days successively we were almost strangers to the luxury 
of dry clothing ; the weather oscillating the whole time 
between rain and snow. Nor were the objects that met 
our view of a nature to dispel the gloom which our 
personal discomforts caused us. The villages through 
which we passed were deserted by their inhabitants and 
for the most part in ruins, and our line of march was 
strewed with the carcases of horses, buffaloes, and camels, 
and the sides of the road lined with the fresh graves of men. 

The scenery and weather improved when we approached 
Selimno, the town which gives its name to the Pass of the 
Balcan we traversed the following morning. It was this 
pass of which Dr. Walsh's description had made such an 
impression on the British public the year before. The 
following extract from my notes, made on the spot, will 
show how widely I differed in opinion from that reverend 
gentleman respecting the strength of this supposed obstacle 
to the advance of an invading army. 


" November 5th. After a ride of three miles we entered 
the mountain gorge. The Balcan here runs north-east 
and south-west. We traversed its side, which is covered 
with vineyards from the summit to the base. The road, 
which was paved at the beginning of the ascent, was in 
good order, and broad enough in the narrowest part to 
allow two carriages to pass: it is practicable for artillery, 
and indeed for every description of wheel conveyance. 
The soil of the country of which the road is made is of 
sandstone, which, containing a proportion of common clay, 
forms quickly, when broken into pieces, a compact sub- 
stance, admirably adapted for the purpose. It is imper- 
vious to damp ; for it was neither affected by the rain of 
the four or five preceding days, nor by the fall of snow 
which was melting at the time. It is easily repairable, 
the soil itself forming the materials. With so much 
facility is a road constructed, that a cart actually makes 
its own by the track of its wheels. This remark is 
not only applicable to this part of the Balcan, but is 
generally to the hilly parts of Eoumelia and Bulgaria 
which we traversed. Hence it is evident that should 
an army wish to cross the mountain by the Selimno Pass, 
it has nothing to do but to cut away the brushwood, 
draw it on one side, and the baggage and battering-trains 
form the road. This in fact was what the Eussians did in 
that part of the Balcan by which they advanced. They 
cut down a few trees, and filled up the inequalities of the 
ground. The number of carriages that accompanied that 
army is a proof how trifling were the difficulties they 
had to encounter. Almost every field-officer had his 
caliche, general officers three or four, and every company 
a cart for their camp " kettles." 

Since the publication of my Narrative, it appears that 
the obstacles to an invading army are even less formidable 
than I had anticipated ; for instead of there being only 


five passes in the Balcau, as was then supposed, there are 
no less than thirteen, "besides numerous bye and cross 
roads, all equally fit for carts or artillery." l 

Two days' march brought us to Shumla. The streets 
were so full of Turkish troops that our horses could hardly 
make their way through the crowd. We were taken for 
Russians, but no other attempt was made to annoy us 
than by the soldiers making an insulting noise with their 
mouths, and bawling Muscov (Muscovite) with all the 
strength of their lungs. 

We took up our quarters at a wretched khan in the 
market-place. Our apartment, eight feet square, was 
below the level of the ground, and so damp as to be 
almost in a muddy state. A few wooden bars served for 
a window-frame, but there were neither windows nor 
shutters ; the door was full of holes, and did not meet its 
posts or its lintel by several inches. 

Within a few yards of the khan we saw from our room, 
which faced the entrance, eight or ten persons stand for a 
few seconds in a circle and then disperse. We found the 
object of their attention was a human body from which 
the head had just been severed. The neck was much 
jagged as though several blows had been inflicted before 
the decapitation had been effected. The corpse was yet 
warm and smoking. So indifferent did the people seein 
to this spectacle that it did not cause the slightest stir in 
the market. 

November Wth. At seven in the morning we sallied 
forth to pay our respects to the Turkish Prime Minister. 
His residence was dirty and dilapidated. The court-yard 
was full of cannon, some of which had been taken from 
the Eussians. We ascended a flight of stairs, passed 

1 General Jochmus's journey into the Balcan, 1847, " Journal of 
Geographical Society," vol. xxiv. pp. 3085. 

xvi.] THE GRAND VIZIER. 349 

through a host of attendants, and, without being detained 
a moment, were ushered into the presence of his Highness. 

He was seated on an ottoman in the corner of a dark, 
unornamented room. He wore loose flowing robes and 
the old Turkish turban, a head-dress that is held in 
great abhorrence at the Porte, being considered a mark 
of Janizarism. 

Mohammed Redschid Pasha was Seraskier (Commander- 
in-Chief) in Rournelia in 1825, and had not long been 
promoted to the vizierate. He was a Georgian by birth, 
had coarse and severe, but not unhandsome features, large 
eyes, rather an aquiline nose, and good teeth. He appeared 
to be about fifty years of age, and his originally black 
beard had begun to assume a greyish tinge. He had no 
affectation in his manner, and Georgian liveliness seemed 
to be struggling with Turkish decorum. As soon as we 
had made our obeisances, he motioned us to sit down. 
We placed ourselves on his right hand. Lord Dunlo being 
next to him, Michalachi, the dragoman, stood at a respectful 
distance, the haughty official who had visited us the night 
before being transformed into an abject slave his arms 
were folded, his eyes cast down, and large drops of per- 
spiration stood on his brow. Lord Dunlo was dressed as 
a civilian ; I wore my uniform. The Vizier spoke Turkish ; 
Italian was the medium of conversation. 

" Do you speak Turkish ? " was the first question. 

" Not a word." 

" Who are you ? " 

"This gentleman," I answered, pointing to Dunlo, "is 
an English Lord. I am a British officer." 

The Vizier to me : 

" What is your rank ? " 

" A major in the nizam (regular) army." 

" Against whom have you served ? " 

" Against the French." 


Here the Vizier remarked that the English had an 
excellent navy, but that the land troops were not in 
such good repute. 

Now, as I guessed that it was the French instructors of 
the Turkish troops that had cast this slur upon my pro- 
fession, I pointed to my Waterloo medal, which I told 
the Vizier I had received for having assisted at the final 
overthrow of Napoleon, the famous French Emperor. The 
analogy between Turkish and Persian enabled me at once 
to detect Michalachi in giving a wrong interpretation to 
my words. Thinking my reply would not be palatable to 
his master, he tried to convert what I said into a com- 
pliment, but I interposed with a dissenting " Yak ! yok ! 
no ! no ! " to the amusement of the Vizier, at the interrup- 
tion, after my professed ignorance of his language. 

" Have you seen anything of Eussian troops ? " 

" Yes ! In France, Eussia, and Turkey." 

" Do your tactics resemble theirs ? " 

" In all essential points." 

" What is the difference between them ? " 

" I think ours superior. We adopt the march in line 
more generally than the Eussians. They form in three 
ranks ; we, by marching in two, can show a greater extent 
of front to an enemy." 

"In what other points are your manoeuvres different 
from theirs ? " 

"We have a new system of evolutions by which, instead 
of moving from the flanks as the Eussians do, we can 
also form from the centre, a mode which ensures celerity, 
the great object of all military movements." 

" Show me one of these," said the Vizier. 

This was rather an unexpected request, but, desirous to 
prove the superiority I had claimed, I tried to remember 
something of what I had learned in the Phcenix Park. 

I supposed a battalion in line having lo cross a bridge 


to meet the attack of an enemy on the opposite side. I 
accordingly ordered my two centre sub-divisions to advance, 
making the remaining sub-divisions fall into column by 
bringing up their right and left shoulders, and the bridge 
being crossed, re-forming line on the two centre sub- 

"What is the advantage of this?" was the Vizier's 
next question. 

" In a mountainous country like Turkey, especially in 
such a country as that about Shumla, the manoeuvre would 
be of use in the passage of a defile, and enabling a more 
rapid re-formation into line." 

I saw at once that I had made an impression upon the 
Vizier, and I determined to follow it up. I now supposed 
that the enemy was advancing towards a narrow gorge to 
the rear. 

I had hitherto occupied a place on the Vizier's right 
hand, below Lord Dunlo, and was proceeding to explain, 
when his Highness told me to come close to him. I 
obeyed till our knees touched; thus without any pre- 
meditation on my part, I found myself face to face with 
the Commander-in-Chief of the Turkish army, and in 
the novel position of instructing him in the art of war. 

My battalion was supposed to be in line. I was to 
change front to the rear on the centre. As a preliminary 
step I had to make my two centre companies change 
places. This part of the process was rather difficult to 
explain through the medium of a foreign language, and 
with a civilian for an interpreter. The Vizier had in his 
hand a chaplet of wooden beads, which I asked him to 
lend me. I made these describe a figure of eight, and by 
using the centre oblong bead, showed the change of front, - 
T then countermarched the wings, and, after two rehearsals, 
I succeeded in showing the nature of the movement. 
The only person present at this interview was Michal- 


achi, the interpreter. The Vizier now clapped his hands 
and the room immediately filled with meeralis and bin- 
lasJiees (generals and colonels). " Look," said his Highness 
to them, " at this young officer. He is your inferior in 
rank, and yet he knows more of your profession than all 
of you put together." Then, turning to me, he said, " It 
is not the fault of the Osmanli soldier, for he is brave 
enough, but of these ignorant fellows, that he is not 
oftener successful in the field." 

On the 14th of November we left Shumla on our return 
journey to Constantinople, and that same evening crossed 
the Balcan by the Pass of Pravati. A few deserted huts 
at a narrow part of the gorge, and a breastwork, pierced 
for five guns, at the summit of the hill, were the only 
indications of any attempts made by the Turks to repel 
their invaders. 

Through this Pass, the Eussian army, under General 
Diebitsch, crossed the Balcan in the summer of 1829. 
Through the same Pass, but from the southern side of the 
mountain (Mons Hcemus), Alexander the Great forced his 
way twenty-two centuries before. 

Snow, fog, and a hard frost followed each other as we 
journeyed on. When the sun began to set we strained 
our eyes anxiously for a human habitation. We met no 
one all was silent and desolate in that mountain region. 
At length we reached a deserted village called Chalco- 
vatch. Only the shells of some of its hovels remained; 
for the inhabitants, driven out by the ravages of war, had 
fled with all their movable property. 

Most desolate was the hovel in which we at last took 
refuge. It was the only one that could boast a door ; 
but as the weather-boarded planks of which our room was 
formed were so rudely nailed together as to give us a view 
of the mountains between the crannies, we were not 
tempted by its comforts to a long halt, and made an 


early start for Carnabat. The frost was severe, and the ice 
on nearly every mountain stream was strong enough to bear 
our horses' weight, and remained unbroken by the wheels 
of the peasants' waggons. The road was so slippery that 
we were obliged to dismount, and numerous were the falls 
that occurred to man and beast. 

Carnabat, our halting-place, contained about 600 houses. 
We passed the night on the damp floor of an uninhabited 
hovel, and next day, after its minarets receded from our 
view, we lost sight for a time of every vestige of habitation. 
The few villages we passed were unroofed and deserted. 
The country forms a succession of slopes, chiefly covered 
with dwarf oak, and there is an occasional vineyard or 
corn-field. That night, after crossing the Granack, we 
shared the cottage of a Bulgarian peasant. 

On, next day, to Kibellerah, through pouring rain, for a 
thaw had come on suddenly. We crossed a succession of 
wooded hills, and then a fruitful valley, and were drenched 
to the skin, long before we reached our halting-place 
a temporary barn where we slept soundly on some 
chopped straw. 

It still poured with rain when we went on to Petra, 
next day ; and on the following morning we came in for 
a heavy storm of thunder and lightning. At Leffigee, 
a ruined village, we took shelter in a hovel without 
windows, the possession of which was disputed by a party 
of Cossacks, who tried to dislodge us by fierce looks and 
gestures, the leader pointing to his sword and grasping 
his pistols. We, however, remained masters of the 

After half-an-hour's march, next day, we came to a 
mountain torrent, and found the whole valley under water, 
which came up to the flaps of our saddles before we could 
reach the ordinary channel. A party of Cossacks, whom 
we fell in with, were searching, like ourselves, for a 

A A 


fordable place ; and several of these tried to sound for a 
passage with their spears, but in vain. 

At last, we saw a village on the opposite side, with 
a waterfall and a mill, the inhabitants of which encouraged 
us by signs to cross the stream. With a party of Cossacks 
in our rear, we thought it wiser to make the attempt ; but 
our horses were weak, lame, and tired; and Minas, our 
Surijee, was all but carried away by the rush of water. 
However, we tried again, the villagers on the other side 
directing us by signs (for their voices were drowned by 
the roar of the torrent) to keep close to our saddles, as 
the least unsteadiness would hurl us into the yawning gulf. 

At length, to our great joy, we reached the opposite 
bank, with no other inconvenience than a thorough 
soaking to ourselves and baggage. 

Our friendly Bulgarian villagers gave us a breakfast of 
bread and cheese. As to wine and milk, they had been 
" requisitioned " by the Cossacks. 

We now found that there was yet another and a larger 
stream to go over. We procured a guide to show us 
the way; but the bridge was three feet under water. 
We remained on the brink the rest of the day, and 
returned for the night to the house where we breakfasted. 
The rain had ceased, and the water returned to its usual 
channels. Snow was on the ground, and the wind was 
piercingly cold. In five hours we came to the vineyards 
that mark the entrance to Louleh Bourgaz. We passed 
into the town over a handsome bridge, and came to a 
spacious and well-constructed bazaar. The streets were 
full of Turkish soldiers. The houses, with the exception 
of a few tobacconists' shops, were all closed, padlocked, 
and deserted. We occupied a wretched little room with- 
out a fire-place. A sheet of paper did duty for a window. 
The roof was full of holes. We slept, as usual, on the 
cold ground. 


The cold was intense after we left Louleh Bourgas. 
Dunlo and I agreed that we had never felt anything like 
it. As long as we could ride fast, we were in no danger, 
though the sting of cold was painfully acute ; but when, 
towards the evening, we were forced to halt and wait for 
some merchants who had joined our cavalcade, it was 
almost impossible to fight against the feeling of drowsi- 
ness, which, if yielded to, must necessarily have ended in 

A Tartar and four soldiers were frozen to death this 
evening on the same road. Numbers of people, so said 
our servant Mustapha, perish each winter on the plains 
we traversed. Few horses will face the hailstorms which 
frequently come on. The traveller is forced to let his 
steed take its own course, and, there being no landmarks 
to guide him, he is lost in the snow. 

Homer, Xenophon, Tacitus, Ovid, and Virgil, whether 
they speak of the rivers, hills, or dales of this Hcemus, 
the chief mountain of Thrace, bear testimony to the 
intense inclemency of the climate. 

I shall not easily forget the miseries of the terrible night 
we spent at Chorli, in a mud-chamber riddled with holes, 
and with shutters that would not shut. We tried to stop 
the interstices with a sheepskin, which did its work so ill 
that the snow found its way on to our blankets. 

Next day, no post-horses to be had. We were detained 
thirty-six hours " gelidis in vallibus Hcemi." Two days 
after we reached the British Embassy at Constantinople, 
at four in the afternoon. 

Constantinople at least the Perote portion of it was 
unusually gay at this time. We travellers indemnified 
ourselves for our rough ride from Shumla by joining in 
all its amusements. A host of Russian officers were here 
on leave of absence. Dancing was the order of the day. 
Among other gaieties were three pleasant balls at the 

A A 2 


French Embassy. Here let me say a word of the host 
and hostess of these festivities. 

His Excellency General Comte de Guilleminot, Charles 
X.'s representative at the Porte, served with distinction 
under the first Napoleon. He was at one time aide-de- 
camp to General Moreau, and was present at nearly all 
the great actions fought in Germany, Spain, Russia, and 
France. At Waterloo he commanded the division posted 
on the extreme left of the French army. It was his 
division that began the battle by the attack on our 
Guards at Hougoumont. Baudoin, one of his brigadier- 
generals, was the first officer of note on either side 
who fell in the action. Moreover, it was one of Guille- 
minot's batteries that so annoyed the brigade to which 
I belonged. 

Nor was Madame la Comtesse de Guilleminot a stranger 
to a battle-field. At the breaking out of the French Revo- 
lution, she and her sister, Les Demoiselles Fering, entered 
Dumouriez' army as privates in a hussar regiment. They 
shared in most of the French victories of that period. 
Their gallantry in the field soon obtained them commis- 
sions. The sister of Madame de Guilleminot was killed 
at the battle of Valmy (1792). One of the sisters I 
forget which received a sword of honour for her conduct 
in the face of the enemy. In the dignified and graceful 
deportment of the Ambassadress of a Regal Court it was 
difficult to realise the idea of the young Republican 

My next journey was into Asia Minor in quest of some 
Roman ruins of which no account had been given by any 
traveller. My explorations were attended with complete 
success, but as the details have already been published, 
and have more of antiquarian than of general interest, I 
will not give them a place in this narrative. 

I ate my Christmas dinner this year in Smyrna harbour, 


on board H.M.S. Asia, 74, with her captain, Frederick 
Maitland, the officer to whom Napoleon had surrendered 
himself a prisoner fourteen years before. 

[1830.] Eesuming my journey on the 5th of January, 
I set out on my return to Constantinople, which I reached 
on the 23rd. Here, availing myself of such aid as I could 
pick up from men-of-war, transports, and merchantmen, I 
found my way to Malta. At anchor in the harbour lay 
H.M.S. Spartiate, 74 guns, under orders to return home to 
be paid off. Her commander, Captain Frederick Warren , 
hearing I was in want of a passage, gave me a berth in his 
cabin and a seat at his table ; and sometime in the month 
of March the " Spareshot," as the sailors called their craft, 
landed me at Portsmouth after a somewhat eventful journey 
of nine months. 


Visit to Paris. Dine with the King of the French. Aumale and 
Albemarle. My Father Master of the Horse. My Journey 
across the Balcan. King William's Visit to my Father. The 
Court at Brighton. The King and the Paddocks' Keeper. 
Twelfth Night at the Pavilion. Toast-drinking extraordinary. 
Sykes and Punch. The State-Coachman and the Guard of 
Honour. Lord Dudley and "Ward. His opinion of Pavilion 
Cookery. His Dinner to the Duke and Duchess of Clarence. 
I am elected Member for East Norfolk. The Chairing. 
Anecdote of William Windham the Statesman. Take my seat 
in the first Reformed Parliament. Princess Victoria's Visit to 

[1830.] I made two visits to Paris this year, after my 
return from Turkey. At the first I was present at the 
" Grands Converts," and saw Charles X. eat his last dinner 
in public. It was then and there that I met the French 
Artillery Officer to whom I have alluded in my notes 
on Waterloo. 1 

The second visit was in company with my father. Louis 
Philippe, with whom the year before I was a fellow-pas- 
senger in Lord Darnley's yacht, had just been raised to 
the throne of France. We were most graciously received 
by the new King, and dined frequently at the Tuileries. 
His Majesty was pleased to accept a copy of my "Overland 
Journey," and to assure me that he had read it, and that it 
was already in his library. 

1 See p. 148. 


The King, on presenting my father to his sons, pointed 
out the Due d'Aumale, then a boy, nine years of age, as 
deriving his title from the same town in Normandy as the 
Keppel family. 1 

On recrossing the British Channel, I found that England 
as well as France was under the rule of a new Sovereign. 

In November, the Liberal party came into power, when 
my father, for the reason I have already stated, received 
the appointment of Master of the Horse. Lord Albemarle 
was nearly of the same age as William IV., and his simple, 
unaffected manners were well suited to the genial frankness 
of the sailor King. As my father's son, I became a frequent 
guest at St. James's Palace. 

The stud-house was assigned to Lord Albemarle as a 
residence. The King paid him frequent visits there, and 
won golden opinions for his universal affability. He in- 
sisted on going everywhere, and being shown everything, 
and had a civil word to say to everybody. The keeper 
of the paddocks was very fond of repeating the first words 
that were addressed to him by his Sovereign. " Mr. 
Morley," said William IV. to him, " you and I and 
* Eclipse ' were all born in the same year." The King 
was not quite correct in his date ; " Eclipse " was his 
Majesty's and Mr. Moiiey's senior by a good twelvemonth. 

[1831.] The Court passed the Christmas holidays at 
Brighton. I was invited on Twelfth Night to the Pavi- 
lion to draw " King and Queen." The character naturally 
belonging to Queen Adelaide fell to her lot. The King 
for the evening was one of the pages, Mr. (afterwards Sir 

1 "Albemarle, Albamarla, ville et duche" cle Normandie aujour- 
d'hui Aumale. Voir ce nom. Le titre d'Albemarle s'est aujour- 
d'hui consent en Angleterre, mais il n'est pins que nominal, depius 
<jue la ville d'Aumale a e"te enlevee a Richard par Philippe Augusts 
en 1194." (French Geographical Dictionary.) 


James) Hudson, since distinguished for the able manner 
in which he discharged the duties of British Minister at 
the Court of Turin. 

Early in this year I published the notes which I had 
made of my visit to European and Asiatic Turkey. As I 
have already stated, one of the objects of that journey 
was to endeavour from personal observation to judge 
whether the dominant classes of the Ottoman Empire had 
a fair claim to that character of civilisation with which 
the British public were disposed to credit them two years 
before. The result of the inquiry produced on my mind 
the conviction, that not only were there no grounds for 
the belief in Turkish Eegeneration, but that, on the con- 
trary, the barbarism of the Osmanlis was, from the very 
nature of their institutions, beyond all cure. Such is the 
opinion I then placed on record, and still hold ; and from 
the phase which the " Eastern Question " is now assuming, 
it would appear that I am not so singular, as I once was, 
in this way of thinking. 

William IV. was very fond of making after-dinner 
speeches and of proposing toasts. There was at this time 
a footman of the royal household a little fat red-faced 
man of the name of Sykes. One evening after dinner, 
the King proposed somebody's health "with all the 
honours." Sykes, who was behind the screen, filled a 
tumbler of claret, and tossed it off to the toast ; but, the 
room being full of looking-glasses, it seemed as if a whole 
regiment of Sykeses were offering libations to Bacchus. 
The next morning the good-natured King said to my 
father, "As I am afraid you and I were not the only 
witnesses of Sykes's indiscretion, I wish you would 
manage to keep him out of sight till the whole affair 
is forgotten." My father accordingly sent Sykes as gate- 
keeper to a remote lodge in Windsor Park ; whence some 
few years later, when I became a member of the royal 


household, he had emerged, and was porter at the equerry's 
entrance to the Castle. 

Sykes lived to figure in Punch as one of the celebrities 
of the period. There came to England at this time some 
North American Indian Chiefs, called the " Ojibbeways.'' 
They were very desirous of seeing the King. According 
to Punch, they went down to Windsor for the purpose. 
The first person they fell in with was Sykes. Seeing 
a short man in a scarlet coat, with huge gold epaulettes, 
and not very unlike William IV. at least, as he appeared 
on the sign-posts the Ojibbeways thought they were in 
the presence of their " great father ; " and Punch's cartoon 
of the week represents them as circling round Sykes, and 
treating him to a war-dance. 

Another of the royal servants figured indirectly in the 
history of this time, Mr. Roberts, the little portly state 
coachman, whose carriage was ordered so suddenly on the 
memorable 22nd of August, 1831, when the King dissolved 
Parliament in person on the defeat of the Reform Bill. 

Every one knows the story as graphically told by my 
father's old friend, Harriet Martineau how the King 
resolved to go down instantly and dissolve Parliament 
with his own voice how he refused to wait for the royal 
carriages, and called for a hackney coach how Lord 
Durham drove off in the Lord Chancellor's carriage to the 
Master of the Horse, and startled him in the middle of his 
late breakfast : all this is now a matter of history. " Lord 
Albemarle," says Miss Martineau, "started up on the 
entrance of Lord Durham, asking what was the matter. 
'You must have the King's carriage ready instantly.' 
' Very well, I will just finish my breakfast.' ' Not you ; 
you must not lose a moment. The King ought to be in 
the House.' ' Lord bless me ! is there a revolution ? ' 
'Not at this moment, but there will be if you stay to 
finish your breakfast.' So the tea and roll were left, and 


the royal carriages drove up to the Palace in an incredibly 
short time. The King was ready and impatient, and 
walked with an unusually brisk step. And so did the 
royal horses in their passage through the streets, as was 
observed by the curious and anxious gazers." 

Concerning the. excited state of the royal horses, I know 
more than even Miss Martineau, for I know why they 
were so much brisker than ordinary. As the carriage 
containing the King and his Master of the Horse was 
passing the guard of honour, Ensign and Lieutenant 
George Morant, 1st Battalion Grenadier Guards, in charge 
of the colour, lowered it to the Sovereign, according to 
the established formula. The usually impassive "cream- 
colours," which had enjoyed a 'sinecure in the preceding 
reign, took umbrage at this act of homage, swerved, and 
broke into an undignified trot. Mr. Eoberts, the coach- 
man, whose mind and body were alike thrown off their 
balance by the unwonted hurry of the morning, and by 
the insubordination of his steeds, proceeded, in utter 
forgetfulness of the Eoyal presence, loudly to anathematize 
the guard of honour generally, and the standard-bearer in 
particular. Before the procession had reached the Horse 
Guards the opprobrious epithets had winged their flight 
to the officials within the building. The consequence 
was, that Mr. Eoberts, who had been the " observed of all 
observers " in the morning pageant, was compelled to make 
a public apology to the offended guard of honour before 
it was marched off to its private parade. 

In one of the King's visits to the stud-house his carriage 
was a long time coming to the door. His Majesty got into 
a passion, and threatened to make a terrible example of the 
dilatory coachman. However, before the equipage arrived, 
the King had cooled ; all he said to the man was, " Sir, if 
you keep me waiting again I'll report you to the Master of 
the Horse." 


During my stay at Brighton in this same January 1831, 
I was thrown much in the company of Lord Dudley and 
Ward, afterwards created Earl Dudley. I had known him 
when he was John William Ward, member for Wareham. 
Many of my readers must have heard of his curious habit 
of giving utterance to his thoughts aloud. I used fre- 
quently to meet him in the streets when he was in his 
spouting moods. On such occasions he was, according to 
a squib of the day, conning over what he meant to say in 

" They say Ward has no heart, but I deny it ; 
He has a heart, and gets his speeches by it." 

I see that Miss Martineau attributes these lines to 
Samuel Eogers, and Mr. Dyce, in his " Eecoliections of the 
Table Talk " of that poet, says that Eogers himself claimed 
them for his own. Without such evidence I should have 
had great difficulty in believing that they were written by the 
author of " The Pleasures of Memory," the more especially 
as I was under the impression that they proceeded from the 
pen of a well-known Whig squib-writer, Paul Methuen, 
afterwards Lord Methuen, father of the present bearer of 
the title; as did also the following, which purported to 
have been one of a series of nursery rhymes written by Mr. 
Croker for the amusement of Lord Binning's children : 

" What is John Ward made of, made of, 
What is John Ward made of 1 

Gay deceivings, 

And Canning's leavings, 
Such is John Ward made of." 

The name of Lord Dudley calls to remembrance a dandy 
acquaintance of his and mine, the initials of whose name 
were F. C. 

This gentleman might be seen daily at White's bow- 


window in an easy arm-chair, to which long possession 
seemed to have given him a prescriptive right. 

Nature had not been over prodigal to him of her gifts, 
but he nevertheless looked upon himself as one of the best- 
looking of men. Like the " certain lord " Hotspur speaks 
of, he was always 

" Neat and trimly drest, 

Fresh as a bridegroom ; and his chin, new reaped, 
Showed like a stubble-land at harvest home." 

But it was not F. C.'s chin only that was new reaped. 
He was conspicuous for a large expanse of cheek, which he 
likewise kept close shaved. At last, he took it into his head 
to let his whiskers grow. Lord Dudley, on entering the 
Club, perceived the metamorphosis of his friend, ajid looking 
him full in the face, exclaimed, in the hearing of the whole 
Club, " I am glad F. C. has planted out that ugly face of his." 

There must be many now living who have heard his 
lordship's two voices his gruff bass and his high treble. 
Moore mentions that some one said it was like Lord Dudley 
conversing with Lord Ward a peculiarity that reminds 
me of the end of one of Matthews' songs about a man with 
two tones in his voice, who, having fallen into a pit, cries 
for assistance to an Irishman, and the Irishman's reply : 

" ' Help me out ! help me out ! ' Zounds ! what a pother ! 
If you're two of you there, why not help one another ] " 

Lord Dudley was frequently the guest of George the 
Fourth and of his immediate successor ; his knowledge of 
good living enabled him to discriminate between the 
dinners of the Sovereign who had made luxury his chief 
study, and those of the sailor King, who had " roughed it " 
in the cockpit of a man-of-war. Sitting once next William 
the Fourth at dinner at the Pavilion, Lord Dudley 
exclaimed, in his deep bass, " What a change to be sure ! 
cold pates and hot champagne ! " 


King William and Queen Adelaide, when Duke and 
Duchess of Clarence, once dined with Lord Dudley, who 
handed her Royal Highness in to dinner. Scarcely seated, 
he began to soliloquize aloud, " What bores these Royalties 
are ! Ought I to drink wine with her as I would with any 
other woman ? " and in the same tone continued, " May 
I have the honour of a glass of wine with your Royal 
Highness?" Towards the end of dinner he asked her again, 
" With great pleasure, Lord Dudley," replied the Duchess 
smiling, "but I have had one glass with you already." 
" The brute ! and so she has ! " was the loud rejoinder. 

The Parliament, which when last mentioned in this 
narrative was being dissolved by the King in person, did 
not outlive the year. 

Months before the dissolution, preparations for contests 
were making in the open constituencies. Norfolk was not 
idle. The leading landowners of the eastern division met 
in a small back room in Norwich to decide upon their 
candidates. They selected first William Windham, a 
nephew of the celebrated statesman whose names he bore, 
and whose estate he inherited ; but they could not agree 
upon his colleague. Squire A. was jealous of Squire B. 
and B. of C., and so on half way through the alphabet. 
While they were assembled in secret conclave, a member 
of the Government, whom I met in the streets of London, 
said to me, " Your Norfolk country gentlemen are letting 
the county slip through their fingers. Why don't you lend 
them a hand ? Shy your hat into the ring, and see what 
will come of it." 

[1832.] Acting upon the advice contained in the fistic 
metaphor, I put forth an Address to the " Free and Inde- 
pendent Electors " of East Norfolk. The Squirearchy were 
astounded at this act of audacity in a man not owning an 
-acre of land in the county. However, there was no help 


for them. Either they must choose me, or split the party. 
A public meeting was held, and I was declared the second 
candidate on the Whig interest. This demonstration 
brought upon us two opponents in the persons of Lord 
Henry (now Marquis) Cholmondeley, and Mr. Nathaniel 

During the bustle and excitement of this memorable 
contest, my good father-in-law, Sir Coutts Trotter, was 
sorely puzzled to which party he should wish success. He 
and his family had been brought up Tories, and one son-in- 
law, the late General Lindsay of Balcarres, was contesting 
a Scotch county on the Conservative interest. But then, 
here was I on the south of the Tweed, addressing an 
English county on the other side of the question. 

I was dining with Sir Coutts one day, when one of his 
brothers, who had observed his indecision, \ somewhat 
angrily asked him if he had given up the good old cause 
of Church and King ? He answered on the spur of the 

" Whether Tory or Whig, 
I can't say for my life. 
I'm a Whig in East Norfolk, 
A Tory in Fife." 

After a spirited contest, we Whigs were returned by large 

My colleague and I, upon being declared Knights of the 
Shire, went through the ceremonial of chairing. In all 
previous elections, the members used to appear in full 
Court dress bag wig, bucldes and sword but|our com- 
mittee decided that we should dispense with that part' of 
the ceremony. In all other particulars we conformed to 
ancient usage. 

The chairing in Norfolk differed from that of other 
counties. A chair of state, gaudily decorated, placed on a 


platform and supported by poles, was borne on the shoulders 
of four-and-twenty stalwart men. By the side of this chair 
the member-elect took his stand, and in this manner was 
carried through the principal streets of Norwich. At 
intervals, the bearers made a halt, and by a simultaneous 
action tossed their burden so high as to give him occasional 
peeps into garret windows. 

When William Windham, the statesman and the uncle 
of my colleague, was elected for Norfolk, he underwent a 
like ordeal. As a boy at Eton, he was famous for his cricket 
and his fighting, both of which accomplishments were called 
into play on the day of his chairing. While in one of his 
aerial flights, a ruffian in the crowd threw a paving-stone 
at him. If it had reached his head it might have caused 
a vacancy for the county ; but he saw the missile coming, 
caught it in his hand, jumped off the platform and 
pummelled the stone-thrower within an inch of his life ; 
the next moment he was to be seen in mid-air again 
bowing to the ladies as if nothing had happened. 

[1833.] On Tuesday, the 5th of February, I took my 
seat in the first Reformed Parliament. Among the 
numerous ills which, according to a certain class of politi- 
cians, would arise from the passing of the Eeform Bill, 
there was one upon which much stress was laid. Hence- 
forth, it was argued, men of rank and station would cease 
to desire a seat in Parliament, and even if so inclined, their 
entrance would be debarred. Thus the administration of 
the country would pass into the hands of men occupying a 
lower step in the social ladder. The Cassandra prophets 
were wrong for once. 

There was no lack of titled and untitled aristocracy in 
the new House. Still there were some of its members 
who could scarcely have hoped to enter Parliament under 
the old nomination system. First there was Gully, the 


ex-prize-fighter, the honourable member for Pontefract a 
silent, respectable, inoffensive member, whom I had the 
pleasure frequently to accompany into the lobby on a divi- 
sion. Then there was Tom Attwood, M.P. for Birming- 
ham, who had threatened to march to St. Stephen's at the 
head of two hundred thousand men and carry the Eeform 
Bill m et armis. When he first addressed the House he was 
listened to with the courtesy which that assembly uni- 
formly accords to a new member, but after giving utterance 
to some commonplace remarks, clothed in a somewhat 
strange phraseology, and delivered in a strong Warwick- 
shire dialect, he speedily lapsed into insignificance. 

But the great object of dread was William Cobbett, the 
democrat, the denouncer of Kings and Lords, the man who 
in his Grammar had treated as synonymous terms " Mob, 
Parliament, House of Commons, Den of Thieves." To 
those gentlemen who most dreaded his appearance among 
them " his bark proved waur than his bite ; " he spoke but 
seldom ; and then generally in an anti-liberal spirit. 
Dressed in a uniform suit of pepper-and-salt, he had some- 
what the appearance of a Quaker, albeit the " Society of 
Friends " was his special aversion. When I first saw him 
he was a healthy, florid, countryfied-looking man. Before 
he entered upon his new calling he had been accustomed 
to rise and to go to bed with the sun, but, being compelled 
to reverse the usual order of his existence, in a few weeks 
he sank into the grave. 

One evening on taking my place, I found " on his legs " 
a beardless youth, with whose appearance and manner I 
was greatly struck ; he had an earnest, intelligent counte- 
nance, and large expressive black eyes. Young as he was, he 
had evidently what is called " the ear of the House ; " and 
yet the cause he advocated was not one likely to interest a 
popular assembly that of the Planter versus the Slave. I 
had placed myself behind the Treasury Bench. " Who is 


lie ? " I asked one of the ministers. I was answered, " He 
is the member for Newark a young fellow who will some 
day make a great figure in Parliament." My informant 
was Edward Geoffrey Stanley, then Whig Secretary for the 
Colonies, and in charge of the Negro Emancipation Bill, 
afterwards Earl of Derby; and the young Conservative 
orator was William Ewart Gladstone two statesmen who 
each subsequently became Prime Minister and leader of 
the party to which he was at this time diametrically 

The leader of the first Eeformed House of Commons was 
John, Viscount Althorp, Chancellor of the Exchequer. 
A more hesitating speaker I have rarely heard in or out of 
that House ; yet such was the reliance placed upon his 
uncompromising integrity and his sterling good sense, that 
probably few public men have ever had a more implicit, 
I might say, affectionate, following. He was explaining one 
evening, in his usual incoherent manner, some ministerial 
measure; "What is 'honest Jack' hammering at?" I 
heard a friend ask Edward Ellice, the Government whip of 
that day. " Never you mind," was the reply ; " you will 
read excellent reasons in to-morrow morning's paper for the 
vote you are about to give this evening." His nervous 
trepidation followed him from the Treasury Bench to the 
head of his own table. As a Government supporter, I was 
present at one of his ministerial dinners in Downing 
Street, and had the honour to be seated by his side. Dinner 
was nearly over, and not a word had passed between us. I 
determined to break the ice, but was puzzled how to set 
about it. Miss Martineau tells us that Lord Althorp used 
to complain of being made a Chancellor of the Exchequer 
when nature had only intended him for a grazier. I was 
not aware that he had so described himself, but I well 
knew the bucolic bent of his mind. Accordingly I boldly 
asserted the superiority of swede turnips over mangel 

B B 


wurzel as a food for cattle, knowing that this was a point 
at issue between him and Mr. Coke. I had touched upon 
a theme as congenial to his mind as public affairs were 
distasteful. There was now no lack of words ; they issued 
forth like the thawed notes from the horn of Baron Mun- 
chausen's postilion. From root-crops we passed on to 
other topics, and the rest of the evening, with me at least, 
passed very pleasantly. 

I was one of the two hundred and six members of the 
House of Commons who, in July 1834, signed an address 
to Lord Althorp to beg him to recall the resignation of 
his post, which he had tendered in consequence of the 
" O'Connell and Lyttelton affair." At our request he 
once more became our leader, but on succeeding to the 
title of his father, Earl Spencer, in the November following, 
he retired altogether from active public life. 

I used frequently to meet Lord Spencer during the 
shooting season at Holkham, where he was an annual guest. 
He always spoke of his term of office as one of the least 
happy periods of his life ; indeed, the bare allusion to his 
ministerial career was sufficient to raise the ire of that 
otherwise most placid of men. 

We were talking at dinner one evening of the degree of 
preparation that statesmen generally bestow on their public 
addresses. I was suprised to hear Earl Spencer say that 
he always committed his speeches to writing. " But how," 
I asked him, " could you do so, when your business as leader 
of the House was mainly to rise in reply ? " " Oh ! " was the 
answer, " one could always pretty well- guess what the 
other fellows were likely to say." 

Earl Spencer was passionately fond of shooting. We 
are told by his biographer that the 1st of September was 
with him a " dies albo notanda lapillo." With a view 
to promote his favourite pursuit, Mr. Coke ordered that no 
one but he should shoot partridges on either Waterton or 


Egmere the two best beats on the manor. The birds 
derived no benefit from their immunity from general 
slaughter, for they multiplied to such a degree that they 
died by hundreds of starvation. As to the survivors of 
the famine, they were so sickly, that the present Lord 
Leicester upon coming into possession was obliged to 
exterminate the breed, and as a consequence, partridges, 
on those beats, have become as plentiful as ever. 

Outside Holkham Park to the west, the Coke and 
Spencer estates are much intermixed. As a matter 
of mutual accommodation, an exchange of manors was 
agreed upon between the two proprietors. Notwith- 
standing the arrangement, Earl Spencer was allowed to 
shoot partridges on any of his own Norfolk farms. 

A suit of black, now a gentleman's stereotyped dinner 
dress, designated, in my middle age, either members of the 
clerical profession or laymen in mourning. In this latter 
character Lord Spencer wore, of an evening, clothes of 
no other hue, from the time of his wife's death to that 
of his own a period of more than thirty years. 

As regards his shooting habiliments, they were of so 
" seedy " a description, that his friends used to affect 
surprise that his appearance had not caused him to be 
taken up as a poacher. For my own part, a worse dressed 
gentleman I have rarely met in a turnip-field. 

I remember seeing Lord Spencer sally forth one morning 
from Holkham with a brace of pointers to shoot over 
one of his farms at North Creake. He had been blazing 
away for some time, when the occupier of the farm rode 
up to him, and the following dialogue took place : " 

" Hallo, you sir ! what are you doing on my grounds ? " 

" I have Mr. Coke's leave." 

The tenant, eyeing his landlord from top to toe 
" You are a pretty fellow to have Mr. Coke's leave. 
What's your name, I should like to know ? " 

B B 2 


" Spencer." 

" I beg your Lordship ten thousand pardons." 

" I beg you will do no such thing, but will always use 
the same language to any person trespassing in your 

To testify further his approval of the tenant's conduct, 
Lord Spencer left the contents of his game-bag at the 

In the summer of 1835, my sister, Lady Anne Coke, 
summoned me to Holkham, to help her to do the honours in 
receiving the Princess Victoria and the Duchess of Kent. 
Great were the preparations on the occasion. Their Royal 
Highnesses were expected at dinner, but they were de- 
tained two hours by the " bankers " (navvies) of Lynn, 
who, in an excess of loyalty, insisted upon drawing the 
royal carriage round the town. 

The "Egyptian Hall" at Holkham was brilliantly 
lighted up, and filled with persons anxious for a sight of 
their future Queen. At length a carriage and four, escorted 
by a body of yeomanry cavalry, drove up to the door. 
Three ladies alighted. Mr. Coke, a candle in each hand, 
made them a profound bow. When he resumed his erect 
position the objects of his homage had vanished. They 
were the " dressers." Soon after, their Eoyal Highnesses 
appeared in person. Both were most affable. The youth- 
ful Princess, in particular, showed in her demeanour that 
winning courtesy with which millions of her subjects have 
since become familiar. 


Death of Mrs. Fitzherbert. The Duke of "Wellington and my 
father. History of Two Miniatures. George the Fourth's 
Dying Request. Horace Smith. Am appointed Groom-in- 
Waiting to the Queen. In attendance at the Coronation. Visit 
to Charles Fox's Widow. In attendance upon Her Majesty on 
the Day of her Wedding. Presented to the Princess Royal. 
Woburn Abbey Theatricals in the 18th and 19th Centuries. 
The Russells. Walking-Sticks of the " Martyr to Prerogative "and 
the " Martyr to Liberty." Reynolds's Portrait of Lady Elizabeth 
Keppel. A Family Episode. Succeed to the Family Title. 
Accompany the Lord Mayor and Corporation to Paris. Ban- 
quet at the Hotel de Ville. James Stuart Wortley. The Lord 
Mayor's " Chasseur." Am presented to the Prince President of 
the French Republic. Les Cameleons. My Memoirs of Lord 
Rockingham. Move the Address. Bearer of the Cap of Main- 
tenance. The Duke of Wellington. His last appearance in a 
Public Pageant. His last appearance at a Wedding. His last 
Speech in Parliament. His last Waterloo Banquet. Scene in 
the House of Lords. Mrs. Beecher Stowe. The Busby Trust. 
A dinner at the Poet Rpgers's. The End. 

[1837.] IN the month of March of this year died Mrs. 
Fitzherbert, a lady who had occupied a large share of 
public attention, and one associated in my mind with a 
number of childish recollections. 

She was buried at Brighton, where a handsome monu- 
ment was raised to her memory by the Honourable 
Mrs. Dawson Darner, her adopted child, and the "Minnie 
Seymour" of my nursery days. 


In one of the pamphlets of that day, Mrs. Fitzherbert is 
described as " legally, really, and happily for the country, 
Her Eoyal Highness the Princess of Wales." l 

William IV. treated her with much kindness and con- 
sideration ; he allowed her to wear widow's weeds for the 
deceased King ; urged her to assume the royal liveries, 
and in her visits to the Palace, observed those external 
marks of courtesy which a British Sovereign usually shows 
to a sister-in-law. 

Four years before her death, there appeared in " Lord 
Holland's Memoirs of the Whig Party," some passages 
which reflected on the relation in which she' stood to 
George IV. when Prince of Wales. 

In consequence of this publication, Mrs. Fitzherbert com- 
mitted certain documents to the charge of Lord Stourton, 
as one of her nearest relatives, and to my father as her 
oldest and most trusted friend. Lord Stourton was pre- 
vented from acting by illness, and Lord Albemarle became 
Mrs. Fitzherbert's sole nominee. 

The following document, in my father's handwriting, 
will show the nature of the commission with which he 
was charged : 

" It is agreed by Mrs. Fitzherbert on the one part, and 
the executors of the will of the late King on the other, 
that each will destroy all papers and documents (with the 
exception of those hereafter mentioned) in the possession 
of either, signed or written by Mrs. Fitzherbert, or by her 
directions, or signed or written by the late King, when 
Prince of Wales, or King of Great Britain, &c., or by his 

" The two parties agree that in case any papers signed or 
written by either of the parties above mentioned, or by 
the authority of either, shall ever hereafter be found 

1 Home Tooke. 

xvrn.] MRS. FITZHERBERT. 375 

among the papers of the other, they shall be given up aa 
the property of writer or signer thereof, or of the person 
who authorized the writing or signature thereof. Such 
papers and documents as Mrs. Fitzherbert shall wish to 
keep, shall be sealed up in a cover under the seals of the 
Duke of Wellington and Sir William Knighton, and of 
the Earl of Albemarle and Lord Stourton, and be lodged 
in the bank of Messrs. Coutts, at the disposition of the 
Earl of Albemarle and of Lord Stourton. The seals not 
to be broken excepting with the knowledge of the Duke 
of Wellington and Sir William Knighton." 

" It is understood that no copy of any paper or document 
is to be taken, or kept, on either side." 

" Here follows a list of the papers and documents that 
Mrs. Fitzherbert wishes to retain : 

1. The mortgage on the palace at Brighton. 

2. Certificate of marriage, dated December 21st, 1785. 

3. Letter from the late King relating to the marriage. 

4. Will written by the late King. 

5. Memorandum written by Mrs. Fitzherbert attached to the letter 
written by the clergyman who performed the ceremony." 

The signature of the officiating clergyman to the certificate 
of marriage has been torn off. This was probably done 
by Mrs. Fitzherbert herself to save the performer of that 
ceremony from being liable to the penalties of aprcemunire. 
Who the clergyman was, is a secret locked up in the cellars 
of Coutts's bank. I can only say that it was not the person 
to whom it has been attributed by common rumour, my 
excellent friend the late Eev. Samuel Johnes Knight. I 
have seen a letter written by him in which he distinctly 
disclaims the imputation. 

Lord Albemarle's proposal having met the approval 
of King William, it was arranged that the Duke of 


Wellington, as executor of George the Fourth, should meet 
Lord Albemarle at Mrs. Fitzherbert's house in Tilney 
Street, for the purpose of destroying all the documents 
with the exception of the five above named. 

These five papers were made into a packet, and having 
been first sealed by the Duke of Wellington and my 
father, were lodged at Coutts's bank, where they now 
remain. They are declared to be " the property of the- 
Earl of Albemarle," they are, however, not my property, 
but are held in trust by my brother Edward, as my father's 

Some idea of the mass of manuscripts committed to the 
flames may be formed by an expression of the Duke to- 
my father, after several hours' burning : "I think, my 
Lord, we had better hold our hand for a while, or we shall 
set the old woman's chimney on fire." 

At an early period of their marriage, George, Prince of 
Wales, presented Mrs. Fitzherbert with a large diamond. 
This jewel she caused to be divided into two halves, and 
each half to be converted into a transparent plate to cover 
a small miniature. Behind the one was enclosed the 
Prince's portrait, which she reserved for herself. The 
other, containing her own miniature, she gave to His 
Royal Highness. Soon after their final separation, the 
Prince agreed to return all her letters and presents 
which he had received from her, but failed to restore the 
miniature of herself. Too proud to ask for an explanation, 
Mrs. Fitzherbert lived and died in ignorance of what had 
become of that present. 

When on his death-bed, George the Fourth desired to 
be buried in the night-clothes which he then had on. 

Almost immediately after he breathed his last, the Duke 
of Wellington, his executor, arrived at Windsor Castle, 
and was shown into the room in which the King lay. Left 


alone with the lifeless form of his late Sovereign, the Duke 
approached the bed, and then discovered round the King's 
neck a very dirty and much worn piece of black ribbon. 
This, the Duke, as he afterwards acknowledged, was seized 
with an irrepressible desire to draw out. When he had 
done so, he found attached to it the jewelled miniature of 
Mrs. Fitzherbert, which sufficiently accounted for the 
strange order given by the King about his burial. 

The poor King's dying request was fulfilled to the letter, 
and he carried with him to the grave, the image of her, 
who was perhaps the only woman whom he had respected 
as well as loved. 

The portrait of George, Prince of Wales, was bequeathed 
by Mrs. Fitzherbert to the Honourable Mrs. Dawson Darner,, 
and she left it in her will to her daughter Georgiana, the 
late Countess Fortescue. 

Not long after Mrs. Fitzherbert's death, the Duke of 
Wellington happening to sit next to Mrs. Dawson Darner 
at dinner, and observing the locket with the Prince of 
Wales's miniature behind the one half of the diamond, 
asked her what she thought had become of the corre- 
sponding locket with her dear old friend's miniature in it.' 
On her professing her inability to account for its myste- 
rious disappearance, he himself proceeded to give the 
true explanation, though actually blushing with the most 
amusing confusion for having been guilty of yielding to- 
an impulse plus fort que lui, 

The miniature of George, Prince of Wales, is now the 
property of Earl Fortescue, to whom I am indebted for 
these particulars. 

In June of this year died William IV. I was one of 
the crowd that saw his youthful successor on the day of 
her Proclamation. She appeared at the open window of 
the Privy Council Chamber in St. James's Palace, looking 


on the .quadrangle nearest Marlborough House. Never 
shall I forget the enthusiastic cheers which greeted the 
slight graceful figure of the illustrious young lady, nor the 
thrill of chivalrous loyalty that ran through the assembled 
multitude. At the sound of the first shouts the colour 
faded from the Queen's cheeks and her eyes filled with 
tears. The emotion thus called forth imparted an 
additional charm to the winning courtesy with which 
the girl-Sovereign accepted the proffered homage. 

I passed this autumn at Brighton. Here I first made 
acquaintance with Horace Smith, of punning celebrity 
one of the authors of the " Eejected Addresses." At a 
dinner at the Duke of St. Albans's, some one was 
predicting that negro emancipation would be followed by 
a general massacre of the white population. At this 
moment a sudden gust of wind filled the room with 
soot. "Your worst fears are verified," said Horace, 
turning to the speaker. " Behold an insurrection of the 
blacks ! " 

The demise of the crown caused a general election. 
Captain, afterwards Sir George Pechell, was a candidate 
for Brighton. During the contest he broke his leg, and by 
the accident was saved many awkward questions from 
electors respecting his future votes. I dined with Smith 
on the day that Pechell was returned to Parliament. 
"What are PechelTs politics?" I inquired of my host. 
" Oh, Whig, decidedly," was the answer. " Why Whig ? " 
I asked. " Because he is at the head of the poll (pole).'' 
*' His broken leg," I observed, " has served him in good 
stead." " It was," replied Horace, " the only leg he had to 
stand upon." . 

In 1838, I was appointed Groom-in- Waiting to the 
Queen, just in time to have the honour of attending Her 
Majesty on the occasion of her opening her first Parliament 


in person. I was again in waiting upon the Queen on the 
day of her coronation. 

It was during one of my tours of waiting that the 
King and Queen of the Belgians were guests at 
Windsor Castle. Her Belgian Majesty's dame d'atour, 
Madame d'Hoogvoorst, expressed a great desire to see 
the widow of Charles Fox. Accordingly, the Duke and 
Duchess of Bedford, Mr. George Byng, Comptroller of 
the Household, now Earl of Strafford, and I, accompanied 
her to St. Anne's Hill. We experienced a most cordial 
reception. Our hostess, who lived very nearly a century, 
was in her ninety-third year, but still hale and handsome. 
She insisted upon showing us all over the house herself, 
pointing, among other things, to the tiny table on which 
Mr. Fox wrote his " James II." We all underwent a close 
scrutiny. When she came to George Byng she said 
musingly, "Ay, good looking enough, but not so hand- 
some as old George," meaning Byng's uncle and namesake, 
who represented Middlesex in her husband's lifetime. I 
reminded Mrs. Fox of my games of trap-ball with the 
statesman. She well remembered the circumstance, and 
explained that when the swelling in Mr. Fox's legs 
prevented him from walking, she used to encourage him 
to play this game with children as a means of taking 
exercise : " but," added she, " he required no encourage- 
ment from me, for you know, my dear, how fond he was 
of you all." I now learned that the Duke of Bedford was 
another of the boys with whom Fox had been in the habit 
of playing trap-ball. 

We spoiled our dinners by a sumptuous luncheon. A 
profusion of costly wines was placed on the table. The 
butler, nearly as old as his mistress, kept constantly rilling 
her glass. " If you don't take care," said the Duke of 
Bedford to him, " you will make the old lady quite tipsy." 


"And what if I do ?" was the reply; "she can never be 
so in better company." Turning round to the old man, 
the Duke inquired whether there were many Tories in the 
neighbourhood. " Please your Grace," was the reply, 
" we're eat up with them." 

[1840.] February 10th. I was in attendance upon the 
Queen on the occasion of her marriage with Prince Albert 
of Saxe-Coburg. After the ceremony I accompanied the 
Eoyal pair to Windsor. 

On the 23rd of November of the same year the Prince 
Consort did me the honour of presenting me to the Princess 
Eoyal of England, now Her Imperial Highness the Crown 
Princess of Prussia, that illustrious lady being at the time 
I was admitted to her presence scarcely eight-and-forty 
hours old. 

[1841.] In August this year Lord Melbourne sent in his 
resignation. Mine followed as a matter of course, and thus 
my Court life was brought to a close. In November I was- 
promoted to a Lieutenant-Colonelcy by the Brevet in 
honour of the birth of the Prince of Wales. 

I am now a full General, but my military career came 
virtually to an end at the time that I was shelved by an 
unattached majority. 

On the 10th of January, 1744, Lord Sandwich, a Junior 
Lord of the Admiralty, writes to John, fourth Duke of 
Bedford, First Lord of the Department : 

"As to our theatrical affairs, they go on in a very 
flourishing way. Draper, who dined with me yesterday, 
will undertake the part of Doll, 1 and Price, Dashwood,, 
Shirley, and Mackye agree to what is allotted to them. 

' l Dol Common, a character in Ben Jonson'd comedy of "The 


We have settled the form for the scenes, and shall 
employ a painter to begin them out of hand. Your Grace 
shall receive the plays of the ' Alchimist ' and ' All for 
Love ' by the first opportunity." 

In a letter to her son, Captain Yorke, Lady Hardwicke, 
wife of the then Lord Chancellor, gives the result of these 
preparations : 

" We have been spectators of the ' Siege of Damascus ' 
and the 'Alchimist,' at Woburne. I never saw a more 
perfect performance than the latter. It far excelled the 
tragedy. The Duke and Lord Sandwich acted ' Subtle ' 
and ' Face.' " 

" What," it may be asked, " can the performances of 
the ' Junius ' Duke of Bedford have to do with my reminis- 
cences ? " Thus much one hundred years after the repre- 
sentation of the " Alchimist " at Woburn, I find myself 
taking an active part in the Abbey theatricals, having for 
brother actors the great-grandchildren of the personator 
of Subtle." 

The taste for this description of amusement seems to 
have been hereditary. At the time that I was acting 
"Cosy" in Lady Dacre's play, John, sixth Duke of 
Bedford, played "Old Wilding" in the comedy of "The 
Liar," the other parts being represented by six of his 
children. I cannot speak personally of the merits of the . 
Duke's son and successor as an actor, but "Brown 
Bet " and " Lanky Sue," the two housemaids at Mother 
Grant's in his and my Westminster days, used to speak in 
raptures of Lord Tavistock's "Lovell" in "High Life 
below Stairs." 

In 1828 I was only a spectator of the Woburn Abbey 
performances. It was not till 1841 that I was regularly 
enrolled as a member of the company. From our theatrical 
annals I select one evening's bill of fare : 




fus Itogal fjighness the 2puke of Sussex, JlA 
MONDAY, JANUARY 16, 1843. 





Philip, Duke de Chartres . . . LORD ALEXANDER RussELL. 1 
(His first appearance on any stage. ) 

Count de Brissac . . LORD EDWARD FITZALAN HowARD. 2 
(His first appearance mi any stage. ) 

Doctor Druggendraft (the Duke's Physician) HON. LIEUT.-COL.KEPPEL. 

Pierre Palliot MR, SHELLEY. 3 


Servant , 

Duchess de Chartres . HON. MRS. LEICESTER STANHOPE.* 

Mademoiselle Duval . . . LADY ELEANORA PAQET. S 
Masqueraders ! 


Doors open at half -past Eight; Performance to begin at Nine precisely. 

1 Lord Alexander Russell, then an Ensign in a line Regiment, now 
a Major-General and the bearer of medals for services in the two 

2 Now Lord Howard of Glossop. 

3 The late Sir John Shelley of Maresfield Park, Sussex, Bart. 

4 Elizabeth William, Countess of Harrington, mother of the 
present Earl. 

5 Lady Eleanora Paget, daughter of Henry, second Marquess of 
Anglesea, married, in 1847, Sir Sandford Graham, Bart., died the 
following year. 



Written by Lord John Russell. 1 
Spoken by Lady Eleanora Paget, and Lord Alexander Russell,. 

January 16, 1843, 
Before His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex. 

Gent. Go on ; go on. Lady. Just wait a little while, 

G. Draw up the curtain now put on a smile. 

L. I can't I say I feel a sudden shyness ; 

How shall I speak before His Royal Highness ? 

G. Begin, begin. L. But what am I to say ] 
An Epilogue 1 Shall I abuse the Play ] 
Or say 'twas perfect ] must it be in verse ? 
How hard, without a moment to rehearse ! 

G. Fear not, but try to speak to some effect; 
Forestall the wrath of those who may object ; 
Perhaps some critic, serious and severe, 
May gain, ere you begin, the Prince's ear. 
With candid seeming his cold sneer advance, 
Allege the Play is borrowed all from France, 
Wish, with a sigh, that our dear native land 
Were not neglected for a Gallic band ; 
Shakspeare and Congreve, Farquhar he will quote, 
And urge that Sheridan divinely wrote, 
Dilate in praise of Poins and madcap Hal, 
Curse foreign jargon, vow that English Sal 
Is merrier far than Mademoiselle Duval ; 
Just hint the Duchess was too prone to start ; 
The blacksmith's son hammered out his part ; 
As to the Duke but let me make an end ; 
All sorts of faults such critics will pretend. 
Then to be plain your woman's tongue we trust, 

L. Nay, trust not me, your cause may be unjust. 

G. Well, if you will but plead, all faults will fade, 
A woman's reasons always can persuade. 

1 Now Earl Russell, K.G. 


L. Well ! I will speak our Farce we must avow 
As foreign goods ; we're too enlightened now 
For narrow views it is our statesman's care 
To buy the cheapest, sell the dearest ware ; 
We choosing samples for each market fit, 
Export our woollens and import our wit. 

G. What for the actors ? L. We must plead in short, 
Implore at once the mercy of the Court. 
How Justice might her dreaded balance hold, 
I fear to think but in intention bold 
We ask your favour. Here a Prince presides 
Whom keen discernment equitably guides ; 
His public course consistent to one end, 
By smiles unwarped, to frowns will never bend ; 
His private life in kindness overflows, 
No friendship loses, no resentment knows ; 
From him. we surely may expect to hear 
A summing up most candid, calm and clear. 
The Counsel for the Players, in their cause, 
Ask not acquittal only, but applause." 

By another of the play-bills I am reminded that, on 
Saturday, January the 13th, 1844, our company performed 
the comedy of " Charles the Second," the part of the 
King by the present Duke of Bedford's father ; l and that 
of " Captain Copp " by myself. 

But the theatricals of Woburn Abbey were by no means 
its only attractions : it must always be a source of great en- 
joyment to the visitor to traverse its corridors. He is there 
continually reminded of some historical incident, in which 
a member of the family, whose portrait he beholds on the 
walls, had borne a part, from Holbein's picture of John 
Eussell, Lord Eussell, Comptroller of the Household to 

1 General Lord William Kussell, G.C.B. At Woburn is a picture 
of the Duke of Wellington on horseback, attended by his aide-de- 
camp, Lord William, also mounted. Lord William Kussell was the 
nephew of the nobleman of the same name who was murdered by 
his valet. 


Henry the Eighth, to Grant's full-length of the Lord John 
Eussell twice Prime Minister to Queen Victoria. 

At one end of the " gallery " leading to the saloon is a 
walking-stick of Charles the First's, which he left there 
in one of several visits that he paid to the Abbey. His 
Majesty was then the guest of William, Fifth Earl of 
Bedford. At the other end of the same gallery is the 
portrait of this Earl's son, William Lord Eussell, "the" 
Martyr to Liberty." Above the portrait is the walking- 
stick with which he ascended the scaffold on the morning 
of his execution, in the reign of Charles the First's son, 
successor, and namesake. 

There are six pictures of my family in the Woburn 
collection. Towards one of these I have always felt irre- 
sistibly attracted. It is Eeynolds's full-length of my 
grandfather's youngest sister, Elizabeth, wife of Francis, 
Marquess of Tavistock, only son of John, fourth Duke of 
Bedford. It stands over one of the chimney-pieces in the 
saloon, opposite to the picture of the present Duchess. 

Lady Elizabeth Keppel was one of the ten beautiful 
bridesmaids of the Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburgh 
Strelitz on her marriage with George the Third. This por- 
trait of her was painted in 1761, soon after she had taken 
part in that ceremonial. She is represented in her brides- 
maid's- dress as " sacrificing to Hymen." She stands at the 
foot of the statue, which she is adorning with flowers, and 
in an attitude to display the symmetry of her form. She 
has a negress for an attendant, whose swarthy, upturned 
features set off to advantage her own lovely complexion. 

Beyond the mere acquisition of professional fame, Sir 
Joshua had much to stimulate his efforts to produce a 
good picture of this lady. Her brother the Admiral was 
one of his earliest and staunchest friends ; with herself 
he had been acquainted from her childhood. He knew 
her to be as amiable, unaffected and sensible, as she was 

c c 


pretty and graceful. The expression of these mental and 
personal qualities, the artist has with consummate skill 
conveyed to his canvas. 

Mr. Tom Taylor speaks of the picture as one of 
Eeynolds's "finest for silvery sweetness." Sir Thomas 
Lawrence thought that, if it were not Sir Joshua's chef 
d'ceuvre, it could be equalled only by his famous portrait 
of Mrs. Siddons. I have another picture of her by 
Eeynolds, painted in 1755. She was then fifteen years 
of age. Taylor considers it "one of the painter's love- 
liest and best preserved female portraits; the dress is 
white, with a rose in the bosom, and the expression 
inimitably maidenly and gentle." Elsewhere the same 
author, in speaking of the tendency of Sir Joshua's por- 
traits to fade, says, " I think it will be found generally 
true that Eeynolds's pictures during the eight or ten years 
after 1752 are more simply and safely painted than his 

later ones As among the finest examples of this 

period which I know, I should select the portraits of the 
Countess of Albemarle and her two lovely daughters, the 
Ladies Caroline and Elizabeth Keppel, at Quidenham, 
Norfolk." 1 

The two pictures of Lady Elizabeth are worthy of 
notice as ranking among the best productions of the 
first of English artists; but they have an additional in- 
terest to those of her kith and kin an interest arising 
from the touching incidents of her happy but brief wedded 
career, and its too tragical ending. 

The day before Lady Elizabeth's marriage with Lord 
Tavistock, Horace Walpole, whose niece was wife of her 
brother, Frederick Keppel, Bishop of Exeter, gives in a 
letter to Lord Hertford an account of the proposal and 

1 Leslie and Taylor's " Life of Sir Joshua Reynolds," vol. i. p. 113. 


" STRAWBERRY HILL, June 8, 1764. 

" To be sure you have heard the event of this last week ? 
Lord Tavistock has flung his handkerchief, and except a 
few jealous sultanas, and some sultanas valides, who had 
marketable daughters, everybody is pleased that the lot is 
fallen on Lady Elizabeth Keppel. 

"The house of Bedford came to town last Friday. I 
supped with them that night at the Spanish Ambassador's, 
who has made Powis House magnificent. Lady Elizabeth 
was not there, nor mentioned. On the contrary, by the 
Duchess's conversation, which turned on Lady Betty 
Montagu, there were suspicions in her favour. The next 
morning Lady Elizabeth received a note from the Duchess 
of Marlborough, 1 insisting on seeing her that evening. 
When she arrived at Marlborough House she found 
nobody but the Duchess of Marlborough and Lord Tavis- 
tock. The Duchess cried, " Lord, they have left the 
window open in the next room ! " went to shut it, and 
shut the lovers in too, where they remained for three 
hours. The same night, all the town was at the Duchess 
of Eichmond's. 2 Lady Albemarle was at tredille; the 
Duke of Bedford came up to the table, and told her he 
must speak to her as soon as the pool was over. You may 
guess whether she knew a card more that she played. 
When she had finished, the Duke told her he should wait 
on her the next morning to make the demand in form. 
She told it directly to me and my niece Waldegrave, 3 who 

1 Lady Caroline Russell, only sister of Lord. Tavistock, and one of 
Queen Charlotte's bridesmaids, married in 1762 to John, fourth 
Duke of Marlborough, K.G. 

2 Lady Mary Bruce, daughter of Charles, fourth Earl of Elgin, wife 
of Lady Albemarle's nephew Charles, third Duke of Richmond, K.G. 

3 Maria Walpole, wife of James, second Earl Waldegrave, K.G. 
She married secondly William Henry, Duke of Gloucester, George 
the Third's brother. For Walpole's description of his niece's beauty, 
see page 58. 

C C 2 


was in such transport for her friend that she promised the- 
Duke of Bedford to kiss him, and hurried home directly 
to write to her sisters. 1 The Duke asked no questions 
about fortune, but has since slipped a bit of paper into 
Lady Elizabeth's hand, telling her he hoped his son would 
live, but if he did not, there was something for her; it 
was a jointure of three thousand pounds a year, and six 
hundred pounds pin-money. I dined with her the next 
day at Monsieur de Guerchy's, and as I hindered the 
company from wishing her joy, and yet joked with her 
myself, Madame de Guerchy said she perceived I would 
let nobody else tease her, that I might have all the teasing 
to myself. 

" She has behaved in the prettiest manner in the world, 
and would not appear at a vast assembly at Northumber- 
land House on Tuesday, nor at a grand hay-making at 
Mrs. Pitt's [at Wandsworth Hill] on Wednesday. Yes- 
terday they all went to Woburn, and to-morrow the 
ceremony is to be performed." 

The wedding took place on the day mentioned by 
Walpole the 9th of June. The happy pair passed their 
honeymoon at Oakley, near Bedford now the country seat 
of the present Lord and Lady Tavistock. 


" OAKLEY, Sunday, 10th (June, 1764). 


" This line is only to tell you that we got here very 
safe and in very good time last night. I dare not say how 

1 Charlotte Walpole, Countess of Dysart, and Laura Walpole, wife 
of Lady Elizabeth's brother, the Bishop of Exeter. 


happy I am. I beg you would make my best respects to 
Lady Albemarle, and assure her her daughter is perfectly 

" Ever yours, 

" My best of fathers, 
" F. T." 

In a letter to a friend, of the name of Eobinson, written 
from Woburn Abbey, the bridegroom enters more at length 
upon the happiness of his married life : 

" W(OBUEN) A(BBEY), June 28, 1764. 

" In any other situation than my present one, I should 
have reproached myself with a neglect of friendship in not 
having wrote to you sooner, but that which I am now in is 
so new a one has so many interesting concerns that a 
single life has not, that I really can think of nothing else ; 
besides, my present happiness may perhaps be but a dream, 
and if it is no better, I should be sorry to lose a single 
moment of it. I shall never find time to write you word 
of all the details of my courtship, my wedding, and my 
present way of life. More I must reserve till we meet. 
Let it suffice that I have every reason in the world to be 
satisfied with my wife her sense, her virtue, her love, and 
her attention to everything that can give me pleasure 
demand all my affection and all my gratitude. I feel for 
her an attachment equally binding with the most violent 
love tho' it wants its enchanting fire and delirium. I 
.allow I have a tenderness for her of which I did not think 
my heart was capable; but which was very different to 
what I felt for Lady 

" You talk in your letter of wishing to see my manage 
before Parliament meets ; I will inform you of my motions 
till that time, and beg of you to use your utmost to call 
(upon us. We shall be here or at Blenheim till Bedford 


races, which begin August 6th, and after that time shall 
stay in this country till after Xmas. About September I 
believe I shall inhabit my house, and consequently shall 
like much better to see you there. Indeed, I am so well 
satisfied with the country, and so is my wife too, that I 
think I shall not see much of London this year. I have 
heard lately from Ossory, 1 who goes on in a manner to do 
honor to all his friends. You have perhaps leisure in the 
country, and may find time to write to him : direct, ' At 
Pellegrino, in Bologna.' Adieu, my dearest Eobinson ; guess 
how much I dislike writing, since it is disagreeable to me 
to make any longer this letter which is to the man to whom 
I can most freely speak of all I think and do. 

"Ever y ra - 

" My present happiness may perhaps be but a dream." 
A prophetic surmise. In less than three fleeting years from 
the date of the above letter, the happiness and the life of 
the writer were brought abruptly to a close. 


" March 19, 1767. 

" Lord Tavistock, the Duke of Bedford's only son, has- 
killed himself by a fall and kick of his horse, as he was 
hunting Tuesday was se'nnight. I do not mean that he is 
dead yet, but lie has been twice trepanned ; the skull is 
cracked through, and there are no hopes of his life. No 
man was ever more regretted; the honesty, generosity,. 

1 Speaking in one of his letters of Lord Tavistock, Walpole 
says, " No young man of quality since the Earl of Ossory, son of 
the Duke of Ormond, had inspired fonder hopes, attracted higher 
esteem, or died so universally lamented." 


humility, and moderation of his character, endeared him 
to all the world. 

" The desolation of his family is extreme. Lady Tavi- 
stock, passionately in love with him, is six months gone 
with child. The news came about two hours before she 
was to go to the opera. They did not dare to tell her 
the worst so abruptly, so the Duke and Duchess were 
forced to go too, to conceal it from her and the Duchess of 
Marlborough, who was with child too, and has since 

" Two days ago the Duke of Bedford's head broke out in 
boils, which shows the effort he had made to suppress his 
agony, and which probably has saved his life." 

Lord Tavistock died on the 22nd of the month. 

Another " Francis, Marquess of Tavistock " (afterwards 
seventh Duke of Bedford), told me that he was very nearly 
meeting the same fate that befell his grandfather. He 
was master of the " Oakley " at the time. Towards the 
close of a long run he put his horse at a style ; the animal 
leaped short, and fell on the other side : its rider escaped 
by a miracle, with no other injury than a broken collar-bone. 
At the time of her husband's death, Lady Tavistock was 
the mother of two sons Francis and John who became 
successively fifth and sixth Dukes of Bedford. On the 
20th of August, 1767, she gave birth to a third son, 
christened William. The fate of this child, albeit he 
lived to the standard age of man, was yet, like that of 
his parents untimely. In 1840, Lord William Eussell, 
shortly after a visit which he paid to my father, at the 
stud-house, fell by the hand of a midnight assassin. 1 

1 Francois Benjamin Courvoisier, who was tried and executed for 
the crime. 



" LONDON, Friday, April 22, 1708. 

" I need make no apology for troubling you with this 
letter, my dearest Duke of Bedford, as it is to give you 
an account of your dear grandchildren, and such a one as 
I am sure must make you happy ; as the eldest is, thank 
God, as well as ever quite the good-humoured little angel 
he always was ; 1 and my pretty little William goes on as 
well as possible. He has suffered from being full and 
very sore, 2 but they are on the turn to-day ; so now I hope 
he will very soon get quite well. John has hitherto 
escaped it ; but I flatter myself, as I ever wish to meet 
with your approbation in any step I take, particularly 
regarding my sweet children, that you will not disapprove 
of my having determined to inoculate him; the physical 
people have no objection to it, and I really think it is my 
duty, seeing how much slighter and easier the distemper is 
from inoculation. It will be done to-morrow. The in- 
fection will be taken from William, for both Fonesdale 
and Gatabes agree there never was a finer sort. It gives 
me infinite pleasure to hear your grace is so well, and hope 
you will do me the justice to believe how much I have at 
heart everything that concerns you in this world, and am 
ever, my dear Lord, most 

" Unutterably your affectionate humble Servant, 


" P.S. As 1 told the Duchess my intention of writing, 
she desired I would let you know they were all well at 
B. House, and she would write by to-morrow's post." 

1 Francis, become by his father's death, Marquess of Tavistock. 

2 " Sore " from inoculation. 



" The little William goes on as well as possible, and 
Johnny has no appearance of illness. Chuff 1 crowed for joy 
when he saw his little brother, and said, ' Now Lord Johnny 
will come.' Lady Tavistock's cold is much better. I was 
very happy to see, in such a well wrote letter, you are so 

well, and like your bath and your companion 

"I have just had a visit from Chuff and his mother; he 
is more delightful than ever." 

" Lady Tavistock's cold," to which the Duchess of Bed- 
ford alludes in the foregoing letter, was probably one of 
the early symptoms of that fatal disorder of which grief 
for her terrible bereavement had sown the seeds. Solici- 
tude for her children for the posthumous son especially, 
seems for a while to have arrested the progress of the 
disorder, but as soon as her maternal anxieties had some- 
what subsided, sorrow for her loss returned with redoubled 
force. Her grief now became insupportable, and every 
effort made to alleviate her mental anguish proved to be 
of no avail. 



"Inclosed I send your grace a very melancholy 
letter, which I have received within this half hour from 
Lord Albemarle. I fear, and did fear when I saw her 
last Thursday, that poor Lady Tavistock was not long for 
this world. She never could enjoy any happiness in it, 

1 The little Lord Tavistock. 


which is the only consolation to be derived from this 
melancholy event. It is a subject I cannot dwell upon, 
and therefore shall only add that the Duchess of Bedford is 
extremely afraid that you may make yourself ill by hurrying 
to town upon the receipt of Lord Albemarle's letter, which 
can be of no manner of use. The Duchess goes to town on 

" I am ever, my dear Lord, 

" Your Grace's most obliged 
and faithful Servant, 


" HAVERSTOCK, 8 o'clock, Saturday Evening, 
6tK August, 1768." 


"I have just received a letter from my sister 
Caroline with an account of poor Lady Tavistock. She 
complained yesterday of a pain in her head and was bled 
last night, slept tolerably well. The physicians meet this 
evening, viz. Warren, Damian, and Ford. Fonesdale will 
be there. God send they may save the poor woman, 
whose life is so valuable and of such consequence to us all. 
" I have the honour to be with the greatest respect, 
" My Lord, 

"Your Grace's 
" Most obedient humble servant, 


" Wednesday, 10 o'clock, 

" August 10th (1768)." 

1 The originals of the letters from Lord and Lady Tavistock, the 
Duchess of Bedford, Mr. Rigby, and Lord Albemarle are in the 
hitherto unpublished Bedford Collection of MSS. 


It was at the meeting of the physicians here alluded to 
that occurred the touching event recorded by Wyffen. 

"At a consultation of the faculty held at Bedford 
House, in August (1768), one of the physicians, whilst 
he felt Lady Tavistock's pulse, requested her to open her 
hand. Her reluctance induced him to use a degree of 
gentle violence, when he perceived that she had closed it 
to conceal a miniature of her late husband. 'Ah, Madam!' 
he exclaimed, ' all our prescriptions must be useless while 
you so fatally cherish the wasting sorrow that destroys 
you.' ' I have kept it,' she replied, ' either in my bosom 
or my hand ever since my dear lord's death, and thus I 
must indeed continue to retain it until I drop off after 
him into the welcome grave.' " 

At this meeting of physicians, Lisbon was fixed upon as 
the spot most likely to afford relief to the unhappy suf- 
ferer. Thither she was accompanied by her brother, 
Admiral Keppel, and her sister, Lady Caroline Adair. 
But change of air and scene were insufficient to " pluck 
from the memory the rooted sorrow." From the Portu- 
guese capital she never returned. On the 9th of November 
of that same year the broken-hearted widow 

" Died the victim of exceeding love." 

In the Parliament of 1847 I was returned member for 

Lymington. I held the seat for only two Sessions, urgent 

private business compelling me to accept that unre- 

i munerative and mysterious office under the Crown called 

the " Stewardship of the Chiltern Hundreds." 

My memory calls to mind a member of that Parliament 
who used to amuse the House with his sallies, Alderman 
Eeynolds, who represented the city of Dublin on the 
Repeal interest. 

A furious onslaught was once made on the Eepeal party 


by an Orange Member conspicuous in those well-shaven 
days for a pair of moustaches that ornament being 
usually worn only by Hussar regiments and by the 
cavalry of the Household Brigade. The Alderman in 
reply designated his antagonist as the Honourable and 
Gallant Gentleman. " I am not in the army," interposed 
the Orangeman. "The honourable member says he is 
not in the army, but I think, if he has quitted the trade," 
here he put his hand to his own upper lip, " he ought to 
take down the signboard." 

[1849-1851.] By the death of my father in November 
1849, my brother, Augustus Lord Bury, became fifth Earl 
of Albemarle, and he dying in March 1851, I succeeded 
to the family title and estates. 

[1851.] The principal event of the year was the visit of 
the Lord Mayor and Corporation of London in answer to 
an invitation to them from the Prefet de la Seine and the 
Municipal Body of the 4 French metropolis, in acknowledg- 
ment of the hospitalities which their countrymen had 
experienced during the London International Exhibition. 

A card was one day put into my hand inviting the 
Duke of Albemarle to be of the party. As no one had 
held that title for a hundred and seventy years, I thought 
that the representative of the Albemarle of the Eevolution 
might fairly stand in the place of the Albemarle of the 
Eestoration. So I wrote to the Prefet an acceptance of 
the proffered honour. 

We, the guests, left London on Friday, the 1st of 
August. On board the steamer which conveyed us across 
all were strangers to me except Mr. James Stuart Wortley, 
a brother of the then Lord Wharnecliffe, a Privy Councillor 
and Eecorder of London, but better know to me as the 
'barytone, of the Hatfield House Theatrical Company of 


former days. A sudden lurch of the vessel nearly threw 
my friend off his balance. "Keep your luff, Jim," I 
called out, to the surprise of the municipals, who stood 
aghast at one addressing so grave a functionary as 
their chief criminal judge in this familiar style. 

A rough passage produced its usual effects, especially 
upon such of my shipmates as came from the East-end of 
London, and had been in the habit of faring sumptuously 
every day. 

At Boulogne, we were received on the quay by the lite 
of the town. Passing under a series of triumphal arches, 
intended to betoken the entente cordiale existing between 
the two countries, we arrived at the buffet of the Eailway 
Enibarcadere. Here we sat down to a sumptuous repast. 
It is almost superfluous to say that we acquitted ourselves 
like Englishmen ; and by the aid of paid de foie gras, 
washed down by champagne, amply indemnified ourselves 
for our late discomforts at sea. One luxury, of which 
there was a goodly supply, remained untasted, to the 
manifest surprise of our entertainers some old Jamaica 
rum, of which they fully believed that we English of 
whatever rank or sex, were in the habit of partaking as 
freely as they do of their vin ordinaire. 

On our arrival at Paris, Sir Charles Musgrove, the Lord 
Mayor, was carried off in great state to the Hotel de Ville, 
while we his suite, as we were considered, became inmates 
of the Hotel Meurice. 

I regret that I did not make a collection of the French 
daily records of this first week in August, as they would 
show in what light the office of Lord Mayor of London 
was viewed by our neighbours. They evidently considered 
this functionary to stand in the same relation to our 
sovereign as did the Maires du Palais in the olden times 
to the Carlovingian kings. 

Lord Eussell tells me that when, as a young man, the 


late Lord Romilly visited Paris, at a time when he was 
giving promise of making a figure at the bar, some French 
friend said to him, " To what dignities may you not aspire ? 
You may become Lord Chancellor, or, who knows ? even 
Lord Mayor of London." 

The few newspapers to which I have had access 
^describing our visit, though they do not make any 
special reference to the social or political status of our 
metropolitan chief magistrate, show the impression his 
appearance produced upon the Parisians. The Journal 
des Debats, describing a visit which the Lord Mayor paid 
to the Legislative Assembly, says : " Le tre^s honorable Sir 
Charles Musgrove, Baronet, parait etre age de soixante ans 
environ. Sa physionomie inspire deference et respect. 
Jusqu' ici nous pouvons dire, aucun prince etranger n'a 
ete recju avec autant d'honneur que le Lord Maire dans 
1'Assemblee Legislative de France." 

Another journal, speaking of the Lord Mayor when 
about to return to England, states that from " la physio- 
nomie franche et ouverte du tres honorable Sir Charles 
Musgrove on pourrait dire d'avance ses bons et loyaux 

August 2nd. Our entertainments began by a grand 
banquet given by the Prefet de la Seine. We went in 
a sort of procession from Meurice's to the Hotel de Ville. 
We were saluted on our way by occasional greetings of 
welcome from the adult population, but we did not seem 
to be so much in favour with the little gamins, who showed 
their democratic proclivities by the shrill cry of " A las 
les aristos ! " 

The dinner, such as no other capital in the world could 
produce, was given in the apartment where Eobespierre 
received the wound which was still bleeding when it 
became his turn to pass under the knife of the guillotine. 
Our personal appearance at the feast was not such as to 


favourably dispose towards us so dressy a people as the 
French. By the stupidity, or, as some would have it, by 
the spitefulness of some Anglo-hating douanier at Bou- 
logne, the luggage of many of our countrymen did not 
reach Paris until after the dinner-hour. While some of 
the aldermen were habited in paletots and shooting-jackets, 
others wore their gowns of office. These last did not 
escape the humeur moqueuse of our hosts, who inquired 
what offence these poor gentlemen had committed to be 
compelled to wear robes of fur on such a piping hot day 
in August. The Lord Mayor's postillion attracted uni- 
versal attention. He wore his state livery. The short, 
tailless jacket was one mass of gold lace. The richly 
bullioned cap was surmounted by a gilt semi-lion almost 
as large as its wearer. " Who is he ? " inquired everyone. 
A Frenchman who pretended to be well qualified to an- 
swer, said it was the " Lord Mayor's chasseur, who attended 
Sa Seigneurie on all his hunting expeditions." 

Since making the above note I find that the Frenchman 
was better informed than myself. The person who so 
.attracted the attention of our hosts was styled " The Lord 
Mayor's huntsman." As the citizens of London have 
ceased to meet in Epping Forest on Easter Monday, 

" To hunt the stag with hound and horn," 

the office of this bedizened functionary must be assumed 
to be purely honorary. 

The health of the guests was gracefully proposed by the 
Prefet, and that it was as gracefully acknowledged, it 
is only necessary to say that Lord Granville was our 

August 3rd. The programme for this day was "Les 
grand es eaux de Versailles." As this was no new sight to 
me I did not go. Those who did came back in the worst 


possible temper. Armed with their tickets of admission, 
they presented themselves at the garden at the appointed 
time. But no ! no one could be allowed to enter before 
the arrival of " Le grand Lord Maire d'Angleterre." For 
two mortal hours city magnates " who had passed the 
chair" were kept kicking their heels outside the garden 

August 4:tk. A dejeuner a la fourchette, given by the 
President of the Republic, Prince Louis Napoleon, at the 
Chateau de St. Cloud. When I first visited this same 
Chateau two Prussian sentries stood before the door, 
and Field-Marshal Prince Blucher was the self-constituted 
tenant. I was presented to the President by our Am- 
bassador, Lord Normanby. His Imperial Highness 
was very civil, and walked with me some little time 
about the pleasure-grounds. He expressed his satis- 
faction at receiving my countrymen at a time when 
Paris was in such a state of tranquillity. " You see, 
Lord Albemarle," he added, " we can do very well without 

August 5t7i. Review of the troops in the Champ de 
Mars. Grand ball at the Hotel de Ville. I was present 
at neither. I went instead to the theatre, where I was 
told I should see Frenchmen do a hearty laugh at their 
own expense. The piece was an extravaganza entitled 
" Les Camele'ons ; ou, soixante ans en soixante minutes, 
en six Tableaux et Demi." 

By way of prologue, the god Proteus appears as cicerone 
to a sort of Prince Easselas from the Happy Valley on a 
visit to a people especially under the influence of that sea- 
deity. This introduces the " Premier Tableau," which is 
intended to represent the Court of Louis XVI. The walls 
of the royal apartment, which are adorned with silver 
fleurs-de-lis, are white the first hue of the Cameleons. 
The courtiers also are in white from top to toe. They are 

xviii.] LES CAMELEONS. 401 

all on pleasure bent, and are singing and dancing, without 
bestowing one thought on the morrow ; 

" Du present il faut jouir, 
Rions de 1'avenir ; " 

when lo ! "le deuxieme Tableau (First French Eevolution). 
Scene Paris. On every house is inscribed " Prison." The 
white courtiers have become Eed Eepublicans, and their 
features undergo as complete a transformation as their 
dress. The dance of pleasure is changed into that of 
the Carmagnole. " Nous sommes libres ! " shouts one. 
" Oui," respond the rest. " Egaux ? " " Oui." " Frdres ? " 
"Nous sommes freres." They now say simultaneously, 
" Mon frere, tu m'es suspect." Each grasps his neighbour 
furiously by the collar and sings like a maniac a vaudeville, 
the burden of which is, 

" En prison 
Toute la nation." 

They have all dragged each other off to prison, with the 
exception of a fat little Camele'on, who, having nobody else 
to lay hold of, exclaims to himself, " Je me suis suspect," 
seizes his own throat, and carries himself off to the air of 

" En prison." 

" Troisieme Tableau " (First Empire). Scene an open 
field a camp in the background. Grouped as trophies are 
the flags of all the nations of Europe (those of England 
alone excepted). 

The Camele'ons have become tricolores. They wear the 
uniform of the Grenadiers of the Old Imperial Guard. 
They have a thorough Hast air. By way of passing the 
time, it is suggested that they should take some capital city. 
A map is brought. " Let us take Amsterdam." " "We took 
that last night." " Madrid ! C'est gentil a prendre." " We 

D D 


took Madrid the first thing this morning. But how stupid 
of us ! " says one of them, " we have forgotten Berlin." 
To a soldier " Va, prendre Berlin !" " And then Vienna ! 
How droll nobody ever thought of Vienna ! " To another 
soldier "Va, prendre Vienna." The first soldier comes 
back. "Nous avons conquis la Prusse." The second, 
" Nous avons conquis 1'Autriche." The preceding speaker 
then says, with a yawn, " Since we have no more kingdoms 
to conquer, nothing is left us but to repose on our laurels ; 
but first let us raise a memorial to our achievements." 
The Came'leons throw their firelocks into a large cauldron, 
from which there straightway rises a representation of the 
column in the Place Vendome. 

"Quatrieme Tableau" (Restoration of the elder Bourbons). 
Scene The fleur-de-lis apartment Here we have a crown 
and sceptre, a large genealogical tree, ribands and decora- 
tions of the order of St. Louis. The band plays royalist 
airs. A vaudeville is sung, of which the refrain is, 

"C'est aujourd'hui certain 
Le droit divin." 

The Cameleons are first black, implying that the Church 
party has regained its ascendency, but they afterwards 
resume the white. 

" Tableau cinquieme " (the Orleans Dynasty). This 
scene is a squib on the wholesale stock-jobbing which 
marked the reign of Louis Philippe. The Camele'ons are 
blazing in gold and silver. The conversation turns wholly 
on scrip. Fortune, blindfolded and standing on a wheel, 
passes and repasses over the stage. " We are rolling in 
riches," is the cry ; " but we want a change. Let us have 
a radical reform, and celebrate it by a banquet." A table 
is drawn across the stage. Fortune appears for a moment; 
her wheel makes a retrograde movement; and the table 
suddenly changes into a barricade. This brings us to 

xvin.] LES CAMELEONS. 403 

"Tableau sixieme" (the anarchy of 1848). Scene a 
street in Paris. The street-lamps smashed to pieces, 
columns overthrown, trees cut down, " Maison & vendre " 
on every house. The Camele'ons, once more Eed Bepub- 
licans, pass repeatedly to and fro. To make confusion 
worse confounded, the rappel is continually beating to 
arms. The Came'leons are in all the. colours of the rainbow. 
One runs against the other. " Pardon, Monsieur," " Je ne 
m'appele pas Monsieur," "Pardon, Citoyeii, what is the 
name of this place ? " It 'is " La Place de Louis XV.," 
cries one. " Pardon, c'est la Place de la Revolution," says 
another. " Pardon, c'est la Place de la Concorde," says a 

third. " It is now high time that -" here the actor looks 

towards the prompter, who, after a considerable row, is 
dragged out of his eggshell, and shows a blank page. The 
audience is angrily addressed from all parts of the house. 
The author is called for, and appears in the form of a small 
boy, who tells the audience that the history of the 
Came'le'ons stops there, but, without committing himself, 
ventures to hope that he may soon be able to announce "le 
plus heureux denouement." Four months later was the 
famous " Coup d'Etat." 

The next day we, the British Municipals, had the honour 
of meeting the Prince-President at our Ambassador's in the 
Eue St. Ilonore. Between two trees in the garden there 
had been a child's swing. The transverse bar and the 
ropes still remained. Bernal Osborne, pointing first to the 
ropes, and then to the sheriffs who stood beneath in their 
gold chains, asked me in a loud whisper whether we had 
not been invited to a "hanging match." 

[1852.] On Tuesday, the 3rd of February, my "Memoirs 
of the Marquess of Eockingham." The publication of 
this work, together with the Narratives of my two journeys, 
procured me the honour of admission into the Atheneeum 
club, without ballot. 

D D 2 


The day on which these memoirs were published was 
the first day of the Parliamentary Session. At the request 
of Lord Lansdowne I consented to move the address in 
the House of Lords. On the same morning, as I was 
ruminating upon the Royal Speech, of which mine was 
to be the echo, I , received the Queen's command to 
carry the cap of maintenance on the approaching ceremo- 
nial of her Majesty's opening Parliament in person, the 
Marquess of Winchester, the hereditary bearer, having 
been prevented by temporary indisposition from attend- 
ance. Although I arrived at the Palace of Westminster 
a good hour before the time, the Duke of Wellington, 
whose office it was to carry the sword of State in the same 
ceremonial, had preceded me, so the hour was most 
agreeably spent in a Ute-d-Ute with the illustrious 

This was the last public pageant in which the Duke took 
a part. 

The next time I saw the Field-Marshal was on the 
15th of June at No. 6, Tilney Street, on the occasion 
of the marriage of Lord Newark, now Earl Manvers, with 
Georgiana de Franquetot, daughter of the Due de Coigny. 
It was the house I had so well known when Mrs. Fitzherbert 
was its occupant, and recalled to mind the time when I used 
to sit on the Prince of Wales's knee. The extreme heat of 
the room sent me to the balcony. The Duke of Wellington 
came there soon afterwards. We exchanged our reminis- 
cences of the former owner of the house. The recollection 
of the very curious employment in which he had been 
jointly engaged with my father greatly amused him. 

This was the last wedding at which the Duke was present. 
That same afternoon, I remember seeing him at the House 
of Lords with the wedding favour in his button-hole, and 
hearing him address a few words to the House : it was the 
last speech that he uttered in Parliament. 


Three days later I was the Duke's guest at the Waterloo 

On the three preceding anniversaries of the battle, I had 
seated myself at the lower end of the room, as became the 
junior officer present in the action, and was about to do so 
again, when the Duke sent Lord Fitzroy Somerset to place 
me opposite himself. We dined that day off a superb 
china service given to the Duke by the King of Prussia, 
Frederick William III., each plate having special reference 
to some event in the great Captain's life, beginning with 
Eton College and ending with Waterloo. His Grace, who 
appeared in excellent health and spirits, hoped that he 
should have the pleasure of seeing us there again the 
following year. On his right hand sat the Neapolitan 
Minister, Prince Castelcicala. Under the title of Count 
Buffo he had served at Waterloo as a lieutenant in the 
Enniskillen Dragoons. In Siborne's list he appears among 
the killed, but there he sat that evening in proprid 
persond. " I will give you," said his Grace, " the health of 
an illustrious foreigner whom I had the honour of having 

under my command at Waterloo, Prince, Prince " here 

he stopped. We all knew whom he meant, but did not 
dare to prompt him. At last Lord Sandys, who, as Lord 
Arthur Hill, had been his senior aide-de-camp in the 
action, called out, " The Field-Marshal gives the health of 
Prince Castelcicala." " Exactly so," said the Duke, " that's 
the name, Prince Castelcicala." These are the last words 
I ever heard him utter. 

This was the Duke's last Waterloo banquet. We sat 
down to dinner, eighty-four in number. Of these, General 
Sir Charles Yorke, Constable of the Tower of London, 
General Lord Eokeby, Colonel of the Scots Fusilier 
Guards, and I are the only survivors. 

In the November of that year I was present at the 
Duke's funeral. 


[1853.] I was witness to a curious scene in the House 
of Lords, on the 25th of April of this year, and as a very 
imperfect account of it is given in Hansard, I offer my 
version. The debate was on the Clergy Eeserves in the 
Canada Bill. Lord Derby made some remarks in his 
speech, from which the Bishop of Oxford (Dr. Wilberforce) 
expressed his dissent by shaking his head and smiling. 
The noble Earl took exception at the gesture. The Bishop 
admitted the smile, but denied all intention of thereby 
imputing anything offensive. 

Lord Derby : " I accept at once the explanation that 
has been offered by the Eight Eeverend Prelate ; but when 
he tells me that it is impossible for him to say anything 
offensive because he has a smiling face, he will forgive 
me if I quote in his presence from a well-known writer, 
without intending in the least to apply the words to him : 

" A man may smile, and smile, and be a villain." 

Lord Clarendon [in a voice of thunder] : " Oh ! Oh ! 
Oh " 

Lord Derby : " What noble Peer is it whose nerves are 
so delicate as to be wounded by a hackneyed quotation ? '* 

Lord Clarendon : " I am that Peer, and protest against 
any noble Lord applying, even in the language of poetry, 
the epithet of villain to any member in the House most 
of all do I deprecate the use of such an expression by a 
lay Peer towards a Eight Eeverend Prelate." 

Peacemakers rose on both sides of the House. The 
reporters had left the gallery in those days the Eeporters' 
Gallery was cleared on a division and the House was 
proceeding to divide. Lord Clarendon, who had been 
greatly excited, poured out a glass of water and drank it 
off. Lord Derby at the same time filled another bumper 
of water and called out across the table, " Your good 
health, Clarendon ; " and there the matter ended. 

xviii.] MRS. BEECHER STOWE. 407 

Lord Derby was probably not aware that the same 
quotation from " Hamlet " had, more than fifty years before, 
produced a somewhat similar scene in the House of 
Commons. My authority was the late Sir Eobert Adair, 
who was present. The contending parties were Tierney 
and Pitt, who had fought a duel a short time before. 
Tierney was addressing the House. Pitt smiled con- 
temptuously, upon which Tierney said, " The Eight 
Honourable Gentleman smiles, but need I remind him that 

' a man may smile and smile, ' " here he paused. " Take 

the fellow a message from me," cried Pitt to one of his 
followers ; but before the bearer of the hostile mission 
could reach the Opposition benches, Tierney added, " and 
yet be a minister." So the affair ended in a laugh instead 
of a fight. 

I dined this summer with Lord and Lady John Eussell 
at Pembroke Lodge. My fellow guests were Sir George 
and Lady Grey, who, with myself, were invited to meet 
Mrs. Beecher Stowe. We severally did our best to amuse 
the authoress of "Uncle Tom's Cabin," a work which was 
at this time making a furore in London. " Depend upon 
it," whispered Lady Grey to me after dinner, " we shall all 
be down in the next book." So we were. For my part I am 
well satisfied with the figure I cut in " Sunny Memories." 
Amongst other things, I am given credit for some charac- 
teristic and comical stories about the Duke of Wellington. 
One of these I remember, and as it amused Mrs. Beecher 
Stowe, it may have the same success with my readers. It 
is a squib on the autocratic manner in which the Iron 
Duke used to carry on duty in the latter years of his 
command of the Army. 

Sitting next a lady at dinner who had a smelling-bottle 
containing musk, the Duke, according to my story, said to 
her, " In India, ladies put musk rats into their smelling- 
bottles." " They must be very small rats, then," observed 


the lady. "Not at all, about the size of English rats." 
" Then their smelling-bottles must be very large." " Not 
at all, no bigger than yours." When the gentleman entered 
the drawing-room, Lord Fitzroy Somerset whispered to the 
lady, " You now see the sort of difficulties we have at the 
Horse Guards ; we are required to put very large rats into 
very small bottles." 

In the course of the conversation I said jokingly to 
Mrs. Stowe, that in England a man might as soon kill a 
man as a fox. Here are Mrs. Stowe's comments upon that 
observation: "At dinner the conversation turned upon 
hunting. I told Lord Albemarle that I thought the idea of 
a whole concourse of strong men turning out to hunt a fox 
or a hare creatures so feeble and insignificant, and who 
could do nothing to help themselves was hardly consistent 
with manliness, that if they had some of our Indian buffaloes 
the affair would be something more dignified and generous. 
Thereupon they all laughed, and told stories of fox-hunters. 
It seems that killing a fox except in the way of hunting is 
deemed among hunters an unpardonable offence, and a 
man who has the misfortune to do it, would be almost 
as unwilling to let it be known as if he had killed 
a man." 

[1854.] On the 28th of April this year, died the Duke 
of Wellington's coadjutor, Henry Marquess of Anglesey, 
Commander of the British Cavalry at Waterloo. It is 
one of the events in the " Fifty Years of My Life" that 
I had the honour of succeeding that distinguished veteran 
as a trustee to the will of the famous old Westminster 
head -master, .who wielded the rod impartially over 
the heads of the inchoate Cavalier and Eoundhead, Tory 
and Whig, from the time of the Civil Wars to the esta- 
blishment of Constitutional Monarchy in 1688. 

By the subjoined list it will be seen that I have lived 
to become " the Father of the Trust." 













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On the third Tuesday in May of each year we Busbyans 
meet to transact the business of the charity, and on the 
third Tuesday of the June following to dine together and 
talk over school-days. Our place of meeting is in that 
" Jerusalem Chamber " in which Harry Bolingbroke 
breathed his last. 

ACT IV., SCENE IV. Westminster, a Room in the Palace. 

King Henry. Doth any name particular belong 

Unto the lodging where I first did swoon ? 

Warwick. 'Tis called Jerusalem. 

King Henry. Laud be to Heaven ! even there my life must end. 
It hath been prophesied to me many years, 
I should not die, but in Jerusalem ; 
Which vainly I supposed the Holy Land 
But bear me to that chamber ; there I'll lie ; 
In that Jerusalem shall Harry die. 

It does not often happen to a man to be one of 
a dinner party of five, in which there should be two 
nonagenarians. Yet such was my lot, when, in the 
summer of 1854, I took my cousin, Sir Eobert Adair 
the diplomatist, to dine with Mr. Samuel Eogers, the poet. 
The late Duke and Duchess of Bedford completed our 

The. conversation at dinner turned upon the authorship 
of "Junius." I had published my own theory on the 
subject in my "Memoirs of Lord Eockingham." In 
the early editions of " Junius," the frontispiece represents 
bees hovering round a hive. Underneath are the words, 
" Nos numerus sumus." This motto I conceived to imply 
that more than one person was concerned in the work. 
Throughout the letters George Grenville is spoken of in 
terms of eulogy to which neither his talents nor his con- 
duct entitled him. According to my hypothesis he was 


not the author, but the originator of the letters ; he em- 
ployed Mr. Charles Lloyd, his former secretary, a cele- 
brated squib-writer of the day, author among other works 
of " A Pair of Spectacles for Short-sighted Politicians," to 
convey the materials for the work to Mr. (afterwards Sir 
Philip) Francis, who dressed them up in his own language ; 
and after Mr, Grenville's death, Lord Temple continued 
to supply matter to Francis through the medium of Mr. 
Lloyd until within seventeen days of the latter gentleman's 
death. Since that time no letter of Junius ever appeared ; 
a circumstance that may explain George III.'s observation 
to General Desaguilliers " We shall hear no more of 

The company were of a different opinion: they attri- 
buted the whole and sole authorship to Francis, with 
whom they had all been personally acquainted. If he 
were the author, he must have had a bad time of it at 
Woburn for he was a frequent guest of Francis and 
John, Dukes of Bedford, at whose table he used to meet 
Fox, Fitzpatrick, and Hare, all of whom thought very 
humbly of these letters in point of style and composition, 
and quizzed them without mercy in presence of Francis } 
who, I was told, always appeared on tenter-hooks when 
this criticism was going forward. 

"How," I asked Eogers, "could Francis accept the 
hospitalities of men whose grandfather, the ' Junius Duke,' 
he had so maligned ? " I was answered that he was fond 
of good company and good cheer, and he was sure to find 
both at the Abbey. Of his love of the pleasures of the 
table the poet gave us a sample. At a city feast, Francis 
sat next a gentleman who was slowly enjoying some turtle- 
soup, evidently reserving a large lump of green fat for a 
lonne louche. Sir Philip looked upon the process for some 
moments with an envious eye. At last he seized the deli- 
cious morsel with his fork and transferred it to his mouth. 


He then gave the stranger his card, saying, " Sir, I am 
ready to make you the most ample apology, or to give you 
the satisfaction of a gentleman, but I must say you had no 
right to throw such a temptation in my way." The citizen, 
much as he loved calipash, loved life more, and was con- 
tent to accept the first of the alternatives. 

Francis was too ready to give or receive satisfaction. I 
have heard that, one evening at Holland House, Lady 
Holland desired a gentleman (the late Mr. Allen, I believe) 
to find out from Francis himself if he were the author of 
"Junius." Thus commanded, the gentleman inquired of 
Sir Philip whether he might ask him a question. " At 
your peril, Sir," was the reply. " Well," said Lady Holland 
to the gentleman, on his return, " is Sir Philip Francis 
' Junius ' ? " "I don't know," was the answer, " whether 
he is Junius or not, but he is certainly Brutus!' 

Bogers and Adair died the next year (1855), and within 
a few months of each other. 

The date of this last of my "jottings " reminds me that 
I have reached the period to which on embarking on this 
task I proposed to restrict my labours. It is, I think, 
therefore, high time for me to lay down my pen, and my 
readers who have had the patience to accompany me thus 
far will have probably arrived at the same conclusion. 


Actors of the day, guests at Mr. 
Edmund Byng's, 318. 

Adair, Mr. Alexander, visits the 
author in France, 170 ; his per- 
sonal appearance, 171 ; and the 
picture dealer, ib.; as a skilful 
rider, 172 

Adair, Lady Caroline, 395 

Adair, .Right Hon. Sir Robert, his 
friendship with the author, 8 ; 
his personal appearance, ib. ; an 
early politician, 9 ; his education, 
ib. ; his first interview with 
Charles Fox, ib.; residence at St. 
Petersburg, ib. ; presented to 
Empress Catherine, 10 ; dines 
with the Empress, ib.; appointed 
ambassador to Vienna, ib.; his 
paper war with the Anti-Jacobin, 
11 ; his enthusiasm for the fair 
sex, ib. ; Ambassador to Constan- 
tinople, 12 ; resigns his seat for 
Camelford, 13 ; sent as ambassa- 
dor to Belgium, 15 ; his inter- 
view with Prince Leopold, ib.; 
his last act of diplomacy, ib.; 
death, 412 

Adairs of Flixton, Suffolk, 171 

Adam, Sir Frederick, Lord High 
Commissioner at Zante, 340 

Adam, John, of Calcutta, 256 

4 ' Adelphi " comedy acted at West- 
minster, 86 

Admiralty, First Lords, opinion 
of, by " Junius," Duke of Graf- 
ton, 6 

Albany, Count and Countess of, 211 

Albemarle, George, third Earl of, 
letter to John (fourth) Duke of 

Bedford, on illness of Marchion- 
ess of Tavistock, 394 

Albemarle, fourth Earl of, see 
Keppel, William Charles 

Albemarle, fifth Earl of, see Keppel, 
Augustus Frederick 

Albemarle, sixth Earl of, see Keppel, 
George Thomas 

Albemarle, Annie, Countess of, 
wife of George, third Earl, her 
parents, manners, &c., 31 ; her 
anecdote of the torn apron, 32 ; 
her female toadies, ib. 

Albemarle, Lady Elizabeth, wife of 
William Charles, fourth Earl, 
mother of the author, letters to, 
from Princess Charlotte, 44-48, 
51, 53, 65, 66, 94, 102, 104 ; 
death, 190 

Albert, Prince, his marriage, 380 

Alexander, Captain, of the Alliga- 
tor, 262 ; death, 266 

Alexander, Emperor, his dread of 
assassination, 295 ; Madame do 
ZabloukofPs revelations as to 
Russia's disaffection for, 296 ; his 
death, 309 

"All the world's at Paris," Gri- 
maldi's song, 123 

Alligator, frigate, 262 

"All the Talents," administration 
of 1806, 19 

Alsop, Mr., of Calcutta, 250 

Althorp, Viscount, leader of House 
of Commons 1833, 369 ; (see Earl 

Amaxichi by moonlight, 185 ; its 
destruction, ib. 

Amherst, Lord, 256 

Anglesea, Lord, and his sons, 



Anglesea, Henry Marquess of, death, 

" Anti Jacobin" quotation from 
describing Sir Robert Adair, 8, 

Aratchief, Count, 295 

Argyll Rooms, ball at, given by Sir 
Jacob Astley, 221 

Arras, the A raxes of Plutarch, 284 

Asia Minor, the author's journey in, 

Astley, Sir Jacob (afterwards Lord 
Hastings), gives a ball at Argyll 
Rooms, 221 

Astrakhan, 287 

Attwood, Tom, M. P. for Birming- 
ham, 368 

Augusta, Dowager Duchess of 
Brunswick, see Brunswick 

Aumale and Albemarle, 359 

Austin, Lucie (Lady Duif Gordon), 

Audenarde, Count d', at the sur- 
render of Cambray, 161 


Babylon, 269 

Back, Captain, 325 

Bagdad, Pasha of, see Davoud, 

Pasha of Bagdad 
Bagshot Park, 332 
Baku, 285 
Balcan, the, Dr. Walsh's account of, 

339 ; Selimno, pass of the, 347 ; 

its other passes, 348 ; intense 

cold in the valley, 355 
Baldwin, Caleb, the bull-baiter, 

99 ; his mode of catching a tossed 

dog, ib. 

Bank-note forgery, 100 
Barbauld, Mrs. 216 
Barclay, Captain, as a prize-fighter 

trainer, 97 
Barnard, Major-General Sir Henry, 

Barnes, Joseph, the murder of, in 

a letter from Major Loftus to 

George, Lord Albemarle, 311 
Barring-ton, Honourable Samuel, 

Barry, Dr. James, medical adviser 

to Lord Charles Somerset, 204 ; 

death, 205 ; found to be a woman, 
and supposed reasons for her dis- 
guise, ib. 

Bastinado, the, 282 
Battues half a century ago, 315 
Bedford, John, fourth Duke of, 
letter from Lord Tavistock after 
his marriage, 388 ; from Mar- 
chioness of Tavistock, concerning 
her children, 392 ; from Duchess 
of Bedford, on the same, 393 ; 
from Rt. Hon. Richard Rigby, 
on illness of Marchioness of 
Tavistock, ib.; from George 
(third) Earl of Albemarle, on the 
same, 394 

Bedford, Duke and Duchess of, 
visit Mrs. Charles Fox, 379 ' 

Bedford, John, sixth Duke of, re- 
fuses resignation of Sir Robert 
Adair of his seat for Camelford, 13 

Bedoyere, General la, put to death 
at Paris, 173 

"Beefsteak Club," 244; trial of 
Alderman Wood, 245 

Belcher, James, the one-eyed pugi- 
list, 96 

Belgians, King and Queen of the, 
guests at Windsor Castle, 379 

Belombre Slave estate, Mauritius, 
196 ; mortality in, 200 

Beresford, Lord George, Archbishop 
of Armagh, 238 

Bern, Due de, entry into Cambray, 

Bcrtrand, Field-Marshal, 207 

Bengnot, Count, and the proclama- 
tion to the French, 161 

Bishops, conduct of the, on the 
Second Reading of Pains and 
Penalties Bill, 238 

Black Brunswickers, retreat of the, 

Blackwood, Mrs. 335 

Blake, the Misses, 321 

Bliicher, Marshal von, his reception 
in London, 122 

Boadicca, lost off Kinsale, 181 

Bowood servants' ball, 331 

Brennon, Charles, at Waterloo, 

Brubazon, Lord, 334 

Bridgernan, Captain, at Waterloo, 

Brighton Pavilion, the old, 24 



Broke, Captain, of the Shannon, 

Brooke, Miss, of St. Helena, and 
Napoleon, 206 

Brougham, Henry, 222 ; as Queen 
Caroline's Attorney-General, 225; 
and the witnesses for the prosecu- 
tion, 226 ; and Lord Exmouth at 
Queen Caroline's Trial, 229 

Brown, Paddy, fight with John 
Erskine, 74 

Brownlow, Charles, 334 

Brownlow, Lady Elizabeth, her 
account of Duke of Orleans' visit 
to Cobham Hall, 333 

Brunswick, Charles, Duke of, father 
of Princess Caroline, his death, 

Brunswick, Duke of, brother of 
Princess Caroline, 82 ; and the 
treaty with the Court of Vienna, 
83 ; in battle at Halberstadt and 
Oelfern, ib.; safely landed on 
British soil, 84 ; mention of, in 
Princess Charlotte's letter to 
Lady de Clifford, 113 

Brunswick, Dowager Duchess of, 
lands at Gravesend, 55 ; proceeds 
to Charlton, and first makes ac- 
quaintance of Princess Charlotte, 

Brussels, cap of liberty taken off 
the top of church at, 79 

Bull-baiting at Norwich, 100 

Bummelo and his loyalty, 172 

Buonaparte, Jerome, at Waterloo, 

Burdett, Sir Francis, chairing of, 
24 ; duel with Mr. James Paull, 
ib .; his defence of Jones in House 
of Commons, 92 ; riots, ib.; at 
Battle Abbey, 243 

Bury, Lady Charlotte, opinion of 
Prince of Orange, 119 ; and Ma- 
dame Zabloukoff, 294 

Bury Lord, (son of author), anecdote 
of General Gudin and Napoleon 
at Waterloo, 143 ; visits field of 
Waterloo with his father, 155 

Busby, Dr. his trustees, 409 

Bushe, Chief-Justice, anecdote of 
and Chief- Baron O'Grady, 327 

Byng, Mr. Edmund, 318 

Byng, Mr. George, 379 

Byng, General, at Waterloo, 148 


Ca ira, the quick march of the 14th 
regiment, 157 

Calcutta beefsteak club, 251 

Calcutta "Hunt," 251 

Calvert, Sir Harry, Colonel of the 
14th Regiment at Waterloo, 132 

"Calvert's Entire," nickname of 
14th Eegiment, 133 

"Cal verts all Butt," 182 

Cambray, capture of, 160; surrender 
of the citadel, 161 

Cambresis, La Cateau, the heights 
above, 159 

CamSleons, Les, acted in Paris, 400 

Campbell, Sir Colin, chief of per- 
sonal staff to Duke of Wellington 
at Waterloo, 130 

Campbell, Sir Guy, 130 

Campbell, Sir Neil, commissioner at 
Elba, 130 

Campbell, Mrs., sub-governess to 
Princess Charlotte, 34 ; in Prin- 
cess Charlotte's will, 50 ; her 
resignation, 51 ; again a member 
of the Princess's household, 53 

Campbell, William, Governor of 
Bermudas, 34 

' ' Campbell's direction post " at 
Zante, 340 

Canning, Foreign Secretary in 1808, 

Canning, George, 75 

Cape Town, a visit to, 203 

Cape Wine, 205 

Carey, Dr. William, his opinion on 
fighting, 95 

Carhampton, Lord, 76 

Caroline, Princess of Wales (after- 
wards Queen), an element of 
discord in the family quarrel 
of George III. and Prince of 
Wales, 41 ; retires to a villa at 
Blackheath, ib.; assigned apart- 
ments in Kensington Palace, 41 ; 
her conduct, 42 ; anecdotes of, 
43 ; letter to Lady de Clifford re- 
specting Princess Charlotte, ib.; 
her lauding at Greenwich, ib.; 
visited by Dowager Duchess of 
Brunswick, 56 ; letter to Prin- 
cess Charlotte, 57 ; lands at 
Dover, 221 ; arrival at Alderman 
Wood's in London, ib. ; her trial, 



224 ; her personal appearaiice at 
the trial, 225 ; and Teodoro 
Majocchi, 227 ; receives a visit 
of congratulation from Duke of 
Sussex, 242 

Carpenter, " Magna Carta," 137 

Castelcicala, Prince, at the Water- 
loo banquet 1852, 405 

Castlereagh, Lady, and the dog 
chase in the Champs Elysees, 172 

Castlereagh, Lord, 232; at Mrs. 
Norton's soiree, 336 ; stanza on, 
by Hook, ib. 

"Catch and Glee Club, "247 

Catherine, Empress, 10 

Caton, Miss (the late Lady Stafford), 
accompanies Wellington to Water- 
loo, 309 

Chad, Sir George, 322 

Chamier, Lieut. Frederick, at Corfu, 

Charles the Second, at Woburn 
Abbey Theatre, 384 

Charlotte, Princess of Wales, her 
governesses, 34 ; disputes be- 
tween George III. and the Prince 
of Wales respecting the care of, 
36 ; removal to Shooter's Hill, 
Countess of Elgin's, 41 ; letters 
irom to Elizabeth, Lady Albe- 
marle, 4448 ; her will, 49 ; 
consequences of the will, 51 ; fur- 
ther correspondence with Lady 
Albemarle, 51-53, 65, 66; first 
acquaintance with her grand- 
mother, Dowager Duchess of 
Brunswick, 56 ; visits Worthing, 
ib. ; letter from Princess Caroline, 
57 ; first acquaintance with the 
author, 62 ; her appearance and 
manners, abilities and habits, ib; 
her letter to the author, 64 ; her 
travelling alias, 68 ; her visit to 
Dean's Yard, ib. ; dislike for 
Dr. Fisher, her preceptor, 71 ; 
witnesses a Westminster battle, 
73 ; as a cook, 74 ; her visit to 
Lord Albemarle at Earl's Court, 
81 ; her conception of a " Black 
Brunswicker," 84 ; to Lady Al- 
bemarle presenting her with a 
horse, 94 ; to the same on her 
birthday 1812, 102, 104 ; mani- 
festo of her political creed to 
William Charles, Lord Albemarle, 

109 ; to t Lady de Clifford, 112 ; 
applies to Prince Regent for 
an establishment, 115 ; attends 
Prince Regent at Windsor Castle, 
117 ; engagement with Prince of 
Orange broken off, 119 ; at the 
Chapel Royal, 182 ; Marriage, 
183 ; death of, 190 
Chasse, General, narrow escape of 

his regiment at Waterloo, 152 
Chichester, ball at, 183 
Chesapeake and Shannon, action be- 
tween, 262 
"Chin-men," the two, Theodore 

Hook's verses upon, 337 
Cholmondeley, Lord Henry, candi- 
date for East Norfolk, 366 
Chorli, 355 

Chowringhee Theatre, Calcutta, 250 
Clanricarde, Lady, 322 
Clarence, Duke and Duchess of, at 

Lord Dudley's, 365 
Clarendon, Lord, "*a scene in the 
House of Lords between and 
Lord Derby, 406 
Clark, Lady, 305, 328 
Clifford, Dowager Lady de, visited 
by author and Lady Elizabeth 
Albemarle, 18 ; her personal 
courage, 33 ; appointed gover- 
ness of Princess Charlotte, 34 ; 
letter from George III. concern- 
ing the illness of Mrs. Campbell, 
35 ; from Prince of Wales, 36, 
38 ; in Princess Charlotte's will, 
50 ; attends Princess Charlotte 
to Worthing, 56 ; letters from 
Prince of Wales, 59, 60 ; resigns 
appointment of governess to 
Princess Charlotte, and her rea- 
sons for so doing, 112 ; letter 
from Princess Charlotte, ib. ; 
attends with Princess Charlotte 
at Windsor Castle, 117 ; leaves 
the Court, 118 ; attends a party 
at Carlton Palace, ib. ; visited by 
Moore the poet, 331 ; her death, 

Clinton, Lieut. -General Sir Wil- 
liam, at Waterloo, 146 
Cobbett, W., M.P. 368 
Cobra di Capello, 252 
Cockburn, Alexander, 318 
Coi/ure a la Brutus, 105 
Coiffure a la Guillotine, 105 



Coke, Ann Margaret, 228 

Coke, Elizabeth Wilh^lmina, 228 

"Coke of Norfolk" (Earl of Lei- 
cester), 211 ; his visit to Rome, 
212; M.P. for Norfolk, and 
"Father of the House of Com- 
mons," ib.; his picture by Gains- 
borough, ib. ; and the Norwich 
Corn Law Riot, 213 ; and his 
"battues, 315 

Coke and Wodehouse election and 
Betty Radcliffe, 88 

Colborne, Colonel Sir John, at 
Waterloo, 139 

Coleridge, anecdote of, 330 

Colman, George, 318 

Colville, Lieutenant-General Sir 
Charles, congratulations to the 
4th Brigade at Waterloo, 159 

Constantinople, 355 

Cooper, Ensign, killed at Waterloo, 

Copley, Sir John Singleton, King's 
Solicitor-General, 235 ; on Napo- 
leon's escape from Elba, 236 

Corfu, 188 ; desertions from, 189 ; 
a military execution at, ib. 

Cork, Dowager Lady, at General 
Phipps' dinner party, 318 

Cotton Garden, 226 

Court and De Veaux, Messrs., 
entertain the author and fellow- 
travellers at Kermanshah, 273 ; 
an Arab Chieftain and an Arab 
Moolah seek their protection, 
274 ; a duel between them pre- 
vented, 278 

Courvoisier, Francois, assassin of 
William, son of Francis Marquis 
of Tavistock, 391 

Crampton, Sir Philip, 304 ; stanza 
on, by Lady Clarke, 305 

Crib, Tom, the pugilist, his fight 
with Molyneux, 97 

Croft, Ensign, at Waterloo, 158 

"Crossing the line," 191 


Dacre, Lady, as a modeller, 320 ; 
her poems, &c., 321 ; as "Mrs. 
Hushem" in her own comedy 
of "Pomps and Vanities," ib.; 
Moore the poet's promise to join 
her private theatricals, ib. 

Dacre, Lord, his scat "the Hoo," 

Dalrymple, Major-General Sir John, 
Governor of Mauritius, 201 

Dalling, Lord (Henry Lytton Bul- 
wer), 318 

Darner, Mrs. Dawson, erects monu- 
ment at Brighton to the rneimory 
of Mrs. Fitzherbert, 373 ; and 
the Duke of Wellington, 3.77 

Darling, Sir Ralph, Governor of 
Mauritius, 202 

Darnley, Lord, visited by Duke of 
Orleans and author, 333 

Dartmouth, Earl of, a sufferer from 
the Burdett rioters, 93. 

Davoud, Pasha of Bagdad, visited 
by the author and his fellow- 
travellers, 269 ; a sketch of, 270 ; 
his death, 271 

Davoust, Madame, 144 

Denman, Thomas, Queen Caroline's 
Solicitor-General, 224, 235 

Derby, Lord, great grandfather to 
the present Lord, 106 

Derby, Lord, scene in the House of 
Lords between, and Lord Cla- 
rendon, 406 

Deville, Mr., lampseller and phre- 
nologist, 313; his opinion of 
author, ib.; of Duke of Welling- 
ton, 314 

De Veaux, see Court and De Veaux, 

Diebitsch, Field-Marshal, 345 ; a 
question of identity with, ib. 

Documents relating to the marriage 
of Mrs. Fitzherbert, 375 

Dover, return of Waterloo troops 
to, 179 

Dowton the actor, 318 

Dramatist, Elliston as Vapid in the, 

Dudley and Ward, Lord, afterwards 
Earl Dudley, 363 ; his opinion 
of Pavilion cookery, 864 ; his 
dinner to the Duke and Duchess 
of Clarence, 365 

Duff-Gordon, Lady, 218 

Dundas, Sir David, 16 

Dunlo, Lord, afterwards Lord 
Clancarty, 342 ; accompanies the 
author to Adrian ople, 344 ; at 
Shumla, 348 ; visits the Grand 
Vizier, 849 

E E 



Durham, Mrs., 74 
Duveluz, Mr., 344 


Eastern Question of 1829, aspect of 

the, 339 

Edgcumbe, Lady Mount-, 78 
Eldon, Lord Chancellor, from 
George III. respecting care of 
Princess Charlotte, 36, 40, 232 
Elgin, Countess of, removal of 

Princess Charlotte to, 41 
Ellice, Edward, 369 
Ellice, Mrs. Robert, 322 
Ellice, Mr., M.P., 224 
Elliot, Sir Gilbert, on the writings 

of Sir Eobert Adair, 11 
Ellis, Sir Henry Waltoii, his career 

as a soldier, 134 
Ellison, Mrs. Robert, 322 
Elliston as " Vapid " in the Drama- 
tist, 123 

Elphinstone, Miss Mercer, her 
banishment from Princess Char- 
lotte, 108 
Elphinstone, Mr. Monntstuart, 

Governor of Bombay, 256 
England, the threatened invasion 

of, by Napoleon, 17 
Erroll, Earl of, at Alma, referred 

to by M. Guizot, 136 
Erskine, John, fight with Paddy 

Brown, 74 

Erskiue, Lord, at Holkham sheep- 
shearing dinner, 220 
Euston Park, residence of " Junius," 

Duke of Grafton, 3 
Exmouth, Lord, and Brougham at 
Queen Caroline's trial, 229 

Farley, Rev. William, the author's 

first schoolmaster, 1 9 
Farquhar, Sir Robert Townseud, 

the Pro-Slave-Trade Governor of 

Mauritius, 195 

Farquhar's, Lady, dinner at, 336 
Fawcett, the actor, 318 
Fesch, Cardinal, 119 
Fishbourne, Polly, a Holkham 

game-keeper, 315 ; and the bull, 

316 ; an attempted liberty with, 

and its punishment, ib. 

Fisher, Dr. Bishop of Exeter, in 
Princess Charlotte's will, 50 ; 
appointed preceptor to Princess 
Charlotte, 70 ; his interference 
with Lady de Clifford in educa- 
tion of Princess Charlotte, 71 
Fitzherbert, Mrs., wife of George, 
Prince of "Wales, 18 ; her death, 
373 ; described by Home Tooke 
as "Her Royal Highness the 
Princess of "Wales," 374 ; docu- 
ments relating to her marriage, 
375 ; her miniature and George 
IV., 377 

Fitzroy, General W., his anecdote 
of "Juuius," Duke of Grafton, 
in the hunting-field, 4 
Fitzroy, Lord Charles, at Zante, 


Flanagan, Mr. Lewis, 120 
Fludyer, Ensign, at Waterloo, 158 
Follies of a Night, at Woburn 

Abbey Theatre, 382 
Foot, Cobbler, 125 
Fortescue, Earl, 377 
Foster, Mr. "William, Duke of 
Sussex his guest at Norwich, 

Four-in-hand Club, 86 
Fox, Charles James, his opinion of 
Elden Hall, 2; his first inter- 
view with Sir Robert Adair, 9 ; 
as Foreign Secretary and leader 
of the House of Commons, 1806, 
19 ; visited by William Charles, 
Lord Albemarle and family, 20 ; 
his fatal illness, 21 ; his personal 
appearance, ib.; anecdotes of, 
22 ; and the Prince of Wales at 
" The Palace," Newmarket, 23 ; 
bust of, presented by Princess 
Charlotte to William Charles, 
Lord Albemarle, 108 ; dinner to 
his memory at Norwich, 2)4 
Fox, Mrs. Charles, visited by Duke 
and Duchess of Bedford, &c., 
378 ; anecdote of her butler, 380 
" Fox and Goose," squib of the, 11 
Francis, Sir Philip, presumed author 
of "Junius" letters, anecdote of 
at a City feast, 411 ; and Mr. 
Allen at Lady Holland's, 412 
Franklin, Captain, 325 
Franquetot, Georgiana de, marriage 
to Lord Newark, 404 



Eraser, Charles, at Waterloo, 

French ideas of a Lord Mayor, 398 

French invasion, the threatened, 
(1805), 17 

Futteh Ali, King, 274 

Futteh Ali, Shah, presentation of 
the author and Mr. Ker Baillie 
Hamilton to, 280 ; his reception 
of them, ib.; his toys, 281 

Gagarin, Mrs., marriage and death, 
49 ; in Princess Charlotte's will, 

Galitzin, Prince Demetfio, Governor- 
General of Moscow, 290 

Galitzin, Prince Nicolas, aide-de- 
camp to Emperor of Russia, 291 

Gamier, Dr. Thomas, Dean of 
Winchester, 74 ; his memorable 
dance, 76 ; at an audience of 
Napoleon Buonaparte, ib. 

Gamier, Dr. Thomas, Dean of 
Lincoln, 75 

Gamier, George, 75 

Gamier, Mrs. Henry, her account 
of Dr. Garnier's visit to Paris, 

Gascoigne, Colonel, 334 

Gauntlett, George, Colonel, 303 

George III., letter to Lady de 
Clifford, 35 ; dispute with the 
Prince of Wales respecting care 
of Princess Charlotte, 36 ; reply 
to Prince of Wales respecting 
the same, 40 ; to Lord Eldon re- 
specting the same, ib.; enters 
iipon the 50th year of his reign, 
] 809, 91 ; as a canvasser <mt 
Windsor election, 210 

George, Prince of Wales, after- 
wards George IV., presentation of 
the author to, 18 ; his appear- 
ance and manners, ib.; and 
Charles James Fox, at "The 
Palace," Newmarket, 23 ; dispute 
with George III. respecting 
care of Princess Charlotte, 36 ; 
letter to Lady de Clifford respect- 
ing the same, ib.; memorandum 

to same, ib.; royal reply to the 
memorandum, 40 ; to Dowager 
Lady de Clifford on the birth of 
Francis Keppel, 59 ; forbidding 
Princess Caroline visiting Prin- 
cess Charlotte at Warwick House, 
60 ; his coronation day and 
journey to Carlton House, 101 ; 
his change in politics, 106 ; his 
attempts to convert his daughter, 
108 ; his conduct to Lady de 
Clifford, who resigns her appoint- 
ment of governess to Princess 
Charlotte, 112 ; his refusal to 
grant an establishment to Prin- 
cess Charlotte, 115 ; behaviour 
to Lady de Clifford at Carltou 
Palace, 118 ; to General William 
Keppel with assurance of friend- 
ship, 219 ; documents relating 
to his marriage with Mrs. Fitz- 
herbert, 375 ; and Mrs. Fitz- 
herbert's miniature, 377 

Gifford, Sir Robert, King's Attorney- 
General, 235 

Gillespie, Captain, 256 

Gladstone, William Ewart, 369 

Gleig, Chaplain-General, on Arthur 
Wellesley, 306 

Gloucester, Duke of, at the Hoik- 
ham battiies, 315 ; visited by 
the author, 332 

Gloucester, Duchess of, death of, 57 

Glyn, John, and the rent curtain at 
Westminster, 26 ; obtains the 
pardon of William Wade, 27 ; as 
Lord Chief-Justice, ib. 

Gordon, Sir Robert, ambassador at 
Constantinople, 342 

Gower, Lord and Lady Francis 
Leveson, 322 

Grafton, Duke of, see "Junius," 
Duke of Grafton 

Graham, Sergeant-Major, wounded 
at Waterloo, 145 

Grammont races, 136 

Grant, Mother, of Westminster, 29 

Grant, Mr., "Chin Grant," 337 

Greek convicts, at Santa Maura, 1 85 

Greenock, Lord, 131 

Grenville, George, and the "Junius" 
letters, 410 

Gretton, Mr., 65 

Grimaldi's song, "All the World's 
at Paris," 123 

E E 2 



Grey, Sir George and Lady, 407 
Grosvenor, Mr. Robert, afterwards 

Lord Ebury, 342 
Groukoff, Genera], of Nishney 

Novogorod, 289 
Gudin, General, anecdote of and 

Napoleon at Waterloo, 143 
Guilleminot, General Comte de, 

French Ambassador at Constan- 
tinople, 356 
Guilleminot, Madame de, as a hussar 

and ambassadress, 356 
Gully, ex-prize fighter, M.P. for 

Pontefract, 368 
Gunter, Mr., 80 
Gurdon, Mr. William, anecdote of 

Betty Radcliffe, and KeppeTs 

Travels, 89 
Gurney, Mrs. Hudson, anecdote of 

Crib the pugilist, 97 


Halifax, Dr., 76 

Hall, Major-General Gage John, Go- 
vernor, ad interim, of Mauritius, 
200 ; surrenders his post and 
returns to Europe, 201 

Hallam, 317 

Halberstadt, Duke of Brunswick's 
victory at, 83 

Hamilton, Mr. Ker Baillie, accom- 
panies the author on his overland 
route, 261 ; presented to Futteh 
All Shah, 280 ; parts company 
with, and returns home by Poland 
and Germany, 284 

Hard wick, General, his "snakery," 

Hardwick, Lady, to Captain Yorke 
on the Woburii theatricals, 381 

Hart, Captain, accompanies the 
author on his overland journey, 

Hassan Khan, the blind, 276 

Hastings, Marquis of, Governor- 
General and Commander-in-Chief 
of India, 248; his manners in 
public and private life, 249 ; his 
military career, ib.; an apologist 
for Richard III., 250 ; at Chow- 
ringhee Theatre, ib.; embarks 
for Europe, 256 

Hatfield House Corps Dramatique, 

Hay, Lord, at Grammont races, 
136 ; killed at Quatre Bras, ib. 

Heberfield, William, a " Westmin- 
ster favourite," 1 00 ; his passing 
of forged notes, 101 ; hanged at 
Newgate, ib. 

Helena, St., Island of, 206 

Hertford, Earl of, from Horace 
Walpole on the death of Lord 
Tavistock, 390 

Hervey, Lady, the late Duchess of 
Leeds, accompanies Wellington 
to Waterloo, 309 

Hibbert, Joe, a Holkham game- 
keeper, 315 ; anecdote of and 
Sir John Shelley, ib. 

Hill, Lord, 133; "Calvert's Entire" 
form part of his corps, 134 

Hill, Sir Noel, at Waterloo, 152 

Hobhouse, Mr., at Battle Abbey, 

Holkham, battues, 315 

Holkham sheep-shearing, 220 

Holkham visited by Princess Vic- 
toria and the Duchess of Kent, 

Holland, Lady and Sir Philip 
Francis, 412 

Holland, Lord, nephew of Charles 
Fox, 20 

Holman, James, the blind traveller, 

Hoo, the (Lord Dacres') 320 ; thea- 
tricals at, 321 

Hoogvoorst, Madame d', visits Mrs. 
Charles Fox, 379 

Hook, Theodore, and his visit to 
Cape Town, as related by Go- 
vernor-General Lord Charles 
Somerset, 203 ; the playwright 
for the Hatfield House private 
theatricals, 322 ; at Mrs. Norton's 
soiree, 335 ; his impromptu 
verses, ib. 

Hoste, Captain, of the Wasp, 341 

Howard, Lord Edward Fitzalan, 

Hubbard, Mother, vendor of guns 
to Westminster boys, 99 

Hudson, Mr. James, 360 

Hurley, the actor, 319 

Hutton, Mrs., in Princess Char- 
lotte's will, 50 



"India, Overland Journey from,"- 
when published, 317 

Jamestown, 206 

Jarnac, Comte de, account of Napo- 
leon's exhumation, 207 

Jeffs's, Eob, anecdote of C. J. Fox 
and the woodcock, 22 

Jekyll, the punster, 318 

Jomini, General, on Napoleon's plan 
of operations for Waterloo, 141, 

Jones sent to Newgate for con- 
demning the exclusion of the 
public from House of Commons 
debates, 92 

"Junius," Duke of Grafton, 3; 
his dvess and appearance, 4 ; 
his dislike to children, ib. ; as a 
sportsman, ib.; his friendship for 
the Keppels, 5 ; his opinion on 
Admiralty First Lords, 6 ; Lord 
Privy Seal, ib. ; on the relief of 
Gibraltar, ib. ; on Lord Keppel's 
scheme for relief of Gibraltar, ib. 
"Junius" letters, supposed authors 
of, 411 


Kean, Edmund, in Junius Brutus, 
105 ; in Othello, 240 

Kennedy's "Waterloo" quoted, 148 

Kent, Duchess of, visits Holkham, 

Kent, Duke of, to Col. Macmahon, 
72 ; his death, 218 

Keppel, Anne, Lady, letters to, 
from William Charles, Loid 
Albemarle, concerning Queen 
Caroline's trial, 228-238 

Keppel, Augustus Frederick, 67 ; 
aide-de camp to Prince of Orange, 
119 ; succeeds to family title 
" fifth Earl of Albemarle," 396 

Keppel, Capt. Frederick, author's 
cousin, 132 

Keppel, Charles James, 54 

Keppel, Edward, Eector of Quiden- 
ham, 68 

Keppel, Frederick, Bishop of Exe- 
ter, reference to his marriage, 58 

Keppel, Mrs. Frederick, 58 
Keppel, George Thomas, the author 
of these reminiscences, afterwards 
sixth Earl of Albemarle, birth and 
childhood, 1 ; death of his eldest 
brother, 2 ; his nursery govern ess, 
ib.; his reminiscences ^of "Jun- 
ius," Duke of Grafton, 4 ; early 
friendship with Sir Robert Adair, 
8 ; of Sir William Keppel, 15 ; 
of Sir David Dundas, 16 ; first 
visit to Dowager Lady Clifford, 
18 ; recollections of Miss Mary 
Georgiana Seymour, ib.; pre- 
sented to George Prince of Wales, 
ib. ; his first school, 19 ; his first 
visit to the King's hounds, ib.; 
visits Charles Fox, 20 ; first 
school reminiscences, 24 ; sees 
the chairing of Sir Francis Bur- 
dett, ib. ; entrance into West- 
minster School, 26 ; his "sub- 
stance " at Westminster, 28 ; 
description of fagging at West- 
minster, 30 ; recollections of his 
two grandmothers, Dowager Lady 
Albemarle ami Dowager Lady de 
Clifford, 31-33; "Pope Joan," 
32 ; first makes the acquaintance 
of Princess Charlotte, 62 ; letter 
from Princess Charlotte, 64 ; 
visit to Lowestoff, 66 ; visits 
Dr. Short with Princess Char- 
lotte, 69 ; his anecdote of the 
" long and short " of it, 70 ; 
recollections of Dr. John Fisher, 
Bishop of Exeter, ib. ; as "scul- 
lery maid," 74 ; has a half- holi- 
day, and the consequences, 80; gets 
a horse-whipping from Princess 
Charlotte, 82 ; presented to the 
Duke of Brunswick, ib. ; driver 
of the Norwich mail, 87 ; anec- 
dotes of Betty Eadcliffe, 88 ; on 
Longley's performance in Ter- 
rence's Phormio, 90 ; a Burdettite 
in the " Burdett Riots," 92 ; 
visits Astley's Amphitheatre, 98 ; 
introduced to Crib and Molyneux, 
the prize-fighters, ib.; spoils his 
"Brutus," 106; introduced to 
Lord Derby, 1811, ib.; presenta- 
tion to the Prince of Orange, 119 ; 
his meeting with Sir Thomas Pic- 
ton at Mr. Lewis Flanagan's, 120 ; 



witnesses the entrance of Bliicher 
and Platoff into London, 122 ; 
sees Elliston as Vapid in Drama- 
tist, 123 ; leaves Westminster, 
125 ; destined for the army, 127 ; 
gets his commission, 129 ; at 
Lansdowne House, ib.; ordered 
on service to Flanders, 130 ; at 
Ramsgate, ib.; accompanies Sir 
Colin Campbell to Ostend, ib.; 
arrives at Ghent, 132 ; joins his 
regiment, ib. ; ' ' Cal vert's En- 
tire," 133 ; at the Acren Canton- 
ment, 135 ; his sixteenth birth- 
day, ib.; at Grammont races, 
136; the " route," ib. ; his first 
sight of Waterloo, 138 ; first 
position at Waterloo, 139 ; pre- 
sent at the Grands Cou verts dinner 
in Paris, 148 ; a narrow escape, 
150 ; at Hougoumont, 155 ; 
march to Nivilles, 156 ; motley 
appearance of the regiment after 
battle, 157 ; at Mons, 158 ; meet- 
ing with Prince Frederick of the 
Netherlands, ib.; entry into 
France,- ib.; dines with Sir Colin 
Campbell, 159 ; at the capture of 
Cambray, 160 ; at St. Denis, first 
sight of Paris, 163 ; a welcome 
" tip " from Lady Albemarle, ib.; 
game chase, 164; at Chateau de 
St. Ouen, 165 ; encamped in the 
Bois de Boulogne, 167 ; entry 
into Paris, ib.; sees Louis XVIII. 
at Palais de Tuileries, 168 ; sees 
the " ghost " of Thomas Over- 
man, 169 ; visit from Mr. Alex- 
ander Adair, 170 ; meets Count 
Alfred de Vaudreuil, 176 ; dines 
at the Louvre, ib.; march through 
Paris, 178 ; billeted at Le Massy, 
179 ; cold reception at Dover, ib.; 
at Dover Castle, ib.; route through 
Hythe, Deal, and Ramsgate, 180; 
reflections upon the fate of the 
Sea Horse, 181 ; and Princess 
Charlotte at Chapel Royal, 182 ; 
joins regiment at Chichester, 183; 
embarks on board Kennersley 
Castle, sets sail for Zaute, j>.; 
life at Zante, ib.; from Zante to 
Santa Maura, 184 ; at Santa 
Maura, 185 ; an economical mess, 
186 ; a day's sport at Santa 

Maura, 187 ; a vicarious fast, ib.; 
ordered to Corfu, ib.; anecdote of 
Chamier, 188 ; witnesses a mili- 
tary execution, 189 ; dines with 
Sir Thomas Maitland, ib.; ordered 
home, 190 ; death of his mother, 
ib.; appointment to ensigncy in 
22nd foot, ib.; sets sail for Mauri- 
tius, 191 ; crossing the line, ib.; 
account of Mauritius, 193 ; on 
slavery, 197 ; aide-de-camp to 
Governor Dalrymple, 201 ; resi- 
dence at Mon Plaiser, Mauritius, 
ib.; account of a hurricane, 202 ; 
residence at Reduit, ib.; embarks 
for England, ib.; visits Cape 
Town, 202 ; visits Lord Charles 
Somerset, 203 ; reminiscences of 
Dr. James Barry, 204 ; visits 
Constantia, 205 ; opinions on 
Capo wine, ib.; at St. Helena, 
206 ; guest of Captain Power, 207 ; 
Napoleon's last moments, ib.; 
lands in England, 208 ; appointed 
equerry to Duke of Sussex, 209 ; 
accompanies the Duke to Hoik- 
ham, 211 ; first acquaintance with 
Earl of Leicester, ib.; at the 
Norwich Fox Dinner, 214 ; at 
Holkham sheep-shearing, 220 ; 
attends a fancy dress ball at 
Argyll Rooms, 221 ; and the 
Swiss shepherdesses, ib.; accom- 
panies his father to London, 222 ; 
meeting with Lord Brougham, 
ib.; at trial of Queen Caroline, 
224 ; present at interview be- 
tween the Queen and Teodoro Ma- 
jocchi, 227 ; returns to Ton- 
bridge Wells, 231 ; returns to 
London to hear Brougham's 
speech in defence of the Queen, 
ib.; sees Kean in Othello, 240 ; 
attends ball at Tonbridge Wells, 
243 ; visit to Battle Abbey, ib ; 
to Newstead Abbey, ib.; dines at 
the "Beefsteak Club," 244; 
ordered to India, 246 ; dines at 
" Catch and Glee Club," 247 ; sees 
first steamboat, ib.; lauds in 
India, 248 ; appointed aide-de- 
camp to Marquis of Hastings, 
Governor-General of India, ib.; 
first elephant ride, ib. ; private 
theatricals, 250 ; his debut -as 



" Dick Dashall," in The Way to 
get Married, ib.; at the Calcutta 
"Hunt," 251 ; has the pucka 
fever, ib.; reported death, ib.; 
sees a cobra capella, ib.; at Gene- 
ral Hardwick's " snakery," 254 ; 
witnesses a "suttee," ib.; ap- 
pointed aide-de-camp to Mr. 
John Adam, ad interim, 256 ; 
commences journey homewards, 
ib.;at Bombay, ib.; acquaintance 
with Mr. Mountstuart Elphin- 
stone, ib.; first acquaintance with 
Capt. Marryat, 257 ; preparations 
for overland journey, 261 ; his 
fellow-travellers, ib.; sets sail 
for Bussorah, ib.; beginning of 
his work, " Overland Journey from 
India," ib.; on board the Alli- 
gator, ib.; lauds at Bussorah, 
264 ; horse racing in the desert, 
ib.; prepares for trip up the 
Tigris, 265; takes leave of Alli- 
gator crew, 266 ; arrives at Koor- 
na, ib.; first interview with desert 
Arabs, 267 ; partridge-shooting 
in the desert, 268 ; encounter 
with a lioness, 269 ; arrives at 
Bagdad, ib.; visit to Babylon, ib. ; 
a sketch of Davoud Pasha of 
Bagdad, ib.; leaves Bagdad, 271 ; 
waylaid on journey to Kerman- 
shah, 272 ; adventure at Kisra 
Shereen, ib.; arrives at Kerman- 
shah, 273 ; reception, ib.; attends 
the funeral of late Prince-Gover- 
nor of Kermanshah, 276; and fellow 
travellers prevent a duel, 278 ; 
has an audience with the Prince- 
Governor, 279 ; arrives at Tehe- 
ran, 280 ; presented to the Shah 
Futteh Ali, ib.; reception, ib. : 
his interview with another Shah, 
282 ; visits Tabreez, ib.; his 
Tabreez valet, ib. ; his appearance 
in London, ib.; parts company 
with Mr. Ker Baillie Hamilton, 
284 ; projects a march through 
Russian Dominions, ib.; attempts 
to swim over the Araxes, 285 ; 
enters Russian territory, ib.; ar- 
rives at Sheesha, ib.; at Baku, 
ib.; at Kizliar, ib.: Steppe travel- 
ling, 286 ; anecdote concerning 
&malreclcls, ib.; arrives at Astra- 

khan, 287 ; visits some sturgeon 
fisheries, ib.; at Nishney Novo- 
gorod fair, 289 ; dines with Gene- 
ral Groukoff, ib.; leaves Nishney 
Novogorod and arrives in Mos- 
cow, 290 ; at St. Petersburg, 
291 ; an Imperial Aide-de-Camp, 
ib. ; under secret Russian surveil- 
lance, 292 ; leaves St. Peters- 
burg, 293 ; meeting with General 
Jomini, 294 ; visits Cronstadt, 
ib.; Madame de Zabloukoff's re- 
velations of Russian disaffection 
for Emperor Alexander, 295 ; 
meeting with Sir Robert Ker 
Porter, 297 ; returns to England, 
298 ; overtaken by a storm, ib.; 
runs into Finland, ib.; lands at 
Lowestoft, 299 ; obtains a Cap- 
taincy, 302 ; on "the boards" at 
"Wells-on-Sea, 302 ; joins his 
regiment, 303 ; introduction of 
Torrens' Field Exercises into the 
service, ib.; in the "Fifteen 
Acres," ib.; en route for Ennis- 
killen, ib.; appointed aide-de- 
camp to Lord Wellesley, 304 ; 
present at his marriage, 305 ; 
remarks upon the Wellesleys in 
India, 307 ; impression made upon 
by death of Alexander, 309; enters 
upon a tour of waiting to the Duke 
of Sussex, 310 ; his acquaintance 
with Perkins Magra 312 ; visits 
Deville, the phrenologist, 313 ; 
accompanies Duke of Sussex to 
Holkham, 315 ; the battues at 
Holkham, ib.; appears in print, 
"Overland Journey from India " 
published, 317 ; reminiscences of 
literary acquaintances, 317, 318 ; 
interview with Duke of Welling- 
ton, 319 ; attains his majority, 
ib.; at "The Hoo," Lord Dacres, 
320 ; as "Cosy" in Lady Dacres' 
Pomps and Vanities, in private 
theatricals at " The Hoo," 321 ; 
joins Hatfield House company, 
322 ; his fellow-comedians, ib., 
and Charles Young the actor, ib. ; 
recites an epilogue in the cha- 
racter of the Ghost of Queen 
Elizabeth, 324 ; at Harrington 
House theatre, ib.; member of 
the "Travellers' Club" ib.; of 



the "Raleigh" 325; returns to 
Ireland, 326 ; anecdote of Chief 
Baron O'Grady and Chief-Justice 
Bush, 327 ; at Lady Morgan's 
"Nutshell," ib.; acquaintance 
with Moore the Poet, 330 ; at 
Bowood, Lord Lansdowne's seat, 
ib. ; a day with Moore, ib. ; anec- 
dote of Moore, ib.; lodgings in 
Bury Street, 331, enters Military 
College, Sandhurst, 332 ; as the 
guest of Duke and Duchess 
of Gloucester, ib.; attends the 
death-bed of Lady de Clifford, 
ib.; meets Duke of Orleans at 
Cobham Hall, 333 ; gives Lady 
Elizabeth Brownlow's account of 
the visit, ib.; yacht excursion 
with the Duke, 334 ; meets Lord 
Anglesea and his sons, 335 ; a 
soiree at Mrs. Norton's, ib.; aspect 
of the Eastern Question in 1829, 
339 ; sets out for Turkey, 340, 
at Ancona, Naples, Otranto, 
Corfu, Zante, ib.; Campbell's 
direction post at Zante, ib.; 
arrives at ^Egina, 341 ; trip to 
Athens in the Wasp, ib.; the 
boatswain of H.M.S. Wasp, 342; 
joins the British Squadron, ib.; 
arrives at Constantinople, ib.; 
visits Sir Robert Gordon, the 
ambassador, ib.; his fellow guests, 
ib. ; Captain Lyons and his sons, 
343 ; acquaintance with the late 
Lord Lyons, ib.; en route to 
Adrianople, accompanied by Lord 
Dunlo, 344 ; guestof Mr. Duveluz, 
ib.; on Field-Marshal Diebitsch, 
ib.; departure from Adrianople, 
346 ; to Selimno, Pass of the 
Balcan, 847 ; arrives at Shuinla, 
348 ; wretched quarters, ib.; wit- 
nesses an execution, ib.; visits 
the Grand Vizier, ib. ; his personal 
appearance, ib.; instructs him in 
the art of war, 349 ; departure 
from Shumla, through the Pravati 
Pass, 352 ; first night's quarters, 
ib.; at Karnabat, 353 ; at Kibel- 
lerah, ib.; adventures by flood 
and field, ib.; at Louleh Bourgaz, 
354 ; intense cold of the Balcan 
valley, ib.; at Chorli, 355 ; arrives 
at Constantinople, ib.; ball at the 

French Embassy, 356; the French 
ambassador and ambassadress, 
ib.; journey in Asia Minor, ib.; 
returns to England, ib.; visit to 
Paris, 358 ; reception by Louis 
Philippe, ib.; Aumale and Albe- 
marle, 359 ; returns to England, 
ib.; " Keppel's Journey across 
the Palcan " published, 360 ; at 
the Pavilion, Brighton, 359 ; a 
candidate for East' Norfolk, 365 ; 
elected the chairing, 366 ; takes 
his seat in the first Reformed 
Parliament, 367 ; visits Holkham 
to meet Princess Victoria , and 
Duchess of Kent, 372 ; the history 
of two miniatures, George IV. 
and Mrs. Fitzherbert, 377 ; on 
Queen Victoria's accession, ib.; 
first meeting with Horace Smith 
at Brighton, 378 ; some anecdotes 
of him, ib.; appointed Groom-in- 
Waiting to Queen Victoria, ib.; 
visits Charles Fox's widow, 379 ; 
in attendance on the Queen at her 
marriage, 380 ; presented to the 
Princess Royal, ib.; termination 
of his Court life, ib.; promoted 
to a lieutenant-colonelcy, ib.; a 
member of the Woburn Abbey 
theatricals, 382, 384; on Reynolds' 
portraits of Lady Elizabeth Kep pel 
386; MemberforLymington,1847, 
31)5 ; accepts the " Chiltern Hun- 
dreds," ib.; anecdote of Alderman 
Reynolds, 396 ; succeeds to the 
family title as sixth Earl of Albe- 
marle, ib.; accompanies the Lord 
Mayor to Paris, ib.; and Right 
Hon. James Stuart Wortley, ib.; 
dines at the Hotel de Ville, 398 ; 
presented to the Prince-President 
of the Republic, 399 ; at the per- 
formance of Les Cameleons in 
Paris, ib.; his "Memoirs of the 
Marquess Rockingham " pub- 
lished, 403 ; the bearer of the 
Cap of Maintenance (1852), 404 ; 
present at the marriage of Lord 
Newark, ib. ; interview with the 
Duke of Wellington, ib.; present 
at the Duke of Wellington's last 
Waterloo banquet, 405 Description 
of a scene in the House of Lords 
between Lord Clarendon and 



Lord Derby, 406 ; dines at Lord 
John Russell's with Mrs. Beecher 
Stowe, 407 ; father of the Busby 
trust, 409 ; dinner with Rogers 
the Poet, 410 ; anecdote of Sir 
Philip Francis at a City feast, 
411 ; concludes his fifty years' 
autobiography, 412 

Keppel, Admiral, 5 ; created Vis- 
count, 6 ; First Lord of the 
Admiralty, ib.; his plan for the 
relief of Gibraltar, 7 ; his scheme 
approved, ib.; and the Windsor 
election, 210 

Keppel, William, brother of author, 
his death, 2 

Keppel, William Charles, fourth 
Earl of Albemsfrle (father of 
the author, sixth Earl of Albe- 
marle), appointed master of the 
King's buckhounds,19 ; residence 
at Swinley Lodge, ib. ; visits 
Charles Fox, 20 ; is visited by 
Princess Charlotte, 81 ; his opinion 
on fighting, 95 ; Henry Pearce, 
his favourite of the prize-ring, ib.; 
offer of mastership of the horse 
by the Prince Regent, 107 ; his 
refusal, ib. ; his appointment to 
the post in 1830, ib. ; letter from 
Princess Charlotte, a manifesto of 
her political creed, 109 ; presides 
at the Fox Dinner at Norwich, 
211, 214 ; and the Norwich Corn 
Law riot, 213 ; Duke of Sussex 
his guest, 218 ; summoned to trial 
of Queen Caroline, 222 ; to Lady 
Anne Keppel concerning trial of 
Queen Caroline, 228-238 ; his 
opinion of the bishops on first 
reading of Pains and Penalties 
Bill, 238 ; from Duke of Sussex, 
299 ; appointed master of the 
horse to William IV., 359 ; Stud 
House assigned to him as a resi- 
dence, ib. ; visited by the King, 
ib.; and Mrs. Fitzherbert's docu- 
ments, 375 ; his death, 396 
Keppel, Sir William, recollections 
of, 15 ; receives assurance of 
friendship from George IV., 

Keppel, William Anne, second Earl 
of Albemarle, "Junius," Duke 
of Grafton, his guest at Paris, 5 

Kinsale, wreck of transport- ships 
off, 181 

Kinnaird, Mr. Douglas, 243 

Kisra Shereen, adventure at, 272 

Kizliar, 285 

Knight, Miss Cornelia, a lady com- 
panion to Princess Charlotte, 112 

Koorna, 266 

Lake, Captain, 1J4 

Lamb, Dr., accompanies the author 
on his overland route, 261 

Lansdowne, Lord ; the author 
spends Christmas holiday at his 
seat, Bowood, and is introduced 
to Moore the Poet, 329 

Lawrence, Captain of the Chesa- 
peake, 262 

Leach,Vice-Chancellor,his notoriety 
at time of Queen Caroline's trial, 
240 ; and Othello, 241 

Leeds, Duchess of, see Hervey,Lady 

Leeds, Dowager Duchess of, ap- 
pointed governess to Princess 
Charlotte, 118 

Leicester, Earl of, see "Coke of 
Norfolk " 

Leitrim, Eail of, on Arthur Welles- 
ley, 306 

Leonforte, schooner at Zante, 184 

Leopold, Prince of Saxe Coburg, 
and Sir Robert Adair, 15 ; at the 
Holkham battues, 315 ; marriage, 

Lindsay, General, 366 

Lion and Sun, Knights of the, 273 

Listen the actor, 318 

Littlington, Abbot, 124 

Liverpool, Lord, at Queen Caroline's 
trial, 233 ; withdraws Pains and 
Penalties Bill, 242 

Lloyd, Charles, and the "Junius 
letters, 411 

Loftus, Major, letter to George Lord 
Albemarle concerning the murder 
of Joseph Barnes, 311 

Longley, Charles (late Archbishop 
of Canterbury), "Liberty Boy" 
at Westminster, 90 ; performance 
of "Cratinus" in Terence's PJwr- 
mio, ib. 

Louis XVIII. departs from the 
Palace of the Tuileries, 128 ; 



proclamation of the French, 161 ; 
and the Chateau de St. Ouen, 
165 ; at the Palais des Tuileries, 

Louis, Mrs., her relations with 
Princess Charlotte, 49 ; in Prin- 
cess Charlotte's will, 50 

Louis, Port, 193 

Louise, Princess of Stolberg, her 
admiration for Sir Sidney Coke, 

Louleh Bourgaz, 354 

Lowe, Sir Hudson, and his alleged 
treatment of Napoleon at St. 
Helena, 206 

Lowther Castle East Indiaman, 246 

Lumsden, Mr. Graver, account of a 
"Suttee," 255 

Lyons, Captain, afterwards Admiral 
Lord (and his sons) on board 
H.M.S. Blonde, 343; his in- 
timate acquaintance with the 
author, ib. 

Lytton, Lord, 318 


Macaulay, Lord, 318 

Macdonald, Sir James, 45 

Macdouald, Sir Archibald Keppel, 
birth, 233 

McGrath, Ensign (Perkins Magra), 
wounded at the siege of the Ha- 
vanuah, 311 ; as equerry to the 
Duke of Sussex, 312 ; his death, 

Me Kenzie, Lieutenant, at Santa 
Maura, 186 

Mackenzie, General, his opinion of 
"Calvert's Entire," 133 

Mackintosh, Sir James, 216, 317 

Macmahon, Colonel, letter from 
Duke of Kent to, 72 

Macnemara, Count de, Admiral, 
194; his death, 195 

Magra, Perkins, see McGrath, En- 

Maitland, Captain Frederick, of 
H.M.S. Asia, 357 

Maitland, General P., 136 

Maitland, Sir Thomas, Lord High 
Commissioner of the Ionian Is- 
lands, 187 ; his nickname "King 

Tom," 188 

Majocchi, Teodoro, a witness at 

trial of Queen Caroline, 227 
Malmesbury, Lord, his impressions 

of the Duchess of Brunswick, 

March, Lord, aide-de-camp to 

Prince of Orange, 120 
Markhain, Mr., "crosses the line," 

Marlborough, Duke of, applicant 

for a command in army of Louis 

XIV., 307 
Marryat, Captain Frederick, 257 ; 

his caricatures, ib.; his description 

of " clawing off a lee-shore," 258 ; 

a candidate for Parliament, 259 
Martin, Captain, G.C.B., 341 
Martindale, Sally, the author's 

nurse, 3 

Martineau, Harriet, 217, 361 
Massy, Le, a village near Paris, 


Matthews, Charles, 318 
Mauritius, 192 ; during the reign of 

terror, 1 93 ; Red Republicanism, 

ib.; during the Revolution War, 

194 ; its surrender to the British, 

195 ; slave trade, ib.; mortality 
of the population, 200 ; the go- 
vernors of, ib. 

Mazerovitch, Colonel, Russian 

chargt d'affaires, 284 
Mechlin, Bishop of, 79 
Melbourne, Lord; resignation of, 

Melville, Lord, lost olf Kinsale, 

Mercer, Captain, extract from his 

"Waterloo," 151, 152 
Miniatures of George IV. and Mrs. 

Fitzherbert, history of, 375 
Mirabeau's description of Augusta, 

Dowager Duchess of Brunswick, 


Mitchell, Brigadier, 134 
Moira, Lord, employed by Prince 

Regent to seduce some Whigs 

from their political allegiance, 

Moles, Bill, the author's soldier 

servant at Waterloo, 139 
Molyneux, the American pugilist, 

his fight with Tom Crib, 97 
Monk, Charles Atticus, at West- 
minster, 28 



Monteith, Major, of Tabreez, 282 

Moolah, Ali, and his relations with 
Davoud Pasha of Bagdad, 275 ; 
his idea of duelling, 278 

Moore, Sergeant, his advice to En- 
signs, 146 

Moore, the poet, reference to his 
Journal concerning Arthur Wel- 
lesley, 314 ; his promise to join 
Lady Dacre's private theatricals, 
321 ; his introduction to the 
author, 330 ; his melodies, ib.; 
his home, Sloperton Cottage, ib.; 
anecdote of, ib.; extracts from 
his diary, 331 ; visits Lady de 
Clifford, ib.; visits his old lodg- 
ings, Bury Street, St. James's, 
ib.; introduced to Lord Sligo, ib. 

Morgan's, Lady, " Nutshell," 327 

Mor'peth, Lord, 322 

Moscow, 290 

Musgrove, Sir Charles, Lord Mayor 
of London, his visit to Paris, 


Napoleon Buonaparte, his threat- 
ened invasion of England, 17 ; 
Dr. Gamier's account of a levee, 
76 ; lands from Elba on coast of 
France, 127 ; enters Paris, 128 ; 
his criticisms upon Duke of Wel- 
lington, 131 ; opens the cam- 
paign, 136 ; delay of Battle of 
Waterloo, 141 ; the same ex- 
plained by General Gudin, 143 ; 
by Madame Duvast, 144 ; and 
Miss Brooke at St. Helena, 206 ; 
alleged ill-treatment by Sir Hud- 
son Lowe, ib.; last moments at 
St. Helena, 207 

Napoleon, Prince Louis, President 
of the French Republic, 400 

Nasir Ali Meerza, a " little High- 
ness," at the funeral of his father, 

Nazir Aboo, 265 

Newark, Lord, marriage, 404 

Ney, Marshal, his part in the resto- 
ration of Napoleon Buonaparte, 

Nishney Novogorod Fair, 289 

Nivflle, march to, 137 

Norfolk, chairing in 1831, 367 
Norton's, Mrs., a snirSe at, 335 
Norwich, Corn-Law Riot, 213 ; 
Fox Dinner, 21 4 ; toasts proposed 
at the dinner, ib.; pre-eminent 
for intellectual character of its 
leading citizens, 216 
Nott, Rev. George, Chaplain to 
Princess Charlotte, 47 ; in Prin- 
cess Charlotte's will, 50 

O'Brien, Lady Susan, extract from 

Journal concerning Princess 

Charlotte's will, 50 
O'Connell, Duke of Sussex on the 

arrest of, 300 

Oelfern, Duke of Brunswick's vic- 
tory at, 83 
O'Grady, Chief Baron, anecdote of, 

and Chief Justice Bush, 327 
' ' Ojibbeways " visit to William IV. , 

Oldenberg, Grand Duchess of, at 

Dean's Yard, 122 
O'Meara's" Voice from St. Helena," 

Oms, Senor, of Kermanshah, 273 ; 

imprisoned, 279 
Opie, Mrs., 216 
Orange, Prince of, engagement with 

Princess Charlotte broken, 119 ; 

in Paris, ib.; English staff of, 

Orleans, Duke of, visits Cobham 

Hall, 333 ; and the "old salt," 


Osborne, Bernal, 403 
Ossington, Lord, on Lord Spencer's 

opinion of pugilism, 96 
Otkt llo, acting of, at time of Queen 

Caroline's trial, 241 
Ouen, Chateau de St, and Louis 

XVIII., 165 
"Overland Journey from India," 

by the author, published, 317 
Overman, Thomas, wounded at 

Waterloo, 150; his "Ghost," 

" Oxford Blues " and the Burdett 

Riots, 92 ; their dress, ib.; how 

they obtained the sobriquet of 

"Piccadilly Butchers," 93 



Page, Dr. William, 29 ; the au- 
thor's opinion of him, 126 
Paget, Lady Eleanora, 382 
Pains and Penalties Bill, second 

reading, 235 ; its withdrawal, 242 
" Palace," Newmarket, residence of 

Charles the Second, 23 
Paris, 163 ; Palais des Tuileries, 

168 ; Theatre of the Palais Royal, 

ib.; a dinner at the Louvre, 176 ; 

march through, 178 ; Lord Mayor 

Musgrove's visit to, 3!)7 
Parliament of 1831 dissolved by 

William IV., 361 
Parliament of 1833, 367 
Parry, Captain, 325 
Paterson, Mrs., marriage with Lord 

Wellesley, 305 ; and Duke of 

Wellington visit Waterloo, 309 
Paull, Mr. James, duel with Sir 

Francis Burdett, 24 ; death, 25 
Peach, Mr. N,, candidate for East 

Norfolk, 366 
Pearce, Hemy, "the game chick en," 

champion fighter of England, 96 ; 

his fight with James Belcher, ib. 
Pechell, Captain, anecdote of Ho- 
race Smith concerning, 378 
Persian "Wake," a, 278 
"Peter Booth" mountain, 192 
Phillips, Sir George, 317 
Phipps's, Charles, as "King of 

Sweden," at Hatfield House, 323 
Phipps, Colonel, 322 
Phipps's, General, dinner party at, 

Picton, Sir Thomas, G.C.B., his 

death at Waterloo, 121 ; his first 

and second funerals, ib. 
Pitt, William, deathJ1806), 19 
Platoff, Count, in London, 122 
Plunkett, Lord, his definition of 

"personal," 326 
Pomps and Vanities, a comedy by 

Lady Dacre, acted at "The 

Hoo," 321 
Porter, Sir Robert Ker, historical 

painter to Emperor Alexander, 


Power, Captain, of St. Helena, 206 
Pravati Pass, the, 352 
Provost-Marshal, his reception by 

the English at Cambray, 162 

Pryke, Thomas, execution of, for 
deserting at Corfu, 189 

" Queen Elizabeth's Ghost " at Hat- 
field House, 324 


Radcliffe, Betty, landlady of the 
"Bell Inn," Thetford, 87; and 
the Duke of York, 88 ;. and Mr. 
Coke, ib.; and KeppeVs Travels, 
89 ; as a postboy, ib.; a violent 
anti-Queenite, 243 

" Raleigh Club," the, 325 

" Red Barns," Tattersall s breeding- 
farm, 23 

Redschid Mohammed Pasha, Grand 
Vizier, 349 

Reeve, Henry, 217 

Reynolds, Sir Joshua, his portraits 
of Lady Elizabeth Keppel, 385 

Rice, Lieut. -Col., at Waterloo, 147 

Richards, Recorder, at Beefsteak 
Club, 244 

Richmond, Dowager Duchess of, 
and her visit to Dublin, 304 

Rigby, Right Honourable Richard, 
to John (fourth) Duke of Bedford 
on illness of Mai'chioness of Tavis- 
tock, 393 

Roberts, the state-coachman to 
William IV. and the guard of 
honour, 361 

Robinson, Henry Crabb, 216 

Robinson, Lance-Sergeant, killed 
at Waterloo, 149 

Rogers, Samuel, breakfast guests, 
318 ; a dinner with, 411 ; death 
of, 412 

Rokeby, General Lord, at the 
Waterloo Banquet, 1852, 405 

Roos, Baron, Governor of Cambray, 

Ros, Lord de, and the coronation 
day of George IV., 101 

Ross, Mrs., on the battle-field, 145 

Ross, Sir Patrick, Capo del Governo 
of Santa Maura, 186 ; state din- 
ner given by, 187 



Russell, Lord John, his epilogue to 

Follies of a Night, at "Woburn 

Abbey, 383 ; entertains Mrs. 

Beecher Stowe at Pembroke 

Lodge, 407 

Russell, Lord Alexander, 382, 383 
Russell, Lord William, at Qui- 

denham, 105 
Russia, Emperor of, at Dean's 

Yard, 122 
Russian surveillance, 291 ; Corvee, 

the, 295 ; military colonization, 


Sage, Captain T. le, 196 

Saladin, Madame, 77 

Salisbury, Lady, and her private 

theatricals, 320 
Sandwich, Lord, to John, fourth 

Duke of Bedford, on theatricals, 

Sandys, Lord, at the Waterloo 

Banquet, 1852, 405 
Santa Maura, quarters in the fort 

of, 185 ; society at, 186 ; econo- 
mical mess at, ib. 
Scott, Sir Walter, his allusion to 

Miss Lydia White, 317 
Sea Horse, troop-ship, fate of the, 

fiegur, quotation from Memoirs of 

Count, on Napoleon's painful 

malady, 141, 142 
Selimno Pass, the, 347 
"Seven Chimneys," 98 
Seymour, Miss Mary Georgiana, 

presents the author to George, 

Prince of Wales, 18 ; see also 

Darner, Mrs. Dawson 
Shannon and Chesapeake, action, 

" Sharp's Conversation," little 

dining-room, 318 
Shelley, Mr., 382 

Short, Rev. Dr. William, sub- 
preceptor to Princess Charlotte, 


Siborne's account of Waterloo, 146 
Sidmouth, Lord, 232 
Slavery system, working of the, 

197 ; Mrs. Beecher Stowe's 

account of, ib.; advertisements 
for slaves from Mauritius Gazette, 
198 ; slave auction, 199 

Sligo, Lord, introduced to Moore 
the Poet, 331 

Smatreetels, anecdote concerning, 

Smith, Horace, at Brighton, 378 ; 
anecdotes of, ib. 

Smith, James, 318 

Smith, Lieutenant, his conduct in 
famous action between the Chesa- 
peake and Shannon, 262 

Smith, Sydney, anecdote of negroes, 
199, 317 

Somerset, Lord Charles, Governor- 
General of Cape Town, 203 

Soult, Marshal, 128 

Spencer, Earl, his enthusiasm for 
pugilism, 95 

Spencer, Earl, retires from leader- 
ship of House of Commons, 
370 ; anecdote of and a tenant, 

Spineto, Nicholas Doria Marchese 
di, interpreter at Queen Caroline's 
trial, 230 

Stanley, Dean, note concerning 
Abbot Littlington, 124 

Stanley, Geoffrey, afterwards Lord 
Derby, 106, 369 

Stephenson, Mr., secretary to Duke 
of Sussex, 244 

Stourton, Lord, 374 

Stovin, Sir Frederick, 121 

Stowe, Mrs. Beecher, at Lord Rus- 
sell's, 407 ; her idea of fox-hunt- 
ing, 408 

Stratford, Lord, visits Mrs. Charles 
Fox, 379 

Sumner, Canon, 240 

Sussex, Duke of, his political debut, 
210 ; attends public dinner at 
Norwich, 211 ; at the house of 
William Foster of Norwich, 218 ; 
Lord Albemarle's guest, ib. ; 
returns to Kensington, ib. ; at 
Holkham sheep-shearing, 220 ; 
at Tonbridge Wells during trial 
of Queen Caroline, 224 ; visits 
the Queen after the withdrawal of 
the Pains and Penalties Bill, 
242 ; visits Battle Abbey, 243 ; 
Newstead Abbey, ib. ; Holkham, 
ib. ; the author enters on a tour 



of waiting upon, 310 ; his punc- 
tuality, ib. 

"Suttee," a, 254; abolition of, 
255 ; details of by Mr. Graver 
Lumsden, ib. 

Sykes, footman to William IV., his 
toast-drinking, 360 ; in Punch, 

Tabreez, 282 

Tattersall, Mr. Edmund, his anec- 
dote of George, Prince of Wales, 
at Newmarket, 23 

Taylor, Edward, of Norwich, 215, 

Taylor, Mrs. John, the "Madame 
Royland" of Norwich, 217 

Taylor, John, of Norwich, his songs 
at the Fox Dinner, 215 

Taylor, Philip, of Marseilles, 217 ; 
his title of " Le Pere des Ouv- 
riers," ib. 

Taylor, Richard, of Norwich, 217 

Taylor, Tom, on Reynolds's por- 
traits of Lady Elizabeth Keppel, 

Tavistock, Lord and Lady, at Quid- 
enham, 105 

Tavistock, Elizabeth, wife of Fran- 
cis, Marquess of, her portrait by 
Reynolds, 385 ; Horace Walpole's 
account of her proposal and ac- 
ceptance, 387 ; death of her hus- 
band, 391 ; birth of her third son, 
William, ib. ; to Duke of Bedford 
on the inoculation of her children, 
392 ; her illness, 393 ; ordered to 
Lisbon, ib. ; her death, ib. 

Tavistock, Francis, Marquess of, 
his marriage, 388 ; to (fourth) 
Duke of Bedford, on same, ib. ; 
to Mr. Robinson, on same, 389 ; 
his death, 391 

Terence's comedy of the Adelphi at 
Westminster 86 ; Phormio, 90 

Thurlow, Lord and the relief of 
Gibraltar, 7 

Ticknor, Mr. George, extract from 
Journal on Napoleon at Water- 
loo, 144 

Tidy, Col. Francis Skelly, 183, 
147 ; account of capture of Cam- 

bray, 160 ; writes from Le Massy, 

Tidy, Major-General Sir Thomas 
Holmes, assistance to the author 
in his account of Waterloo, 153 

Tollendal, Lally, 78 

Tooke, Home, and Mrs. Fitzherbert, 

Torrens' Field Exercises introduced 
into the army, 303 

Townshend, Honourable Sophia, 

Transport ships, unseaworthy, 181 

" Travellers' Club," the, 324 

Trotter, Sir Coutts, 366 

Trotter, Mr. James, 121 

Tsaposhemkotf, Mr., owner of Kar- 
maziack fishery, 289 

Turkey, the author sets out for, 

Turuor, Captain William, at Water- 
loo, 134, 148 ; letter to J. P. 
Clarke, dated Mont St. Jean, 

Tyrwhitt, Robert, his visit to Prin- 
cess Charlotte, 84 

Tyrwhitt, Sir Thomas, 224 


Udney, Mrs., Sub-governess to Prin- 
cess Charlotte, 34 ; attends Prin- 
cess Charlotte to Worthing, 56 

Uxbridge, Lord, 128 

Vaudreuil, Count Alfred de, 176 
Vernon, Mr. Grenville, as "Jilsehi- 

nus" in Adelphi, 86 
Vernon, Dr., Archbishop of York, 


Versailles, Les grandes Eux de, 399 
Victoria, Princess (afterwards Qaeen 
Victoria), at the age of seven, 
311 ; visits Holkham, 372 ; her 
accession, 378 ; opens her first 
parliament, and coronation, ib. ; 
her marriage, 380 ; birth of Prin- 
cess Royal, ib. 
Villiers, Mr. Edward, 342 



Vincentz, Marcus, the murderer of 
James Barnes, his execution, 311 

" Vive Henri Quatre ! " and Bum- 
melo, 173 


Wade, William, anecdote of, and 
John Glyn at Westminster, 27 ; 
sentenced to death, ib. ; his par- 
don obtained by John Glyn, ib. 

Walcheren Expedition, debate in 
House of Commons, 91 

Wales, Caroline, Princess of, see 
Caroline, Princess of Wales 

Wales, Charlotte, Princess of, see 
Charlotte, Princess of Wales 

Wales, Frederick, Prince of, see 
Frederick, Prince of Wales 

Wales, George, Prince of, see George, 
Prince of Wales 

Walpole, Horace, reference to Sir 
Edward Walpole's daughters, 58 ; 
on Mr. Coke and Countess of 
Albany, 212 ; account of the 
proposal and acceptance of Mar- 
quess of Tavistock, by Lady 
Elizabeth Keppel, 387 ; to Karl 
of Hertford on the death of Lord 
Tavistock, 390 

Walpole, Laura, 58 

Walsh, Dr., his account of the Bal- 
can, 339 

Ward, Mrs., reminiscences quoted, 

Warren, Capt. F., of the Spartiate, 

Wasp, boatswain of H.M.S., 341 ; 
Captain Hoste of the, 342 

Waterloo, 138 ; commencement of 
the battle, 145 ; James Graham 
wounded, ib.; Siborne's account 
of, 147 ; narrow escape of the 
author at, 150 ; charge of Cui- 
rassiers, 153 ; June 19th, march 
to Nivelles, 156 ; June 20th, at 
Mons, 158 ; June 21st, at Le Ga- 
teau Cambresis, 159 ; June 23rd, 
halt of the Prussian and British 
armies, 160 ; June 24th, capture 
of Cambray, ib.; surrender of 
citadel of Cambray, 161 ; June 
27-30th, halts at Puzeaux, Petit 
Crevecceur, Clermont, La Cha- 

pelle, and Senlis, 162, 163 ; July 
1st, St. Denis, 163 ; July 2nd, 
bivouac at Chateau de St. Ouen, 
165 ; July 3rd, to St. Denis, 167, 
see Paris 

Webster, Henry, aide-de-camp to 
Prince of Orange, 120 

Webster, Sir Godfrey, visited by 
Duke of Sussex, 243 

Wellesley, Arthur, Duke of Wel- 
lington, at Vienna, 128 ; services 
of the 4th Brigade at Waterloo, 
acknowledged in his despatches, 
152 ; at Le Gateau, ib. ; his school 
career, 306 ; as aide-de-camp to 
Lord Westmoreland, ib. ; his fri- 
volity, ib. ; refused an appoint- 
ment in the Inland Revenue, 
307 ; the importance he attached 
to the provisioning of troops, 308 ; 
his first visit to his last battle- 
field, 309 ; the effect it had upon 
him, ib.; visits Deville, the phre- 
nologist, 313 ; at the Hatfield 
House private theatricals, 324 ; 
his mock homage to the ghost of 
Queen Elizabeth, ib. ; and Mrs. 
Fitzherbert's documents, 376 ; his 
discovery of Mrs. Fitzherbert's 
miniature, 377 ; his last public 
pageant, 404 ; at the marriage of 
Lord Newark, ib.; his last speech 
in Parliament, 405 ; his last 
Waterloo banquet, ib.; the author 
present at his funeral, 406 ; anec- 
dote of, and the "musk rats," 

Wellesley, Lord, brother to the 
Duke of Wellington, the prince 
of dinner-givers, 304 ; his mar- 
riage, 305 ; his contingent to 
the army in Egypt, 307 ; re- 
marks on the author's " Overland 
Journey," 326 

Westminster School, the author 
enters, 26 ; " Shadow and sub- 
stance " at, 27 ; masters and 
ushers of, 29 ; fagging at, 30 ; a 
battle, 73; "Liberty boy," 90; 
fighting at, 95 ; visited by Em- 
peror of Russia and Grand 
Duchess of Oldenberg, 122 

Whitbread, Lady Mary, 82 

White, Miss Lydia, 317 

Whitworth, Lord, 10, 78 



Wilbraham, Roger, 234, 301 

Wildman, Colonel, visited by Duke 
of Sussex, 243 

William IV. spends Christmas at 
Brighton, 359 ; toast-drinking 
extraordinary, 360 ; dissolves 
Parliament in person, 361 ; his 
kindness to Mrs. Fitzherbert, 
374 ; death, 377 

Williams, Mr., at Queen Caroline's 
trial, 222 

Willock, Major, is presented to 
Futteh Ali Shah, 280 

Wilson, Horace Hayman, of Cal- 
cutta, as an actor, 251 

Wilson, Mr. Rae, and Russian sur- 
veillance, 292 

Windham, William, M.P., for East 
Norfolk, 365 

Windham, William, the statesman, 
anecdotes of, 23, 365 

Wine of the Cape, 205 

Woburn Abbey Theatre, play-bill 
(1843), 382 ; Picture Gallery, 385 

Wodehouse, Hon. Henry, 163 

Wood, Alderman, Queen Caroline 
visits, 221 ; at Beefsteak Club, 

Worley, Mr., paddock-keeper to 
William IV., 359 

Wortley, Right Honourable James 

Stuart, 322, 398 
Wylie, Sir Andrew, 325 
Wynne, Miss Frances Williams, on 

the death of Emperor Alexander, 


Yarmouth, Lord, 342 
Yates, the actor, 318 
York, Duke of, anecdote of, and 

Sir David Dundas, 16 ; and 

Betty Radclitfe, 88 
Yorke, General Sir Charles, at 

Waterloo Banquet, 1852, 405 
Young, Charles, the tragedian, 321 

Zabloukoff, General de, 294 

Zabloukoff, Madame de, 294 ; her 
revelations of Russian disaffec- 
tion, 295 

Zante, the ladies of, 183 ; to Santa 
Maura, 184 

Zieteu, Count, Prussian commander, 
first attacked in Waterloo cam- 
paign, 136 





Albemarle, George Thomas 
Keppel, 6th earl of 

Fifty years of my life 
3d ed., rev. 





1: *.